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Thread: Living DNA - My results (Greece)

  1. #1
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-CTS9320
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U5a1b

    Ethnic group
    Greek
    Country: Greece

    Living DNA - My results (Greece)

    My results are finally available. I was a bit underwhelmed to be honest. They have my YDNA haplogroup as E-V13, not going further down (I know I am CTS9320 from the ytest in FTDNA). My mtDNA haplogroup is U5a1b, same as in 23andme.
    Now to the autosomal results:
    Europe 90.3%
    -Europe South 58.5%
    --Aegean 30.5%
    --South Italy 17.9%
    --Tuscany 10%
    -Europe East 18.1%
    --East Balkans 14%
    --Finland and Western Russia 2%
    --Baltics 2%
    -Europe North & West 11.9%
    --Scandinavia 6%
    --France 3.2%
    --Germanic 2.7%
    -Great Britain & Ireland 1.8%
    Near East 9.7%
    -North Turkey 6.3%
    -Levant 2.1%
    -Kurdish 1.3%

    I don't think the results are very accurate. Firstly they seem not to be able to separate Aegean from South Italian accurately. What's more, I think the North&West results are exaggerated, I don't think any greek would score more than 10% and it's not consistent with the results of other sites either.

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-V13>Z5018>FGC33625
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U1a1a

    Country: Albania

    Have you tried the raw data with Promothease yet?

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-CTS9320
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U5a1b

    Ethnic group
    Greek
    Country: Greece

    Quote Originally Posted by Johane Derite View Post
    Have you tried the raw data with Promothease yet?
    No, but I will soon.

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    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: USA - New York

    I haven't tested with them, but given that a hugely disproportional percentage of their reference base is from the British Isles, it might call into question the "British" scores for other ethnicities.


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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1a-L1029*
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H11a2*-146+

    Ethnic group
    Albanian/Gheg/Dibran/Okshtun
    Country: United States

    I agree OP. My Northwest European is 6-8 percent. Out of reason I think. For the most part its accurate in at least geographical ancestry. There is a big difference with complete and cautious mode, as follows:

    Complete:



    Cautious:



    Idk where the Pashtun/Sindh is coming from, and whilst northwestern euro ancestry is not out of reason, I doubt it is this high for an Albanian. Though, it was fairly accurate for the most part in pinpointing southern euro/Aegean ancestry.

    Through history feature:






  6. #6
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1a-L1029*
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H11a2*-146+

    Ethnic group
    Albanian/Gheg/Dibran/Okshtun
    Country: United States

    The explanation of each component on their site(the ones I scored)

    Complete:

    Aegean

    This genetic mixture appears to roughly cover the area of present day Greece and the Aegean Islands. Greece is often referred to as the cradle of Western civilisation, paving the way for great developments in medicine, architecture, politics and more. As the founders of democracy, the ancient Greeks changed the lives of future peoples across the globe. This was the first place in Europe to be introduced to farming (most likely from Anatolia), and the genetics of the area act as a living legacy to this. Farming appeared by 7000 BC, and studies have suggested that around 60% of DNA in the Aegean area today may be derived from these Neolithic inhabitants from the Near East, who intermixed with the existing hunter gatherer populations.
    This genetic signature was influenced by early events, such as the absorption of the Minoans in Crete by the Mycenaeans from the mainland in c.1500 BC. From Pythagoras to Plato, the ancient Greeks have a rich history of leaders, battles, science and philosophy. Alexander the Great ruled the Aegean and spread Greek culture and genetics across Western Asian. The Aegean sea was a key route for trade and development until Greece was conquered by the Romans after the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC. From the Persians to the Ottomans, outside cultural and genetic influences at varying degrees occurred throughout the history of the Aegean.


    North Italy

    Italy has been a hub for genetic admixture over many millennia. The location connects the peninsula to the rest of Europe, allowing for migration and population expansion. Caves, such as the Fumane cave in the north towards the Alps, provided shelter and refuge for Neanderthals and early humans. The Alpine region near the Italian-Austrian border was where Europe’s oldest mummified body was found - Otzi the “ice man”, who lived around 5000 years ago.
    North-Central European DNA can be found in the genetics of the North Italian population today. This is thought to be due to the closer proximity of the north to Europe, as Southern Italian populations typically showcase much less of this signature. Attempts have been made to pinpoint this genetic change, and studies suggest the influx of European DNA most likely occurred during the “migration period” from 476 AD after the Roman Era. Admixture could possibly have occurred earlier though, when Celtic tribes pushed the boundaries across the Alps and into Northern Italy from 400 BC. The Roman Era is no doubt one of the most famous periods in Italy’s history. The Gauls and Etruscans fought against the Roman conquests, but by 264 BC, the whole of the north had fallen at the Romans feet.





    Technical Note

    Italian ancestry is on a cline, from Northern European-like in the north to sharing with Greek & other populations surrounding the Mediterranean in the south. The ancestry is highly variable and hence hard to represent geographically.
    If you have Italian ancestry that you didn’t expect: Italy is well inferred when it is the only ancestry source. Italian mixtures are extremely difficult however because Italy itself is a mixture of several ancestries. If you are a mixture of Spanish and Greek, you may appear to have South-Italian-like ancestry. Similarly, if you are a mixture of French and German, you may appear to have North-Italian like ancestry. Finally, a small amount of North African ancestry in an otherwise European individual could be mistaken for Italian.
    If you have Italian ancestry but it is not inferred as strongly as expected: Italian-British mixtures may appear as partially French. Southern-Italian ancestry is reconstructed with some Aegean ancestry. North-African and Turkish ancestry may be used to capture sharing of ancestors between Italians and people from across the Mediterranean.


    South Italy

    This genetic signature is strongest in the areas that came to be known as southern and central Italy and spreads across all of present day Sicily. Over many thousands of years, this central mediterranean location has acted as a catalyst for creating a diverse society which is reflected in genetic variation. From the Greeks to the Normans, the area became a hot spot for conquest, invasion and trade. The region was central to the movement of objects, people and ideas, thus it is no surprise that genetic admixture occurred over the years. Human habitation increased when the Ice Age began to end around 12,000 years ago and the lands became more forgiving. Despite living around coastal regions, these hunter gatherers appear to have eaten little in the way of seafood and favoured terrestrial prey such as deer.
    The Greek colonisation of Sicily and coastal regions across southern Italy from the 8th Century BC influenced DNA, and the genetic signature is still closely related to Greek populations today. The area was known as “Magna Graecia”, meaning “Great Greece”, forming the cultural basis for Roman civilisation. After Italy became a Roman territory, Sicily was the first province obtained by the Republic in 241 BC. From here, the Romans would expand and take the world by storm, eventually forming their vast and powerful empire.





    Technical Note

    Italian ancestry is on a cline, from Northern European-like in the north to sharing with Greek & other populations surrounding the Mediterranean in the south. The ancestry is highly variable and hence hard to represent geographically.
    If you have Italian ancestry that you didn’t expect: Italy is well inferred when it is the only ancestry source. Italian mixtures are extremely difficult however because Italy itself is a mixture of several ancestries. If you are a mixture of Spanish and Greek, you may appear to have South-Italian-like ancestry. Similarly, if you are a mixture of French and German, you may appear to have North-Italian like ancestry. Finally, a small amount of North African ancestry in an otherwise European individual could be mistaken for Italian.
    If you have Italian ancestry but it is not inferred as strongly as expected: Italian-British mixtures may appear as partially French. Southern-Italian ancestry is reconstructed with some Aegean ancestry. North-African and Turkish ancestry may be used to capture sharing of ancestors between Italians and people from across the Mediterranean.


    Tuscany

    The genetic mixture that roughly covers the area of present day Tuscany has been formed over thousands of years by migrations and movement. The rich archaeology in Tuscany reveals a deep timescale of human habitation across these lands. Habitation here was not just from our species - Tuscany was also likely occupied by the Neanderthals. Before even the Etruscans or Romans, Tuscany had advanced trading links with Minoans and Mycenaeans across the Aegean Sea, creating vital links in trade and development for the area.
    Who were the Etruscans? The origins of this pre-Roman civilisation has been hotly debated by academics for over 2000 years, being investigated by early Greek writers such as Herodotus. Advancements in genetics have fueled this long standing argument. Some of the most recent studies suggest that the Etruscans did leave a genetic legacy in Tuscan DNA today, but only in isolated regions such as Casentino and Volterra. Whether or not Etruscans were local or migrants is a huge question, one genetics is beginning to answer. The Romans took over Etruscan civilisation in 351 BC, but were influenced by many of their creations, including art, gladiators, temples, hydraulics, religion and much more.





    Technical Note

    Italian ancestry is on a cline, from Northern European-like in the north to sharing with Greek & other populations surrounding the Mediterranean in the south. The ancestry is highly variable and hence hard to represent geographically.
    If you have Italian ancestry that you didn’t expect: Italy is well inferred when it is the only ancestry source. Italian mixtures are extremely difficult however because Italy itself is a mixture of several ancestries. If you are a mixture of Spanish and Greek, you may appear to have South-Italian-like ancestry. Similarly, if you are a mixture of French and German, you may appear to have North-Italian like ancestry. Finally, a small amount of North African ancestry in an otherwise European individual could be mistaken for Italian.
    If you have Italian ancestry but it is not inferred as strongly as expected: Italian-British mixtures may appear as partially French. Southern-Italian ancestry is reconstructed with some Aegean ancestry. North-African and Turkish ancestry may be used to capture sharing of ancestors between Italians and people from across the Mediterranean.


    Iberian Peninsula

    The area that came to be Spain and Portugal has a unique genetic heritage that encapsulates past migrations to the area. The genetic mixture here approximately matches the geographical boundaries of the Iberian Peninsula. Human habitation can be traced back to some of the earliest pioneers into Europe-- the Cro-Magnons. As a result, we have an abundance of cave paintings that give us insight into prehistoric life. New Stone Age migrations spread across Europe bringing new farming techniques as well as new genetics to what is now Spain and Portugal. It is thought that integration between these migrating farmers and the existing hunter gatherers occurred on a significant level, leaving a genetic legacy even today.
    The first people to arrive after the Ice Age possibly came from North Africa and approximately 10% of the genetic mixture today originates here. However, some argue that some North African DNA possibly appeared much later during the Roman occupation, or even the Moorish occupation from 600AD. The very name “Iberian” is a product of the Roman occupation, who named the place and people after the river Iber. Latin evolved into modern day Spanish and Portuguese, solidifying the Roman legacy through language. The Mediterranean pathways were a hub for trade, with Greek, Phoenician and Carthaginian voyagers settling and founding trading colonies across the coast.


    Sardinia

    An island in isolation never fails to present its own unique and exciting genetic and archaeological history, and Sardinia is no exception. The genetic signature covers the island of Sardinia and partly extends into the neighbouring French island of Corsica. The solitude of the island is reflected in the modern genetic signature, which is different from the rest of Europe. Although there is some evidence of human habitation before the New Stone Age, it is thought that the most significant migration into Sardinia came from Neolithic farmers that were moving across Southern Europe from around 6000 BC. Recent studies have estimated that up to 80% of the Sardinian ancestry today can be traced back to these first farming colonists, and it has been found that Sardinians have the most Neolithic farmer DNA of any other population in Europe. The oldest mummified man in Europe was found in the Italian Alps, but DNA testing has shown him to be most genetically similar to the modern Sardinian population.
    Many people living in Sardinia have traces of Italian DNA. This may be in part due to the migration and colonisation of the Romans in 238 BC, when Sardinia became a very Latinised island. There is an exception with the tribes of Barbagia who adamantly refused the Roman occupation, with their resistance being aided by the mountainous region they inhabited. The languages spoken today act as a living legacy to the Roman occupation across Sardinia, having retained many latin elements.


    West Balkans

    The West Balkan genetic signature covers the area of present day Croatia, but also extends into parts of Serbia, Slovenia and Montenegro. Some of the early pioneers who ventured out of Africa gradually made their way across Europe and into parts of the West Balkans approximately 40,000 years ago, and appear to have survived the harsh Ice Age in this region.The genetic makeup of the region was influenced by New Stone Age migrations. These people introduced farming techniques to the area and appear to have integrated and intermixed with the existing hunter gatherer populations of the West Balkans. Today, both the DNA from the hunter gatherer population and the migratory Neolithic farmers is observable.
    The West Balkans are a place of cultural and genetic diversity due to thousands of years of trade, cultural transmission and migration. From Slavic migrations to Roman occupations, the West Balkans has been a central hub for the movement of people and ideas. Indo-European peoples known as the Illyrians ruled the lands from 1000 BC. They resisted Roman force for some time, but by 168 BC the Roman Empire had absorbed the West Balkans and formed the province of Dalmatia. In the 7th Century, Slavic migrations further influenced genetics, culture and linguistics of the West Balkans.


    England and Wales

    After the Ice Age began to end, people began to travel into England and Wales from Central and Western Europe. The environment had become more hospitable, slowly changing from icy tundra to a warmer, wetter and more inhabitable land. People followed the migrating animals, which made up a significant part of the diet of these hunter gatherers along with plants and berries. This was the normal way of life until a further wave of migrations from Europe changed everything with the introduction of farming. This initiated the New Stone Age and it was during this time that the famous Stonehenge was built - although situated in Salisbury, the stone has been found to originate in Wales!
    The Iron Age brought another migration of people from Europe who are known by their Beaker style of pottery. At this time, England and Wales was made up of multiple tribes that had a chiefdom structure. The Romans invaded from 43 AD, and many of these tribes tried to resist the Roman occupation. However, by 80 AD, both England and Wales fell under Roman control. Subsequent conquests and invasions targeted England and Wales. The Anglo Saxons spread across England from the 5th century, and the Vikings later reached regions across England and Wales. The famous Battle of Hastings in 1066 marked the beginning of the Norman conquest, taking hold of England and Wales.


    Scandinavia

    The genetic mixture of Scandinavia is strongest across Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but also possibly stretches into parts of Germany. The story of this land begins with the retreat of the last ice age around 12,000 years ago. As Scandinavia became more habitable, people began to populate the lands. They migrated into what is now Denmark from northern Europe in pursuit of migrating reindeer that followed the warming climate. They would have eaten these reindeer as well as plants and marine resources. Scandinavia has an abundance of impressive rock art that dates from this time - images including reindeer, bears and whales were either carved or painted onto the rocks. Later, people from northern Europe moved into Denmark, eventually spreading the idea of farming into Norway and Sweden around 6000 years ago.
    The northerly location of Scandinavia likely had an influence over the genetics found here, as it was more difficult to invade than other locations in Europe. For example, the Romans never conquered them despite the size of the ever expanding Roman Empire. When you think of Scandinavian history, the Vikings likely come to mind. These people were believers of gods of thunder and war and used their skills in boat building and navigation to expand their lands through maritime voyages.


    Sindh

    Unknown to many people, the southwestern Pakistani province of Sindh was once the heart of one of the world’s first great civilisations. Today, all that remains of the Indus Valley Civilisation are windswept and long abandoned cities, only visible through decades of archaeological work. With no enduring monuments left behind like the towering pyramids of Egypt to speak of, the original inhabitants of Sindh still hold many secrets. 3700 years have passed since their great civilisation disappeared, and since then many people from across Asia have shaped the genetic and cultural makeup of this ancient region.
    The gateway between Iran and India, the genetic signature of Sindh today is most similar to the nearby Pashtun and Punjabi people. Here, an expansive history of migration and invasion can be read through the DNA of the region’s inhabitants. The original people of the Indus Valley Civilisation probably reached this area via a southern coastal route out of Africa, and after their collapse, a group dubbed the ‘Ancestral North Indians’ appear to have moved in from further west, intermingling with pre-existing populations. More recently, Greek, Indian, Persian, Mongol and British armies have all claimed this region for themselves. Today, the Sindhi live in Pakistan alongside many other related ethnic groups that call the country their home, including Pashtuns, Balochis, and Kalash.



    Cautious:

    South Italy-related ancestry

    This is a confidence group for South Italy ancestry with medium spread. It includes South Italy, Tuscany and Aegean populations. As an intermediate sized population grouping, it is likely that your ancestry includes all three populations, or your ancestry from these regions is small and the exact origin uncertain.
    This genetic mixture appears to roughly cover the area of present day Greece and the Aegean Islands. Greece is often referred to as the cradle of Western civilisation, paving the way for great developments in medicine, architecture, politics and more. As the founders of democracy, the ancient Greeks changed the lives of future peoples across the globe. This was the first place in Europe to be introduced to farming (most likely from Anatolia), and the genetics of the area act as a living legacy to this. Farming appeared by 7000 BC, and studies have suggested that around 60% of DNA in the Aegean area today may be derived from these Neolithic inhabitants from the Near East, who intermixed with the existing hunter gatherer populations.
    This genetic signature was influenced by early events, such as the absorption of the Minoans in Crete by the Mycenaeans from the mainland in c.1500 BC. From Pythagoras to Plato, the ancient Greeks have a rich history of leaders, battles, science and philosophy. Alexander the Great ruled the Aegean and spread Greek culture and genetics across Western Asian. The Aegean sea was a key route for trade and development until Greece was conquered by the Romans after the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC. From the Persians to the Ottomans, outside cultural and genetic influences at varying degrees occurred throughout the history of the Aegean.
    This genetic signature is strongest in the areas that came to be known as southern and central Italy and spreads across all of present day Sicily. Over many thousands of years, this central mediterranean location has acted as a catalyst for creating a diverse society which is reflected in genetic variation. From the Greeks to the Normans, the area became a hot spot for conquest, invasion and trade. The region was central to the movement of objects, people and ideas, thus it is no surprise that genetic admixture occurred over the years. Human habitation increased when the Ice Age began to end around 12,000 years ago and the lands became more forgiving. Despite living around coastal regions, these hunter gatherers appear to have eaten little in the way of seafood and favoured terrestrial prey such as deer.
    The Greek colonisation of Sicily and coastal regions across southern Italy from the 8th Century BC influenced DNA, and the genetic signature is still closely related to Greek populations today. The area was known as “Magna Graecia”, meaning “Great Greece”, forming the cultural basis for Roman civilisation. After Italy became a Roman territory, Sicily was the first province obtained by the Republic in 241 BC. From here, the Romans would expand and take the world by storm, eventually forming their vast and powerful empire.
    The genetic mixture that roughly covers the area of present day Tuscany has been formed over thousands of years by migrations and movement. The rich archaeology in Tuscany reveals a deep timescale of human habitation across these lands. Habitation here was not just from our species - Tuscany was also likely occupied by the Neanderthals. Before even the Etruscans or Romans, Tuscany had advanced trading links with Minoans and Mycenaeans across the Aegean Sea, creating vital links in trade and development for the area.
    Who were the Etruscans? The origins of this pre-Roman civilisation has been hotly debated by academics for over 2000 years, being investigated by early Greek writers such as Herodotus. Advancements in genetics have fueled this long standing argument. Some of the most recent studies suggest that the Etruscans did leave a genetic legacy in Tuscan DNA today, but only in isolated regions such as Casentino and Volterra. Whether or not Etruscans were local or migrants is a huge question, one genetics is beginning to answer. The Romans took over Etruscan civilisation in 351 BC, but were influenced by many of their creations, including art, gladiators, temples, hydraulics, religion and much more.


    North Italy-related ancestry

    This is a confidence group for North Italy ancestry with small spread. It includes North Italy and France populations. As it is the smallest possible grouping for North Italy and surrounding ancestry, it is very likely that your true ancestry falls inside one or both of these two populations.
    Italy has been a hub for genetic admixture over many millennia. The location connects the peninsula to the rest of Europe, allowing for migration and population expansion. Caves, such as the Fumane cave in the north towards the Alps, provided shelter and refuge for Neanderthals and early humans. The Alpine region near the Italian-Austrian border was where Europe’s oldest mummified body was found - Otzi the “ice man”, who lived around 5000 years ago.
    North-Central European DNA can be found in the genetics of the North Italian population today. This is thought to be due to the closer proximity of the north to Europe, as Southern Italian populations typically showcase much less of this signature. Attempts have been made to pinpoint this genetic change, and studies suggest the influx of European DNA most likely occurred during the “migration period” from 476 AD after the Roman Era. Admixture could possibly have occurred earlier though, when Celtic tribes pushed the boundaries across the Alps and into Northern Italy from 400 BC. The Roman Era is no doubt one of the most famous periods in Italy’s history. The Gauls and Etruscans fought against the Roman conquests, but by 264 BC, the whole of the north had fallen at the Romans feet.
    This genetic mixture approximately covers the area that is now France, which showcases a colourful history of migration, invasion and expansion. From Western European tribes to invading Vikings, France has been far from isolated. This location has an exciting past, and there is evidence of it being inhabited by another human species - the Neanderthal. Until the New Stone Age, the inhabitants of what is now France would have been nomadic hunter gatherers, foraging and hunting to survive. With the great expansion of people east to west across Europe came a great transition to this hunter gatherer lifestyle - farming.
    From the Iron Age until the Roman conquest, what we now know as France was ruled by the Gauls - a series of tribes that were dominant across what is now France, Belgium and Germany. The Gauls became Romanised after the conquests of Caesar from 58 BC. The Gaulish language diminished and was replaced by Latin, which would ultimately form the basis for the French language spoken today. The Germanic Frank tribes moved in, overpowering Roman Gaul. The Viking settlements of the 10th and 11th centuries led to the creation of Normandy, serving as a base for voyage and expansion.


    Northwestern Europe-related ancestry

    This is a confidence group for England and Wales ancestry with large spread. It includes England and Wales, France, Germanic and Orkney Islands populations. As it is the largest possible grouping for England and Wales and surrounding ancestry, you will likely be assigned this if either your ancestry from this region is both small and uncertain, or your ancestry is large but has multiple distinct sources from the region.
    After the Ice Age began to end, people began to travel into England and Wales from Central and Western Europe. The environment had become more hospitable, slowly changing from icy tundra to a warmer, wetter and more inhabitable land. People followed the migrating animals, which made up a significant part of the diet of these hunter gatherers along with plants and berries. This was the normal way of life until a further wave of migrations from Europe changed everything with the introduction of farming. This initiated the New Stone Age and it was during this time that the famous Stonehenge was built - although situated in Salisbury, the stone has been found to originate in Wales!
    The Iron Age brought another migration of people from Europe who are known by their Beaker style of pottery. At this time, England and Wales was made up of multiple tribes that had a chiefdom structure. The Romans invaded from 43 AD, and many of these tribes tried to resist the Roman occupation. However, by 80 AD, both England and Wales fell under Roman control. Subsequent conquests and invasions targeted England and Wales. The Anglo Saxons spread across England from the 5th century, and the Vikings later reached regions across England and Wales. The famous Battle of Hastings in 1066 marked the beginning of the Norman conquest, taking hold of England and Wales.
    This genetic signature roughly covers the areas of modern day Germany and Denmark, and extends into parts of southern Sweden. The area is home to one of Europe's most exciting discoveries - the first Neanderthal fossils. Neanderthals are named after the Neander Valley where the fossils were found. Modern humans are thought to have interbred with the Neanderthals before their ultimate extinction, and today between 2 - 4% of DNA here is of Neanderthal origin. From the end of the Ice Age, more humans began to migrate across Europe into Germany and Denmark. The warming climate allowed them to exploit the flourishing flora and fauna for food. They lived as hunter gatherers until another migration across Europe introduced farming, initiating the New Stone Age. At this time, there is evidence of violence and conflict such as the recent discovery of a mass grave of 26 individuals whose remains show evidence of broken limbs and head trauma.
    During the Bronze and Iron Ages, the area was made up of scattered tribes organised into chiefdoms. They occupied the lands at the time of the Romans from 6 AD. This location was home to the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, who went on to expand new Kingdoms, migrating across Europe and North Africa. In the 5th Century, the greatly feared Huns invaded - it is thought that this is one reason behind the migration of Saxons into Britain!
    This genetic mixture approximately covers the area that is now France, which showcases a colourful history of migration, invasion and expansion. From Western European tribes to invading Vikings, France has been far from isolated. This location has an exciting past, and there is evidence of it being inhabited by another human species - the Neanderthal. Until the New Stone Age, the inhabitants of what is now France would have been nomadic hunter gatherers, foraging and hunting to survive. With the great expansion of people east to west across Europe came a great transition to this hunter gatherer lifestyle - farming.
    From the Iron Age until the Roman conquest, what we now know as France was ruled by the Gauls - a series of tribes that were dominant across what is now France, Belgium and Germany. The Gauls became Romanised after the conquests of Caesar from 58 BC. The Gaulish language diminished and was replaced by Latin, which would ultimately form the basis for the French language spoken today. The Germanic Frank tribes moved in, overpowering Roman Gaul. The Viking settlements of the 10th and 11th centuries led to the creation of Normandy, serving as a base for voyage and expansion.
    Orkney can boast a rich and exciting archaeological history from the Neolithic Era and beyond. Prior to this, there is scarce evidence for human habitation, but small finds can tell us that people were living here 9000 years ago. The coastal nature of the islands provided an ideal fishing spot for hunter gatherers. The Neolithic Era marks the beginning of a rich and colourful array of evidence for some of the earliest farming communities. Skara Brae is arguably one of the most intriguing discoveries in North West Europe, giving us a preserved example of the housing style of these first farmers.
    The islands are famous for connections to the Vikings - the very name ‘Orkney’ is Old Norse for ‘The Seal Islands’. There is much debate about the nature of the Vikings. Were they peaceful settlers who integrated with society, or were they bloodthirsty warriors looking for new lands? The likely answer is both. DNA shows that the Vikings did not wipe out the previous populations, as only 25% Norse DNA can be found in the genetic signature today. Many were peaceful farmers and many were warriors on an expedition to find new lands. Much like the very first settlers, the Vikings utilised the coastal locations of the islands, not just for food, but instead for raiding, trading and expanding their power.


    Northeast Europe-related ancestry

    This is a confidence group for Northeast Europe ancestry with large spread. It includes Northeast Europe, Pannonian Cluster, Mordovia and East Balkans populations. As it is the largest possible grouping for Northeast Europe and surrounding ancestry, you will likely be assigned this if either your ancestry from this region is both small and uncertain, or your ancestry is large but has multiple distinct sources from the region.
    The North East Europe cluster corresponds roughly to the modern territories of Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, eastern Czechoslovakia, and northern Slovakia. A land of contrasts, this area stretches from the Baltic to the Black Sea, and is home to prehistoric forests, jagged mountain ranges, and undulating plains. North East Europe has always been a gateway from the Eurasian steppe into Europe, and has seen countless mass nomadic migrations across the millennia. Many of these ancient people never left, and instead were absorbed and integrated into this vibrant cultural and genetic melting pot.
    The boundaries of this cluster are primarily defined by the Slavic migrations in the first millennium AD. As such, similar signatures may be found in both Western Russia and parts of the Balkans. These were not the only people to historically settle the region however. The ancient and innovative Kurgan people that probably migrated here from north of the Black Sea are thought to have introduced horse riding, chariots, and even the Indo-European language family that is now spoken from Iceland through to India! More recently, there is also genetic evidence of the Mongolian expansion into the region. This cluster therefore has a global heritage, with DNA signatures that originate from many different places and people across the Eurasian landmass.
    The Pannonian cluster covers present day Hungary, but also crosses the borders of Croatia, Slovakia and Austria. The discovery of stone tools here shows that after the Ice Age ended people lived here seasonally. When the climate warmed, some people migrated north in pursuit of the migrating reindeer herds, while others stayed and adapted to the changing landscape. It wasn’t until the introduction of farming from Anatolia in the New Stone Age that this way of life began to change. Genetic research has suggested that these first farming migrants settled and intermixed with the existing hunter gatherers.
    During the Iron Age, tribes were scattered across the area. The Romans swept through the lands and dominated these tribal groups from 15 BC to 378 AD. It was at this time that the Romans formed the province of Pannonia, which spanned across Hungary and parts of Croatia, Serbia and Austria. The Magyar undertook a large migration and takeover of the Pannonian Basin in the 9th century. They traveled across vast landscapes by horseback from the east in a similar fashion to the Huns who previously conquered the lands in the 5th century. The Magyar possibly contribute to the genetic signature of the region to a degree, but left more of a cultural and linguistic legacy. This is perhaps due to DNA diversification through widespread intermarriage with Magyar populations and subsequent migrations.
    Politics has obscured the histories and origins of the populations of the East Balkans over the years, as people have attempted to use archaeology to create boundaries between Bulgaria and Romania. However, this genetic signature spans across present day Romania, Bulgaria and parts of Moldova and Serbia. What we know is that humans inhabited the lands from around 8000 BC, sometime after the end of the Ice Age. From the New Stone Age to the Iron Age, hunter gatherers eventually transformed into farmers and metalworkers - migrations across Europe can be thanked for such technological advancements. Bulgaria is home to Europe’s oldest known prehistoric town, which was created over 1000 years before the birth of Greek civilisation.
    From the Bronze Age, what came to be Bulgaria was occupied by the Thracian tribes whilst present day Romania was dominated by the Dacians. It is strongly thought that the Thracians and Dacians were closely related groups, demonstrating an ancient link between Bulgaria and Romania. The tribes were eventually absorbed and dispersed by the Roman, Greek and Persian colonisations. Despite originating in prehistory, these tribes leave a legacy in culture and tradition, such as the masked Bulgarian Kukeri. The name ‘Bulgaria’ was attributed by the Bulgars who migrated from Western Eurasia during the Great Migratory Period and formed the first Bulgarian kingdom.
    This genetic mixture approximately covers the area that is now Mordovia. The early tribal people of Mordovia are probably descendants of the Finno-Ugric speaking tribes that were found across areas such as Russia, Finland and Hungary. Two groups emerged in Mordovia from this common tribal group approximately 3000 years ago - the Ezyras and Mokshas. The Ezyras and Mokshas languages also became less similar and began to differentiate from one another. What came to be Mordovia experienced migrations of people from as far as the Mediterranean who were looking to trade the precious metals that were mined from the Ural Mountains since the Bronze Age.
    Mordovia and the rest of Russia was subjected to the Mongol invasions from the 13th Century. The Mongols set out for Russia under the pretence of a peaceful joining of forces against the Cumans, but they were not trusted and instead killed by the Russians. This fuelled a determined invasion of the Mongols, who joined with many of the Mokshas against Russia and Poland. After the Mokshas refused to fight the Germans, the Mongols turned against them, leaving them to flee back to Mordovia or be killed. By the 16th century, the Mordovian people were absorbed under Russian Tsarist rule, but folklore and cultural identity of the Mokshas and Ezyras still remains in the rural regions today.


























































  7. #7
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    H-M2972
    MtDNA haplogroup
    K1b1b

    Ethnic group
    Greek
    Country: Greece

    Hello! it's my first post at the forum. I did the Living Dna test a few months before, and i'm really surprised with the results. I am Greek, my Father is from Thessaly and my mother from Crete. I have done a very big research for my ancestry. The last 200 years all my known ancestors are from Crete and Thessaly. Autosomal Living Dna results gave me Europe East 43,9 - Europe South 28,5- Europe North and West 3,5 and unassigned 1,9 also Iran 11- Levant 6,5 and unassigned 4,6. I have no East Balkan, Italian or Iranian ancestors. The most surprising is my Father Halpogroup H1a1 (H-M82) he is total white skin with blonde hair and blue eyes (and it is a Romani Halpogroup). If I Had Romani ancestry i would score high at the India region... My mother’s Halpogroup is K1b1b and as i saw in Eupedia is found in Greek people. Any opinions??

  8. #8
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    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: Italy

    Quote Originally Posted by PaschalisB View Post
    My results are finally available. I was a bit underwhelmed to be honest. They have my YDNA haplogroup as E-V13, not going further down (I know I am CTS9320 from the ytest in FTDNA). My mtDNA haplogroup is U5a1b, same as in 23andme.
    Now to the autosomal results:
    Europe 90.3%
    -Europe South 58.5%
    --Aegean 30.5%
    --South Italy 17.9%
    --Tuscany 10%
    -Europe East 18.1%
    --East Balkans 14%
    --Finland and Western Russia 2%
    --Baltics 2%
    -Europe North & West 11.9%
    --Scandinavia 6%
    --France 3.2%
    --Germanic 2.7%
    -Great Britain & Ireland 1.8%
    Near East 9.7%
    -North Turkey 6.3%
    -Levant 2.1%
    -Kurdish 1.3%

    I don't think the results are very accurate. Firstly they seem not to be able to separate Aegean from South Italian accurately. What's more, I think the North&West results are exaggerated, I don't think any greek would score more than 10% and it's not consistent with the results of other sites either.
    PaschalisB, thank you for sharing your results and sorry if I answer you late. I see you live in Athens, but from which region of Greece do your parents come? If I remember correctly you said northern Greece, right? Thessaly, Epirus, Thessaloniki?

  9. #9
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b-M269 (LDNA)
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U5a1b

    Ethnic group
    Thracian
    Country: Greece

    My results:
    Europe East 60.9%
    Europe South 14.4%
    Europe North and West 9.9%
    GB & Ireland 5.8%
    Unassigned 6.2%
    Near East 2.8%
    Levant 1.7%

    Y-Haplogroup R-M269, no further subclade
    MtDNA Haplogroup U5a1b

    I am a Greek whose recent ancestors lived in Eastern Thrace then moved to Western Thrace in 1922. Very surprising results. Now under cautious I get Aegean related ancestry for 56.4% but then I get Northwest Europe for 15.7%, Mordovia for 8.2, North Italy for 6.8%, Eastern Europe 3.9% and various smaller percentages. Much better but still. I hope they keep adding more reference populations.

  10. #10
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    I-M223 (I-L701)
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U3 (U3b)

    Ethnic group
    Greek
    Country: Greece

    My results:
    Aegean 41.7%
    East Balkans 37%
    Tuscany 13.3%
    Iberian Peninsula 6.8%
    North Turkey 1.1%

    These results are so both in Complete & Standard mode.

    In Cautious mode they are as follows:
    Aegean-related ancestry 92.1%
    Iberian Peninsula-related ancestry 6.8%
    East Balkans-related ancestry 1.1%

    Y-haplogroup: I-M223 (Doggerland!!!), subclade: I-L701 (same as the ... Hohenzollerns!)
    mt-haplogroup: u3, subclade U3b.

    Father from Thessaly, mother from Central Greece, ancestors likewise from time immemorial.

  11. #11
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    I-M223 (I-L701)
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U3 (U3b)

    Ethnic group
    Greek
    Country: Greece

    See below...

  12. #12
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    I-M223 (I-L701)
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U3 (U3b)

    Ethnic group
    Greek
    Country: Greece

    Quote Originally Posted by Pax Augusta View Post
    PaschalisB, thank you for sharing your results and sorry if I answer you late. I see you live in Athens, but from which region of Greece do your parents come? If I remember correctly you said northern Greece, right? Thessaly, Epirus, Thessaloniki?
    May I jump in here: First name Paschalis is more commonly found among Pontian Greeks (North Turkey) and that could well explain the strong Near East (9.7%) percentage in general and the North Turkey one (6.3%) in particular.

  13. #13
    Regular Member Achievements:
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    I-M223 (I-L701)
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U3 (U3b)

    Ethnic group
    Greek
    Country: Greece

    Quote Originally Posted by PRAETOR View Post
    Hello! it's my first post at the forum. I did the Living Dna test a few months before, and i'm really surprised with the results. I am Greek, my Father is from Thessaly and my mother from Crete. I have done a very big research for my ancestry. The last 200 years all my known ancestors are from Crete and Thessaly. Autosomal Living Dna results gave me Europe East 43,9 - Europe South 28,5- Europe North and West 3,5 and unassigned 1,9 also Iran 11- Levant 6,5 and unassigned 4,6. I have no East Balkan, Italian or Iranian ancestors. The most surprising is my Father Halpogroup H1a1 (H-M82) he is total white skin with blonde hair and blue eyes (and it is a Romani Halpogroup). If I Had Romani ancestry i would score high at the India region... My mother’s Halpogroup is K1b1b and as i saw in Eupedia is found in Greek people. Any opinions??
    Y-DNA doesn't have anything to do with your phenotype (how you look). This is very ancient heritage and your eye color is not determined by that male ancestor of whom however you are a direct descendant.

    "Haplogroup H-M82 is a major lineage cluster in the Romani, especially Balkan Romani, among whom it accounts for approximately 60% of males.[23] A 2-bp deletion at M82 locus defining this haplogroup was also reported in one-third of males from traditional Romani populations living in Bulgaria, Spain, and Lithuania[24]. High prevalence of Asian-specific Y chromosome haplogroup H-M82 supports their Indian origin and a hypothesis of a small number of founders diverging from a single ethnic group in India (Gresham et al. 2001)."

    As can be seen here: https://www.yfull.com/tree/H-M82/ this guy from India was your grand-grand-....-father more than 15,000 years ago. You'd need to do some deeper Y-DNA research to trace your lineage.

  14. #14
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    Country: United Kingdom

    Quote Originally Posted by Pan View Post
    My results:
    Aegean 41.7%
    East Balkans 37%
    Tuscany 13.3%
    Iberian Peninsula 6.8%
    North Turkey 1.1%

    These results are so both in Complete & Standard mode.

    In Cautious mode they are as follows:
    Aegean-related ancestry 92.1%
    Iberian Peninsula-related ancestry 6.8%
    East Balkans-related ancestry 1.1%

    Y-haplogroup: I-M223 (Doggerland!!!), subclade: I-L701 (same as the ... Hohenzollerns!)
    mt-haplogroup: u3, subclade U3b.

    Father from Thessaly, mother from Central Greece, ancestors likewise from time immemorial.

    What's the sample used for Aegean? Greeks?

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