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Thread: Central and South Asian DNA Paper

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    Central and South Asian DNA Paper

    The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia

    Vagheesh M Narasimhan, Nick J Patterson, Priya Moorjani, Iosif Lazaridis, Lipson Mark, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Rebecca Bernardos, Alexander M Kim, Nathan Nakatsuka, Inigo Olalde, Alfredo Coppa, James Mallory, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Janet Monge, Luca M Olivieri, Nicole Adamski, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Olivia Cheronet, Brendan J Culleton, Matthew Ferry, Daniel Fernandes, Beatriz Gamarra, Daniel Gaudio, Mateja Hajdinjak, Eadaoin Harney, Thomas K Harper, Denise Keating, Ann-Marie Lawson, Megan Michel, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Niraj Rai, Kendra Sirak, Viviane Slon, Kristin Stewardson, Zhao Zhang, Gaziz Akhatov, Anatoly N Bagashev, Baurzhan Baitanayev, Gian Luca Bonora, Tatiana Chikisheva, Anatoly Derevianko, Enshin Dmitry, Katerina Douka, Nadezhda Dubova, Andrey Epimakhov, Suzanne Freilich, Dorian Fuller, Alexander Goryachev, Andrey Gromov, Bryan Hanks, Margaret Judd, Erlan Kazizov, Aleksander Khokhlov, Egor Kitov, Elena Kupriyanova, Pavel Kuznetsov, Donata Luiselli, Farhad Maksudov, Chris Meiklejohn, Deborah C Merrett, Roberto Micheli, Oleg Mochalov, Zahir Muhammed, Samridin Mustafakulov, Ayushi Nayak, Rykun M Petrovna, Davide Pettner, Richard Potts, Dmitry Razhev, Stefania Sarno, Kulyan Sikhymbaevae, Sergey M Slepchenko, Nadezhda Stepanova, Svetlana Svyatko, Sergey Vasilyev, Massimo Vidale, Dima Voyakin, Antonina Yermolayeva, Alisa Zubova, Vasant S Shinde, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Matthias Meyer, David Anthony, Nicole Boivin, Kumarasmy Thangaraj, Douglas Kennett, Michael Frachetti, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich

    Abstract

    The genetic formation of Central and South Asian populations has been unclear because of an absence of ancient DNA. To address this gap, we generated genome-wide data from 362 ancient individuals, including the first from eastern Iran, Turan (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan), Bronze Age Kazakhstan, and South Asia. Our data reveal a complex set of genetic sources that ultimately combined to form the ancestry of South Asians today. We document a southward spread of genetic ancestry from the Eurasian Steppe, correlating with the archaeologically known expansion of pastoralist sites from the Steppe to Turan in the Middle Bronze Age (2300-1500 BCE). These Steppe communities mixed genetically with peoples of the Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) whom they encountered in Turan (primarily descendants of earlier agriculturalists of Iran), but there is no evidence that the main BMAC population contributed genetically to later South Asians. Instead, Steppe communities integrated farther south throughout the 2nd millennium BCE, and we show that they mixed with a more southern population that we document at multiple sites as outlier individuals exhibiting a distinctive mixture of ancestry related to Iranian agriculturalists and South Asian hunter-gathers. We call this group Indus Periphery because they were found at sites in cultural contact with the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) and along its northern fringe, and also because they were genetically similar to post-IVC groups in the Swat Valley of Pakistan. By co-analyzing ancient DNA and genomic data from diverse present-day South Asians, we show that Indus Periphery-related people are the single most important source of ancestry in South Asia — consistent with the idea that the Indus Periphery individuals are providing us with the first direct look at the ancestry of peoples of the IVC — and we develop a model for the formation of present-day South Asians in terms of the temporally and geographically proximate sources of Indus Periphery-related, Steppe, and local South Asian hunter-gatherer-related ancestry. Our results show how ancestry from the Steppe genetically linked Europe and South Asia in the Bronze Age, and identifies the populations that almost certainly were responsible for spreading Indo-European languages across much of Eurasia.

    LINK:
    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/03/31/292581

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/bior.../292581-2.xlsx
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    "One Sentence Summary: Genome wide ancient DNA from 357 individuals from Central and South Asia sheds new light on the spread of Indo-European languages and parallels between the genetic history of two sub-continents, Europe and South Asia."

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    deleted comment, formatting issues

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    looks interesting, I need some time to read and digest

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    Game Over! – R1b M269 in Hajji Firuz (5600BC)

    OMG!

    I had already written about David Reich change of heart about PIE being from the South Caucasus. Now we know why.

    “Andronovo pastoralists brought steppe ancestry to South Asia (Vagheesh et al. 2018 preprint)” is out and in the supplement there is a guy from Hajji Firuz in western Iran, that is a R1b-M269….by 5500bc(!). This means, in plain terms, OMG I was so right all along for all these years.

    Let me talk about him, and why he is related to Shulaveri -Shomu in Armenia/Georgia. He was found in Hajji along side a couple J2b guys:
    a. Both places have the oldest wine residue. So Shulaveri by 5800bc and here in Hajji 5500bc.
    b. Both share the same pottery, specially the ones with “grapes” at the mouth.
    c. Both settlements use tipical shulaveri circular mudbrick construction… and specially babies and women are buried under the floor in the same manner.
    Its just a couple info. But to me it’s a glorious day. Indeed.

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    R1b-Z2013 in 5900-5500 BCE Western Iran (I2327) at Hajji Firuz Tepe. We've found the male ancestor of the Yamnaya phenomenon

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    That looks really fantastic. Do you have the links for that preprint? This and maybe several other findings that we will see in the next months or years are what probably covinced David Reich to propose an ultimate urheimat that is neither of the most well accepted ones, nor the steppe, nor Anatolia.

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    3 out of 3 members found this post helpful.
    Two immediate stand-outs:
    No BMAC in Indians

    R1b M269 6000 BC in Iran, along side J2b
    I2327 K1a17a R1b1a1a2a2 Hajji_Firuz_C 5900-5500 BCE Iran

    Maciamo was right, not that the usual suspects will acknowledge it.


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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Also 2850-2460 BCE R1b-L151 in Afghanistan. Is this the earliest R1b-L151 discovered to date?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Johane Derite View Post
    deleted comment, formatting issues
    Why did you move my thread?
    Its not about the paper is about the fact that M269 is found in 5500 bc in Hajji Feruz.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Olympus Mons View Post
    Why did you move my thread?
    Its not about the paper is about the fact that M269 is found in 5500 bc in Hajji Feruz.
    It belongs with the discussion of this paper.

    Marko:
    Also 2850-2460 BCE R1b-L151 in Afghanistan. Is this the earliest R1b-L151 discovered to date?
    There's one in Northeastern Europe but I don't remember the date.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Two immediate stand-outs:
    No BMAC in Indians
    R1b M269 6000 BC in Iran, along side J2b
    I2327 K1a17a R1b1a1a2a2 Hajji_Firuz_C 5900-5500 BCE Iran
    Maciamo was right, not that the usual suspects will acknowledge it.
    That's it. The homeland of the Indo-European languages is Iran. Done.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Olympus Mons View Post
    Why did you move my thread?
    Its not about the paper is about the fact that M269 is found in 5500 bc in Hajji Feruz.
    According to the supplementary tables it's not only M269, it's Z2103 (i. e. the Y-DNA that predominates in Yamnaya) 1500 years before its predicted to have made its appearance as per mutation rate estimates. The nomenclature is quite unwieldy, but the table gives it as R1b1a1a2a2.

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    Quote Originally Posted by markozd View Post
    According to the supplementary tables it's not only M269, it's Z2103 (i. e. the Y-DNA that predominates in Yamnaya) 1500 years before its predicted to have made its appearance as per mutation rate estimates. The nomenclature is quite unwieldy, but the table gives it as R1b1a1a2a2.
    Yes. The excel seems all screwed up. Lets wait a bit longer.

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    Quote Originally Posted by IronSide View Post
    That's it. The homeland of the Indo-European languages is Iran. Done.
    Not Iran. Actually irritatingly wrong by everyone. Enough. Its in Georgia Neolithic because that is where 90% of the shulaveri lived.
    That is why oldest wine making was first in georgia and a couple centuries later it shows here in Hajji.
    Btw, hajji firuz was clearly a Shulaveri Shomu offshoot in lake Urmia. Then, around 5400/5200bc some others arrive, the Dalma people.
    But these dates they were the Shulaveri.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Olympus Mons View Post
    OMG!

    I had already written about David Reich change of heart about PIE being from the South Caucasus. Now we know why.

    “Andronovo pastoralists brought steppe ancestry to South Asia (Vagheesh et al. 2018 preprint)” is out and in the supplement there is a guy from Hajji Firuz in western Iran, that is a R1b-M269….by 5500bc(!). This means, in plain terms, OMG I was so right all along for all these years.

    Let me talk about him, and why he is related to Shulaveri -Shomu in Armenia/Georgia. He was found in Hajji along side a couple J2b guys:
    a. Both places have the oldest wine residue. So Shulaveri by 5800bc and here in Hajji 5500bc.
    b. Both share the same pottery, specially the ones with “grapes” at the mouth.
    c. Both settlements use tipical shulaveri circular mudbrick construction… and specially babies and women are buried under the floor in the same manner.
    Its just a couple info. But to me it’s a glorious day. Indeed.
    Game over ...its Gonur Turkmenistan

    site over 7000BC old
    on the silk road
    agriculture and mining
    Site of founding of Zorastrian
    haplogroup A found there as well as BT and CT ...........plus P , E and T

    Thats it Turkmenistan home of BMAC ............
    có che un pòpoło no 'l defende pi ła só łéngua el xe prónto par èser s'ciavo

    when a people no longer dares to defend its language it is ripe for slavery.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Sile View Post
    Game over ...its Gonur Turkmenistan

    site over 7000BC old
    on the silk road
    agriculture and mining
    Site of founding of Zorastrian
    haplogroup A found there as well as BT and CT ...........plus P , E and T

    Thats it Turkmenistan home of BMAC ............
    Well, IE languages spread mostly with pastoralism, not agriculture (the earliest of its speakers actually seem to have practiced a pretty incipient agriculture)... BMAC also shows some (minor) AASI, which doesn't appear in later remains associated with IE expansive cultures. I don't know... And what exactly does haplogroup A being found there as well as BT and CT have to do with proving definitely that the earliest form of PIE came from BMAC Turkmenistan? I honestly didn't understand.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ygorcs View Post
    Well, IE languages spread mostly with pastoralism, not agriculture (the earliest of its speakers actually seem to have practiced a pretty incipient agriculture)... BMAC also shows some (minor) AASI, which doesn't appear in later remains associated with IE expansive cultures. I don't know... And what exactly does haplogroup A being found there as well as BT and CT have to do with proving definitely that the earliest form of PIE came from BMAC Turkmenistan? I honestly didn't understand.
    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...a_Turkmenistan

    there is more.....much more from this area/site

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    3 out of 3 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Sile View Post
    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...a_Turkmenistan

    there is more.....much more from this area/site
    I see, but there is no reason to believe that the earliest PIE speakers must have come from BMAC civilization just because it was very advanced and sophisticated for its time. The earliest PIE tribes were probably not even that developed and sophistiated compared to others, so I see no necessary cultural link between them. If we had seen a huge IE expansion based mostly on refined urban civilizations and luxury trades, I'd take this much more seriously, but that isn't what the archaeological and linguistic records indicate.

    Besides, the article in the link you provided refers to the Bronze Age Oxus civilization of Turkmenistan. In the Bronze Age the fully developed and in fact already diverging IE tribes were already spreading from Central Europe to Central Asia, and Anatolian speakers were already in Anatolia forming their kingdoms. There is no use in investigating Bronze Age features of cultures in Turkmenistan when we are discussing about the earliest formation of PIE still in the Neolithic age, probably earlier than 4,500 or even 5,000 BC, before Yamna, CWC and any other seemingly IE-speaking culture. What happens in Iran or in Turkmenistan before the earliest introgression of CHG and R1b in the steppes probably interests us, but that was at the latest around 4,000 BC.

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    Are there any kazark Eneolithic and west siberian neolithic Y DNAs? why did they miss all of them? How come the yamna and afanasievo connection is to be explanined w/o their genes. They were all intermediate like okunevo.

    All Botaya skulls are large, have a characteristic horizontal
    Flatness in the front part, which is also noted in some ancient
    Finds of Western Siberia (Protoka & Sopka-2), the steppe Urals (Gladunino-3),
    Western Kazakhstan (Shoktybai, Kumsai, Zhirenkopa, Ishkinovka), the Eastern
    Kazakhstan (Shiderty, Zhelezinka, Ust-Narymsky, Rough II), and the Northern
    Turkmenistan (Tumek-Kichidzhik / Priaralye). Thus the Botany skulls
    Represent a separate anthropological type, formed in the steppe
    Part of Asia during the Eneolithic period - "Kazakh steppe type".
    Last edited by johen; 01-04-18 at 04:16.

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    3 out of 3 members found this post helpful.
    Other than the fact that there's no BMAC in Indians, and that they found the ANE heavy admixing population (West Siberian hunter-gatherers), not much surprising in terms of the ethnogenesis of the South Asian populations.

    I guess Reich got tired of waiting for the Indian scientists to bite the bullet and accept the obvious.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Looks like someone on Anthrogenica got his hands on the data and sure enough the Hajji Firuz Tepe individual is R1b-Z2103. Autosomally all samples from this site are very similar - i. e. a coalescence of Iran Neolithic and Anatolian Neolithic streams of ancestry, with an emphasis on the former. Lazaridis predicted that such a population would have been the source of the southern ancestry in the PC steppe. Wow.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by markozd View Post
    Looks like someone on Anthrogenica got his hands on the data and sure enough the Hajji Firuz Tepe individual is R1b-Z2103. Autosomally all samples from this site are very similar - i. e. a coalescence of Iran Neolithic and Anatolian Neolithic streams of ancestry, with an emphasis on the former. Lazaridis predicted that such a population would have been the source of the southern ancestry in the PC steppe. Wow.
    Wow indeed. So, the Anatolian Neolithic stream may have come from two directions, one from over the Caucasus and one from "Old Europe"?

    If this is right, it also means our predictions as to dating are really off, yes? Wasn't R1b Z2103 supposed to be a lot younger than this?

    I'm interested in those two pulses north too, one into Khvalynsk and the other into Yamnaya.

    Overall "steppe" impact is not at all as high in South Asia as some would have had us believe. Maybe 10-20%, which would analogous perhaps to the situation in Greece? It's higher in Brahmins and princely castes, however, maybe from 20-30%.

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