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    Central and South Asian DNA Paper

    The Genomic Formation of South and Central Asia

    Vagheesh M Narasimhan, Nick J Patterson, Priya Moorjani, Iosif Lazaridis, Lipson Mark, Swapan Mallick, Nadin Rohland, Rebecca Bernardos, Alexander M Kim, Nathan Nakatsuka, Inigo Olalde, Alfredo Coppa, James Mallory, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Janet Monge, Luca M Olivieri, Nicole Adamski, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Olivia Cheronet, Brendan J Culleton, Matthew Ferry, Daniel Fernandes, Beatriz Gamarra, Daniel Gaudio, Mateja Hajdinjak, Eadaoin Harney, Thomas K Harper, Denise Keating, Ann-Marie Lawson, Megan Michel, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Niraj Rai, Kendra Sirak, Viviane Slon, Kristin Stewardson, Zhao Zhang, Gaziz Akhatov, Anatoly N Bagashev, Baurzhan Baitanayev, Gian Luca Bonora, Tatiana Chikisheva, Anatoly Derevianko, Enshin Dmitry, Katerina Douka, Nadezhda Dubova, Andrey Epimakhov, Suzanne Freilich, Dorian Fuller, Alexander Goryachev, Andrey Gromov, Bryan Hanks, Margaret Judd, Erlan Kazizov, Aleksander Khokhlov, Egor Kitov, Elena Kupriyanova, Pavel Kuznetsov, Donata Luiselli, Farhad Maksudov, Chris Meiklejohn, Deborah C Merrett, Roberto Micheli, Oleg Mochalov, Zahir Muhammed, Samridin Mustafakulov, Ayushi Nayak, Rykun M Petrovna, Davide Pettner, Richard Potts, Dmitry Razhev, Stefania Sarno, Kulyan Sikhymbaevae, Sergey M Slepchenko, Nadezhda Stepanova, Svetlana Svyatko, Sergey Vasilyev, Massimo Vidale, Dima Voyakin, Antonina Yermolayeva, Alisa Zubova, Vasant S Shinde, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Matthias Meyer, David Anthony, Nicole Boivin, Kumarasmy Thangaraj, Douglas Kennett, Michael Frachetti, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich

    Abstract

    The genetic formation of Central and South Asian populations has been unclear because of an absence of ancient DNA. To address this gap, we generated genome-wide data from 362 ancient individuals, including the first from eastern Iran, Turan (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan), Bronze Age Kazakhstan, and South Asia. Our data reveal a complex set of genetic sources that ultimately combined to form the ancestry of South Asians today. We document a southward spread of genetic ancestry from the Eurasian Steppe, correlating with the archaeologically known expansion of pastoralist sites from the Steppe to Turan in the Middle Bronze Age (2300-1500 BCE). These Steppe communities mixed genetically with peoples of the Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) whom they encountered in Turan (primarily descendants of earlier agriculturalists of Iran), but there is no evidence that the main BMAC population contributed genetically to later South Asians. Instead, Steppe communities integrated farther south throughout the 2nd millennium BCE, and we show that they mixed with a more southern population that we document at multiple sites as outlier individuals exhibiting a distinctive mixture of ancestry related to Iranian agriculturalists and South Asian hunter-gathers. We call this group Indus Periphery because they were found at sites in cultural contact with the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) and along its northern fringe, and also because they were genetically similar to post-IVC groups in the Swat Valley of Pakistan. By co-analyzing ancient DNA and genomic data from diverse present-day South Asians, we show that Indus Periphery-related people are the single most important source of ancestry in South Asia — consistent with the idea that the Indus Periphery individuals are providing us with the first direct look at the ancestry of peoples of the IVC — and we develop a model for the formation of present-day South Asians in terms of the temporally and geographically proximate sources of Indus Periphery-related, Steppe, and local South Asian hunter-gatherer-related ancestry. Our results show how ancestry from the Steppe genetically linked Europe and South Asia in the Bronze Age, and identifies the populations that almost certainly were responsible for spreading Indo-European languages across much of Eurasia.

    LINK:
    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/03/31/292581

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/bior.../292581-2.xlsx
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    Thank you for sharing the full contents of a subject that helped me to better understand. At times each thread seems more important than any other. Yet the locating a spark makes the choices less difficult. Opening the door to discovery add a focus for supporting a point of entry.

    Population genetic characterization of ancient individuals
    Population Modeling Strategy

    In this section, we describe our overall strategy to model the admixture history in our set of3251 newly reported samples described in Supplementary materials section 1, which takes 33252 ordered steps in increasing order of complexity, each drawing on an understanding developed3253 by the previous step.32543255 First line of analysis – PCA and ADMIXTURE3256 We examine qualitative differences in ancestry in the newly reported samples by observing3257 the position of the samples on the West Eurasian and All Eurasian PCA plot (Methods) and3258 the magnitude and number of major components for each sample on the ADMIXTURE plot3259 (Methods). We have chosen the orientation of the West Eurasian and All Eurasian PCA plots3260 to correlate with geography (the genetic patterns mirror geography to an extent), providing an3261 intuitive map of the population structure and to some extent the history

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    "One Sentence Summary: Genome wide ancient DNA from 357 individuals from Central and South Asia sheds new light on the spread of Indo-European languages and parallels between the genetic history of two sub-continents, Europe and South Asia."

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    deleted comment, formatting issues

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    looks interesting, I need some time to read and digest

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    Game Over! – R1b M269 in Hajji Firuz (5600BC)

    OMG!

    I had already written about David Reich change of heart about PIE being from the South Caucasus. Now we know why.

    “Andronovo pastoralists brought steppe ancestry to South Asia (Vagheesh et al. 2018 preprint)” is out and in the supplement there is a guy from Hajji Firuz in western Iran, that is a R1b-M269….by 5500bc(!). This means, in plain terms, OMG I was so right all along for all these years.

    Let me talk about him, and why he is related to Shulaveri -Shomu in Armenia/Georgia. He was found in Hajji along side a couple J2b guys:
    a. Both places have the oldest wine residue. So Shulaveri by 5800bc and here in Hajji 5500bc.
    b. Both share the same pottery, specially the ones with “grapes” at the mouth.
    c. Both settlements use tipical shulaveri circular mudbrick construction… and specially babies and women are buried under the floor in the same manner.
    Its just a couple info. But to me it’s a glorious day. Indeed.

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    That looks really fantastic. Do you have the links for that preprint? This and maybe several other findings that we will see in the next months or years are what probably covinced David Reich to propose an ultimate urheimat that is neither of the most well accepted ones, nor the steppe, nor Anatolia.

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    0 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Olympus Mons View Post
    OMG!

    I had already written about David Reich change of heart about PIE being from the South Caucasus. Now we know why.

    “Andronovo pastoralists brought steppe ancestry to South Asia (Vagheesh et al. 2018 preprint)” is out and in the supplement there is a guy from Hajji Firuz in western Iran, that is a R1b-M269….by 5500bc(!). This means, in plain terms, OMG I was so right all along for all these years.

    Let me talk about him, and why he is related to Shulaveri -Shomu in Armenia/Georgia. He was found in Hajji along side a couple J2b guys:
    a. Both places have the oldest wine residue. So Shulaveri by 5800bc and here in Hajji 5500bc.
    b. Both share the same pottery, specially the ones with “grapes” at the mouth.
    c. Both settlements use tipical shulaveri circular mudbrick construction… and specially babies and women are buried under the floor in the same manner.
    Its just a couple info. But to me it’s a glorious day. Indeed.
    Game over ...its Gonur Turkmenistan

    site over 7000BC old
    on the silk road
    agriculture and mining
    Site of founding of Zorastrian
    haplogroup A found there as well as BT and CT ...........plus P , E and T

    Thats it Turkmenistan home of BMAC ............
    có che un pòpoło no 'l defende pi ła só łéngua el xe prónto par èser s'ciavo

    when a people no longer dares to defend its language it is ripe for slavery.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Sile View Post
    Game over ...its Gonur Turkmenistan

    site over 7000BC old
    on the silk road
    agriculture and mining
    Site of founding of Zorastrian
    haplogroup A found there as well as BT and CT ...........plus P , E and T

    Thats it Turkmenistan home of BMAC ............
    Well, IE languages spread mostly with pastoralism, not agriculture (the earliest of its speakers actually seem to have practiced a pretty incipient agriculture)... BMAC also shows some (minor) AASI, which doesn't appear in later remains associated with IE expansive cultures. I don't know... And what exactly does haplogroup A being found there as well as BT and CT have to do with proving definitely that the earliest form of PIE came from BMAC Turkmenistan? I honestly didn't understand.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ygorcs View Post
    Well, IE languages spread mostly with pastoralism, not agriculture (the earliest of its speakers actually seem to have practiced a pretty incipient agriculture)... BMAC also shows some (minor) AASI, which doesn't appear in later remains associated with IE expansive cultures. I don't know... And what exactly does haplogroup A being found there as well as BT and CT have to do with proving definitely that the earliest form of PIE came from BMAC Turkmenistan? I honestly didn't understand.
    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...a_Turkmenistan

    there is more.....much more from this area/site

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    3 out of 3 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Sile View Post
    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...a_Turkmenistan

    there is more.....much more from this area/site
    I see, but there is no reason to believe that the earliest PIE speakers must have come from BMAC civilization just because it was very advanced and sophisticated for its time. The earliest PIE tribes were probably not even that developed and sophistiated compared to others, so I see no necessary cultural link between them. If we had seen a huge IE expansion based mostly on refined urban civilizations and luxury trades, I'd take this much more seriously, but that isn't what the archaeological and linguistic records indicate.

    Besides, the article in the link you provided refers to the Bronze Age Oxus civilization of Turkmenistan. In the Bronze Age the fully developed and in fact already diverging IE tribes were already spreading from Central Europe to Central Asia, and Anatolian speakers were already in Anatolia forming their kingdoms. There is no use in investigating Bronze Age features of cultures in Turkmenistan when we are discussing about the earliest formation of PIE still in the Neolithic age, probably earlier than 4,500 or even 5,000 BC, before Yamna, CWC and any other seemingly IE-speaking culture. What happens in Iran or in Turkmenistan before the earliest introgression of CHG and R1b in the steppes probably interests us, but that was at the latest around 4,000 BC.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Olympus Mons View Post
    OMG!

    I had already written about David Reich change of heart about PIE being from the South Caucasus. Now we know why.

    “Andronovo pastoralists brought steppe ancestry to South Asia (Vagheesh et al. 2018 preprint)” is out and in the supplement there is a guy from Hajji Firuz in western Iran, that is a R1b-M269….by 5500bc(!). This means, in plain terms, OMG I was so right all along for all these years.

    Let me talk about him, and why he is related to Shulaveri -Shomu in Armenia/Georgia. He was found in Hajji along side a couple J2b guys:
    a. Both places have the oldest wine residue. So Shulaveri by 5800bc and here in Hajji 5500bc.
    b. Both share the same pottery, specially the ones with “grapes” at the mouth.
    c. Both settlements use tipical shulaveri circular mudbrick construction… and specially babies and women are buried under the floor in the same manner.
    Its just a couple info. But to me it’s a glorious day. Indeed.
    Also interesting J2a in MLBA Steppes.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    R1b-Z2013 in 5900-5500 BCE Western Iran (I2327) at Hajji Firuz Tepe. We've found the male ancestor of the Yamnaya phenomenon

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    3 out of 3 members found this post helpful.
    Two immediate stand-outs:
    No BMAC in Indians

    R1b M269 6000 BC in Iran, along side J2b
    I2327 K1a17a R1b1a1a2a2 Hajji_Firuz_C 5900-5500 BCE Iran

    Maciamo was right, not that the usual suspects will acknowledge it.


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    1 out of 3 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Two immediate stand-outs:
    No BMAC in Indians
    R1b M269 6000 BC in Iran, along side J2b
    I2327 K1a17a R1b1a1a2a2 Hajji_Firuz_C 5900-5500 BCE Iran
    Maciamo was right, not that the usual suspects will acknowledge it.
    That's it. The homeland of the Indo-European languages is Iran. Done.

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    0 out of 3 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Two immediate stand-outs:
    No BMAC in Indians

    R1b M269 6000 BC in Iran, along side J2b
    I2327 K1a17a R1b1a1a2a2 Hajji_Firuz_C 5900-5500 BCE Iran

    Maciamo was right, not that the usual suspects will acknowledge it.
    Are you Maciamo's mom? ;)

    Angela, Maciamo provides HG links for R1b in the steppe coming from Iran, but many more millenia ago: he suffers the same kind of steppitis as others, including blurred vision about steppe males getting by rape or import Caucasian brunettes to explain their CHG component. I remember when he said that Villabruna R1b was a steppe wanderer in Italy, now I'm waiting his opinion about other HG R1b wanderers in Germany, Lithuania, Romania... the same was true for R1b south of Caucasus, when I suggested that Yamna R1b-Z2103 was coming from the Caucasus as it was found a R1b guy in Kura-Araxes the answer was... that this guy came from... the steppe!

    Game over for R1b from steppe! And now the new R1b guy from Iran, his date is allowing to his M269 bro a chance to participate with the EEF expansion from Anatolia...
    "What I've seen so far after my entire career chasing Indoeuropeans is that our solutions look tissue thin and our problems still look monumental" J.P.Mallory

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by berun View Post
    Are you Maciamo's mom? ;)
    Angela, Maciamo provides HG links for R1b in the steppe coming from Iran, but many more millenia ago: he suffers the same kind of steppitis as others, including blurred vision about steppe males getting by rape or import Caucasian brunettes to explain their CHG component. I remember when he said that Villabruna R1b was a steppe wanderer in Italy, now I'm waiting his opinion about other HG R1b wanderers in Germany, Lithuania, Romania... the same was true for R1b south of Caucasus, when I suggested that Yamna R1b-Z2103 was coming from the Caucasus as it was found a R1b guy in Kura-Araxes the answer was... that this guy came from... the steppe!
    Game over for R1b from steppe! And now the new R1b guy from Iran, his date is allowing to his M269 bro a chance to participate with the EEF expansion from Anatolia...
    Did you even read my work? In my history of R1b I postulated many years ago that R1b-M269 probably crossed over the Caucasus into the Pontic Steppe shortly before 5200 BCE because the first clearly Proto-Indo-European cultures were the Khvalynsk (5200-4500 BCE).

    This migration map from 2009 shows R1b moving from the South Caucasus into the Steppe between 6000 and 5000 BCE. I wasn't sure where exactly was the source of R1b-M269 in the South Caucasus, so I added a ? next to Hassuna. No DNA from Hassuna has been tested yet, so it could still be related to Shulaveni-Shomu.



    On the very first R1b migration map that I made in 2009 (see this link as I can't copy/paste Flash maps here) I wrote that R1b crossed the Caucasus c. 7000 ybp (5000 BCE), although my arrow shows that it crossed on the western side of the Caucasus toward Maykop, but then I changed my mind a few months later for the above map as I thought it would be more likely that R1b have crossed to the east along the Caspian (just a little detail, it doesn't change the course of history).

    I also wrote that J2b2-L283 crossed the Caucasus at the same period and also become a PIE lineage. This was a simple deduction based on the fact that this haplogroup is about 6000 years old (according to Y-Full, but might be 7500 years old I think) and that it is found throughout Europe and South Asia, as well as in the South Caucasus from Eastern Anatolia to NW Iran (exactly the region where Neolithic R1b-M269 would have been found).
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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    Did you even read my work? In my history of R1b I postulated many years ago that R1b-M269 probably crossed over the Caucasus into the Pontic Steppe shortly before 5200 BCE because the first clearly Proto-Indo-European cultures were the Khvalynsk (5200-4500 BCE).

    This migration map from 2009 shows R1b moving from the South Caucasus into the Steppe between 6000 and 5000 BCE. I wasn't sure where exactly was the source of R1b-M269 in the South Caucasus, so I added a ? next to Hassuna. No DNA from Hassuna has been tested yet, so it could still be related to Shulaveni-Shomu.



    On the very first R1b migration map that I made in 2009 (see this link as I can't copy/paste Flash maps here) I wrote that R1b crossed the Caucasus c. 7000 ybp (5000 BCE), although my arrow shows that it crossed on the western side of the Caucasus toward Maykop, but then I changed my mind a few months later for the above map as I thought it would be more likely that R1b have crossed to the east along the Caspian (just a little detail, it doesn't change the course of history).

    I also wrote that J2b2-L283 crossed the Caucasus at the same period and also become a PIE lineage. This was a simple deduction based on the fact that this haplogroup is about 6000 years old (according to Y-Full, but might be 7500 years old I think) and that it is found throughout Europe and South Asia, as well as in the South Caucasus from Eastern Anatolia to NW Iran (exactly the region where Neolithic R1b-M269 would have been found).
    back from holidays I can check things, simply what you say here is just the contrary that I read here from 2014

    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...ghlight=araxes

    On a side note, it is highly frustrating that this team of geneticists tested 63 samples from the Yamna and Catacomb and related cultures and did not test any Y-DNA at all ! This could prove once and for all that R1b people spread from the Pontic Steppe and not with Neolithic Near Eastern farmers as so many academic papers have claimed.
    I will try to find the discussion had with this issue

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    2 out of 2 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by berun View Post
    back from holidays I can check things, simply what you say here is just the contrary that I read here from 2014

    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...ghlight=araxes

    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo
    On a side note, it is highly frustrating that this team of geneticists tested 63 samples from the Yamna and Catacomb and related cultures and did not test any Y-DNA at all ! This could prove once and for all that R1b people spread from the Pontic Steppe and not with Neolithic Near Eastern farmers as so many academic papers have claimed.
    I will try to find the discussion had with this issue
    Absolutely not! The passage you quoted from me refers to the Balaresque et al. (2010) paper which claims that R1b-M269 and Indo-Europeans languages spread with Neolithic farmers from Anatolia to the Balkans with cultures such as Starcevo and LBK. That paper has been completely discredited by the finding of R1b-M269 (well mostly Z2103) in Yamna and of R1b-P312 and R1b-U106 in northern Bell Beaker sites and subsequent Bronze Age cultures, but no R1b-M269 in any Neolithic European culture. Read again. I know exactly what I wrote.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Also 2850-2460 BCE R1b-L151 in Afghanistan. Is this the earliest R1b-L151 discovered to date?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Johane Derite View Post
    deleted comment, formatting issues
    Why did you move my thread?
    Its not about the paper is about the fact that M269 is found in 5500 bc in Hajji Feruz.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Olympus Mons View Post
    Why did you move my thread?
    Its not about the paper is about the fact that M269 is found in 5500 bc in Hajji Feruz.
    It belongs with the discussion of this paper.

    Marko:
    Also 2850-2460 BCE R1b-L151 in Afghanistan. Is this the earliest R1b-L151 discovered to date?
    There's one in Northeastern Europe but I don't remember the date.

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    2 out of 2 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Olympus Mons View Post
    Why did you move my thread?
    Its not about the paper is about the fact that M269 is found in 5500 bc in Hajji Feruz.
    According to the supplementary tables it's not only M269, it's Z2103 (i. e. the Y-DNA that predominates in Yamnaya) 1500 years before its predicted to have made its appearance as per mutation rate estimates. The nomenclature is quite unwieldy, but the table gives it as R1b1a1a2a2.

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