The study on Lombard DNA by Amorim et al. (2018) was already discussed a few months ago as part of a preliminary paper, but did not yet include the Y-DNA and mtDNA tables. This is still a pre-print, but at least we can see what haplogroups the Lombards carried.

The admixtures for each sample are available on this chart to confirm which sample is autosomally Lombard (in blue) or Roman (in red and green).


Here is the Y-DNA table from the study. I have added the mtDNA in the right column and coloured in red the sample number for those that were autosomally predominantly South European. Those that were very mixed are in blue and red. The others are predominantly Northwest European/Germanic.

CL38 E1b1b1a1b1a3 PF2211 X2
CL31 G2a1a1 Z6644 H18
CL63 I1a3 Z79 H
CL23 T1a2b L446 H
CL110 R1b1a2a M694 -
CL53 R1b1a2a PF6434 H11a
CL57 R1b1a2a1a L151 H24a
CL93 R1b1a2a1a L151 J2b1a
CL145 R1b1a2a1a L151 T2b
CL146 R1b1a2a1a L151 T2b3
CL92 R1b1a2a1a L52 H
CL84 R1b1a2a1a2c1g1a1 Z381 H1t
CL30 R1b1a1a2a1a2 S116 I1b
CL49 R1b1a1a2a1a2b1a Z367 -
CL94 R1b1a1a2a1a2f S11987 (DF99) K1c1
CL121 R1b1a2a2 Z2103 H1i2





SZ18 E1b1b1a1b2 CTS2817 H13a1a2
SZ45 I1a1b1 L22 J1c
SZ12 I2a2a1 CTS9183 W6
SZ14 I2a2a1 CTS9183 I3
SZ24 I2a2a1 CTS9183 U4b
SZ43 I2a2a1a2a1a S391 H1e
SZ3 I2a2a1b2a2 S390 H18
SZ13 I2a2a1b2a2a2 ZS20 N1b1b1
SZ22 I2a2a1b2a2a2 ZS20 N1b1b1
SZ7 I2a2a1b2a2a2 ZS20 T2e
SZ36 T1a1a PF5620 U4c2a
SZ15 R1a1a1b1a3a S200 H1c1
SZ4 R1b1a2a1a1b Z16 H1c9
SZ16 R1b1a2a1a1c Z381 U4b1b
SZ23 R1b1a2a1a1c Z381 H13a1a2
SZ2 R1b1a1a2a1a1c2b2a1b1a L130 T1a1
SZ11 R1b1a1a2a1a1c2b2b1a1a1 Z351 K2a3
SZ27B R1b1a1a2a1a2 S116 N1a1a1a1
SZ37 R1b1a1a2a1a2 S116 H66a
SZ42 R1b1a1a2a1a2 S116 K2a6
SZ5 R1b1a1a2a1a2a1b CTS1595 J2b1

The autosomally Germanic samples belong to:

- I1-L22 (1 sample)
- I2a2a-L801 (4 samples including three ZS20)
- R1a-Z284 (1 sample, L448+)
- R1b-U106 (including three Z381, two L48>Z9 and one Z16)

One sample was reported as I1a3, which should be I1-Z63, but the SNP listed was Z79, which belongs to a deep clade of I2a2a-L801. So it isn't clear which it is. Surely a typo.

There is no surprise, except maybe that the haplogroup composition is so high in I2a2a-L801 and has few I1, but that is probably a sampling bias (too small sample size). All the haplogroups are unambiguously Germanic and even South Scandinavian in their subclades, which is in agreement with the origins of the Lombards in Scania (southern Sweden).

The samples that were autosomally South European included the following haplogroups:

- E-V13
- G2a1a
- I2a2a-L1229 (also found in Megalithic cultures)
- R1b-Z2103
- T1a1a

One R1b-S116 (P312) samples was fully Germanic, one was fully South European, and the third one was mixed.

Two samples (CL49 and SZ5) belong to R1b-U152 (L2>Z367 and Z36>Z37), but unfortunately both are about half CEU and half TSI (+IBS for SZ5), so their origins are inconclusive. Alpine Celts would probably have such mixed ancestry though. But the Z36 branch is more likely Italic/Roman.

The E-V22 and R1b-DF99 and one R1b-Z381 also had mixed ancestry.