Stoljarova 2015
Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample

Every mito genomes is just so helpful if you study mtDNA. Really every mtDNA sample is significant and can help learn something. My knowledge of European mtDNA is quadrupling every week. You guys should hear of some interesting novel statistics and hypothesis from me in the next few months.

There's really no real founder effects in the Estonian data creating odd mHG frequencies.

The Estonian data has some interesting links to a larger collection of Finnish mito genomes; H1a8, H3h1, H1n4, H27a, H28a, U4d1a1, U5b1b2, U5b1e1, H28a, U8a1a1b1, K1c1c, N1a1a1a1. The Estonian mitogenomes have plenty of links to Bronze age mitogenomes from Latvia; high % H1b1, H1c, H28a, U5a1a1.

The Northeast corner of Europe, including Finland and Karelia, has lots lots of H1 and the vast majority of it is H1a(many clades), H1b(1), and H1c(many clades). I think this can be traced back to Neolithic Eastern European farmers. The same goes for T2b, J1c, and N1a1a1a1 which are as high in the NorthEast as anywhere in Europe and confirm they do infact have significant EEF ancestry.

It's amazing how drastically the mtDNA gene pool in the Baltic changed between 3000 and 2000 BC. Even though Balts may be about 50% Euro HG, only about 20% have U5 and U4. If we only looked at ancient mtDNA, people would probably conclude modern Europeans are overwhelmingly Near Eastern and specifically EEF.

The only Estonian mitogenomes I think could descend from Baltic HGs are; U5b1b1a=1, U5b1b2=3, U5b1e1=1, U5a2b1=2, U4d1=4, U5a1c1=1, K1b2a1=1, H11=7. The discovery of H11a in Narva is a big deal. H11a is more or less East European-specific today. And these mitogenomes from Estonia show there are other forms of H11 in Eastern Europe(H11b, H11*-unclassified). It also opens my eyes to the possibility some H3, H1, and K1 clades derive from very specific groups of Euro HGs who were absorbed by farmers which allowed their lineages to expand.