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Thread: 3,200-Year-Old Stone Inscription Tells of Trojan Prince, Sea People

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    2 out of 2 members found this post helpful.

    3,200-Year-Old Stone Inscription Tells of Trojan Prince, Sea People



    See : https://www.livescience.com/60629-an...ea-people.html

    A 3,200-year-old stone slab with an inscription that tells of a Trojan prince and may refer to the mysterious Sea People has been deciphered, archaeologists announced today (Oct. 7).

    The stone inscription, which was 95 feet (29 meters) long, describes the rise of a powerful kingdom called Mira, which launched a military campaign led by a prince named Muksus from Troy.

    The inscription is written in an ancient language called Luwian that just a few scholars, no more than 20 by some estimates, can read today. Those scholars include Fred Woudhuizen, an independent scholar, who has now deciphered a copy of the inscription. [Cracking Codices: 10 of the Most Mysterious Ancient Manuscripts]

    Woudhuizen and Eberhard Zangger, a geoarchaeologist who is president of the Luwian Studies foundation, will publish findings on the inscription in the December issue of the journal Proceedings of the Dutch Archaeological and Historical Society.
    According to James Mellaart's notes, this Luwian inscription was copied by the archaeologist Georges Perrot in 1878 at Beyköy in Turkey. The inscription dates back 3,200 years and discusses the rise of a kingdom called Mira and how it launched raids in targets across the Middle East, destroying the Hittite Empire, along with other kingdoms.

    If the inscription is authentic, it shines light on a period when a confederation of people that modern-day scholars sometimes call the Sea People destroyed cities and civilizations across the Middle East, scholars say. The kingdom of Mira, which engaged in this military campaign, was apparently part of this Sea People confederation given their participation in the attacks.

    A Trojan war?


    The inscription tells of how King Kupantakuruntas ruled a kingdom called Mira that was located in what is now western Turkey. Mira controlled Troy (also in Turkey), according to the inscription, which additionally described Trojan prince Muksus leading a naval expedition that succeeded in conquering Ashkelon, located in modern-day Israel, and constructing a fortress there. [Biblical Battles: 12 Ancient Wars Lifted from the Bible]
    The inscription details King Kupantakuruntas' storied path to the throne of Mira: His father, King Mashuittas, took control of Troy after a Trojan king named Walmus was overthrown. Soon after that, King Mashuittas reinstated Walmus on the Trojan throne in exchange for his loyalty to Mira, the inscription says.

    Kupantakuruntas became king of Mira after his dad died. He then took control of Troy, although he wasn't the actual king of Troy. In the inscription, Kupantakuruntas describes himself as a guardian of Troy, imploring future rulers of Troy to "guard Wilusa [an ancient name for Troy] (like) the great king (of) Mira (did)." (translation by Woudhuizen)

    A copy of a copy


    The inscription itself no longer exists, having been destroyed in the 19th century, but records of the inscription, including a copy of it, were found in the estate of James Mellaart, a famous archaeologist who died in 2012. Mellaart discovered several ancient sites in his life, the most famous of which is Çatalhöyük, a massive, 9,500-year-old settlement in Turkey that some scholars think is the oldest city in the world. [The 25 Most Mysterious Archaeological Finds on Earth]
    Mellaart left instructions saying that if the inscription could not be fully deciphered and published before he died, other scholars should do so as soon as possible. Some scholars (not Zangger and Woudhuizen's team) have raised concerns that the inscription could be a modern-day forgery created by Mellaart or someone else.
    Mellaart briefly mentioned the existence of the inscription in at least one publication, a book review published in 1992 in the Bulletin of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society journal. But he never fully described the inscription in a scientific publication.
    According to Mellaart's notes, the inscription was copied in 1878 by an archaeologist named Georges Perrot near a village called Beyköy in in Turkey. Shortly after Perrot recorded the inscription, villagers used the stone as building material for a mosque, according to Mellaart's notes. In the aftermath of the inscription being used as building material for the mosque, Turkish authorities searched the village and found three inscribed bronze tablets that are now missing. The bronze tablets were never published and it is not certain exactly what they say.
    A scholar named Bahadır Alkım (who died in 1981) rediscovered Perrot's drawing of the inscription and made a copy, which Mellaart, in turn, also copied and which the Swiss-Dutch team has now deciphered.


    Last member of a team


    Mellaart was part of a team of scholars who, starting in 1956, worked to decipher and publish Perrot's copy of the inscription, along with the now-missing bronze tablets and several other Luwian inscriptions, his notes say.
    Mellaart's notes state that the team he was part of was unable to publish its work before most of the team members died. The notes add that the team Mellaart worked on included the scholars Albrecht Goetze (died 1971), Bahadır Alkım (died 1981), Handam Alkım (died 1985), Edmund Irwin Gordon (died 1984), Richard David Barnett (died 1986) and Hamit Zübeyir Koşay (died 1984). Mellaart, who was one of the younger members of the team, died at the age of 86, having outlived the rest of his team.
    The Swiss-Dutch team found that in his later years, Mellaart spent a considerable amount of time trying to understand the copies of the different Luwian inscriptions in his possession. However, Mellaart couldn't read Luwian; he was brought onto the team for his knowledge of the archaeological landscape of western Turkey, while other members could read the ancient language. [Cracking Codes: 5 Ancient Languages Yet to Be Deciphered]

    Did the inscription exist?


    Live Science talked to several scholars not affiliated with the research. Some of them expressed concern that the inscription is a modern-day forgery. They said that until records of the inscription are found that are not left behind by Mellaart, they can't be sure the inscription existed.
    Zangger and Woudhuizen said that it would be extremely difficult, if not impossible, for Mellaart or someone else to create such a forgery. The inscription is very lengthy, and Mellaart couldn't read, much less write Luwian, they said in their paper. They also noted that nobody had deciphered Luwian until the 1950s, which means that Perrot wouldn't have been able to forge it either. Zangger and Woudhuizen added that few scholars today are able to read Luwian, much less write a lengthy inscription. They said they also don't understand why Mellaart would have wanted to create a lengthy and complex forgery, but leave it largely unpublished. [24 Amazing Archaeological Discoveries]


    Mellaart was accused in his life of inadvertently aiding smugglers and exaggerating or even "imagining evidence" (as Ian Hodder, the current director of excavations at Çatalhöyük put it) to prove his archaeological ideas; however, he was never found to have created a forgery, Zangger and Woudhuizen noted.
    Even so, Zangger told Live Science that until records of the inscription are found apart from Mellaart's estate, he can't be totally certain it's authentic and not a forgery.
    Zangger is also publishing details of the newly deciphered inscription in a German-language book called "Die Luwier und der Trojanische Krieg – Eine Forschungsgeschichte," (Orell Füssli, 2017), which is being released today.
    Muksus the trojan prince conquered Ashkelon, who ever thought we would know the name of a sea peoples warlord, and Ashkelon is one of the Philistine cities, so are they the same people? or did the Philistines come after them?

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    That's amazing. Couldn't they tear down the mosque to try to find the original stone? It's would be a discovery of the scale of the Rosetta Stone.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Coriolan View Post
    That's amazing. Couldn't they tear down the mosque to try to find the original stone? It's would be a discovery of the scale of the Rosetta Stone.
    hahahaha I had the same thought.

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    Such an interesting article. Thank you IronSide.

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    1 out of 2 members found this post helpful.
    có che un pòpoło no 'l defende pi ła só łéngua el xe prónto par èser s'ciavo

    when a people no longer dares to defend its language it is ripe for slavery.

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    it opens my apettite.I can not hold.so Etruscans were Thyrsenians thyrrenians Troans?and wich Mira is this?the Mira of Arcadians? (Arzawa-Assuwa) (later Ephessos)or the Myra of Lycians? (Attaleia)
    Last edited by Yetos; 11-10-17 at 22:42.
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    ΝΕΜΕΣΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΙΣΗ ΑΚΟΛΟΥΘΟΥΣΙ ΔΕ

    When there is no shame
    Divine blindness conquers them
    Hybris (abuse, opprombium) is born
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    All anyone can do is speculate without having the ancient dna not only of Etruscans but of more Anatolians from the appropriate time and place, and of any samples we could label "Sea Peoples".

    That includes the author of the linked article.


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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    My prediction is that Sea people are a loose alliance of Northern Mediterranean people, pirates, marauding troops and hungry migrating populations. Why from North Med? Because the North Med experience higher degree of failed crops due to climate shift, which started Bronze Age Collapse. With lack of food starvation came, then revolts of hungry citizens against elites and priests. All the states and city states disintegrated politically and economically. Northen Med civilization collapsed, and with this there was no control over population movement, trade, defences against foreign invaders, armies, general policing and keeping order. However this dramatic turn of events wasn't so pronounced in South Med region, notably in Egypt. Maybe because Nile was flooding regardless of lack of rain. Population wasn't hungry, didn't rebel, and state was strong enough to hold on against foreign invasion of Sea Peoples. And because Southern Med had food and other riches, it became a target of hungry and desperate North Med peeps. In hard economic times it became easier to steal from others than be a farmer and grow food. Especially if there is no army, neither orderly state, to protect this farmer or a merchant ship. Pirates were the law.PS. After last windows update it condenses all my writing to one continues writing. Sorry for that.
    Be wary of people who tend to glorify the past, underestimate the present, and demonize the future.

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    Quote Originally Posted by LeBrok View Post
    My prediction is that Sea people are a loose alliance of Northern Mediterranean people, pirates, marauding troops and hungry migrating populations. Why from North Med? Because the North Med experience higher degree of failed crops due to climate shift, which started Bronze Age Collapse. With lack of food starvation came, then revolts of hungry citizens against elites and priests. All the states and city states disintegrated politically and economically. Northen Med civilization collapsed, and with this there was no control over population movement, trade, defences against foreign invaders, armies, general policing and keeping order. However this dramatic turn of events wasn't so pronounced in South Med region, notably in Egypt. Maybe because Nile was flooding regardless of lack of rain. Population wasn't hungry, didn't rebel, and state was strong enough to hold on against foreign invasion of Sea Peoples. And because Southern Med had food and other riches, it became a target of hungry and desperate North Med peeps. In hard economic times it became easier to steal from others than be a farmer and grow food. Especially if there is no army, neither orderly state, to protect this farmer or a merchant ship. Pirates were the law.PS. After last windows update it condenses all my writing to one continues writing. Sorry for that.
    I agree with everything you have said. I think the Sea Peoples were various ethnic groups throughout the Aegean, mainland, and insular Italy (i.e. North Mediterranean). But also, perhaps they were ambitious, since they probably got wind of how to exploit the weakness of the Eastern Mediterranean civilizations. By cutting off trade, they were able to essentially cripple the civilizations to the east which depended upon it. Perhaps this was realized by the leaders of these groups, and they took advantage of the desperate situation that had occurred. But this is just my conjecture.

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