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Thread: Is Basque an Indo-European language or not?

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    Yes

    Yes they are, that is obvious.
    1- It is first proven by Genetics (Haplogroup R1B-M269 for Y-DNA).
    Guess who was R1B-M269? Tutankhamun, Akhenaten (his father) and Amenhotep (his grandfather).
    Now 90% (up to 95%) of Basque and Irish males are R1B-M269.
    As Irish is considered to be Indo-European, it leaves only 3 possibilities :
    - Celtic do not belong to IE.
    - Centum and Satem are two different families.
    - Basque is macro-IE.
    R1B is 18000 years old, which means Indic (Brahmans are R1A) separated from west europeans at the beginning of the magdalenian era.
    This means proto-IE is 18000 years old, which correlated well with 445 languages (for example, Dravidian is 4500 years old and is constituted by 25 languages).
    2 - It is proven by rituals : Cantabri and ancient Basque people had the same custom of couvade.
    The bear cult, equally, was practised by Basques, Celts, Britons, Thraces, Daces and Getes (proto-celtic Harzh is quite identical to modern Basque Hartz(a)).
    3 - It is proven by core vocabulary : for example, gibel and liver stem from TLiWETL ; emazte and woman from WEAMANTLE ; bide and way from WAITLE ; bihotz and heart from BIHEOTL ; nahi and want from WANATLI ; beste and else from HETLE ; hlore and flower from HLOWETL ; azukre and sugar from AZUKEATL, ibili and walk from AIWAILIGI ; hontz and owl from HOWTL ; oila and fowl from HOIWTLA ; ehun and hundred from EHUNTLETL ; ohe and bed from OHETL ; amets and dream from TLEAMETL ; hari and wire from HAITLI ; aizkora and axe from AITLKORAI ; peace and bake from WEATLE ; boz and voice from WOITL ; seme and son from SEOMBE ; arrasto and track from ATLASTLO, baizik and but from BAYTLIK ; adimen and mind from ADIMEINTL ; hotz and cold from HOLTL ; berro and warm from WEATLOW ; zu and you from TLU ; hemen and here from HEWENTL ; saldu and sell from SEALTL ; taula and table from TAWTLA ; bizkar and back from BAITLKATL ; atzera and rear from ATLEATLA ; lege and law from LEAWTLE ; jaungoiko and god from JAWNGOITLO ; trumoi and thunder from TLUMTLOI ; zeru and sky from ZEUTLI ; Eguberri and Yule from ETLUWETLI ; Mundua and World from WUNLTLUA ; zoru and soil from ZOITLU ; hesi and fence from HENTLI ; pareta and wall from WATLETLA ; anitz and many from HANITL ; sega and scythe from TLEITLA ; zaldi and horse from TLAWLTLI ; txakur and dog from TLAWTLUTL ; mantxango and monkey from MAWNTLAINTLO ; afer and ape from AWETL ; turtube and turtle from TLURTLUBE ; dortoka and tortoise from TLORTOITLA ; zabal and broad from TLABLAWTLA ; potolo and fat from WAWTLAWTLAW ; erle and bee from AWBEITLE ; orein and deer from TLEOTLEIN ; denbora and time from TLEINWOTLAITL ; ordu and hour from HOULTLU ; urte and year from TLEAWTLE ; Izar and star from ITLATL ; beltz and black from BEALTL ; suge and snake from TLAWTLE ; beldar and caterpillar from TLAWTLETLWITLATL ; mendi and mount/mound from MEOWNTLI ; tapoi and top from TAWPAWTLI ; pentoka and beorg from WENTLOTLA ; zuku and juice from TLUITLU ; hegi and edge from HETLI ; golko and cove from KWOTLKWO ; badia and bight from BAITLIA ; erreka and creek from KWETLEKWA ; gatz and sealt/salt from TLEATL ; irla and island from ILTLANDA ; urdin and blue from HTLULTLIN ; euri and rain from EUTLEIN ; tsitlarra and heather from TLEATLEATLA ; haize and wind from HAINTLE ; korapilo and knot from KWOTLAPITLO ; oihana and forest from HOITLANTLA ; begi and eye from WEITLI ; bisaia and face from WAITLATLA ; mingain and tongue from KWOINKWAIN ; mutur and mouth from MUTLUTL ; esan/erran and say from ETLAIN ; sudur and nose from HOTLUTLUTL ; adar and antler from ANTLEAR ; belarri and eare/ear from HEATLATLI ; hirri and city from HITLI ; oso and all from AWTLAW ; zilar and silver from TLITLABEAR ; hill and die from TLIETL ; heldu and hold from HEWLTLU ; eta and and from EANTLA ; erro and root from ETLUTL ; etxe and house from HEUTLE and so on...
    A very interesting one is arrano (pronounced "arranio", meaning eagle) : arn in old english, arend in Dutch, haaran in Hittite.
    Titmouse is TSIMURUNTSA in Basque, reel is HARIL, car is GARROI, bare is BILUZIK, map is MAPA ; card is KARTA ; cork is KORTXO ; up is AUPA ; easy is AISE ; end is URHENTZE ; ochre is OKRE ; carry is EKARRI ; apart is APARTE ; rock is ARROKA ; chip is TXIPA ; start is HASTE-ARTE ; March is MARTXOA ; April is APIRILA ; land is LANDA ; universe is UNIBERTSOA (verse is BERTSOA) ; mess is NAHAS-MAHAS ; tin is EZTAINU ; mare is ZAMARI ; ass is ASTO ; person is PERTSONA ; tide is ITSASALDI ; sea is ITSASOA ; minute is MINUTUA ; ruby is ERRUBI ; tuna is ATUNA ; tor is TONTOR ; machete is MATXETE ; knife is KANIBET ; ash is hautsa ; gimlet is GINBALET ; bank is BANKU ; lake is LAKUA ; ice is IZOTZ ; bean is BABARRUN ; fruit is FRUITUA ; colore is KOLOREA ("with flower") ; air is AIRE ; taste is TSASTATU ; reality is ERREALITATE ; evil is GOIBEL, the list is infinite...
    But what is more important, you'll always find the same associations, for example sunflower is eguzkilore (sun-flower) ; laur is related to hlore, as four is linked to flower ; and as eight is related to light and night, zortzi is related to ortzi and sortzi ; ostegun (thursday) have the same meaning of god's day as in IE ; tomorrow is bihar (two is bi and har is cognate with mor-) ; bizitza (life) is connected to bihotz (heart), as life is correlated to liver ; as Night relates to Nil/Naught, Gaba/Gaua is linked to Gabe.
    4 - The more you'll get to proto-IE level, the most you'll reach Basque.
    For example, Arkwi was "white" in Tocharian ; in Basque, ARGI means "light".
    UITSA or UITLA, the basque word for "water", is very close to proto-IE reconstructed form (the same for ITSASOA 'the sea').
    Sometime, the sense is displaced : from example ERRIBERA means "bank of river" (BANKU is more local, ERRIBERA follows all the stream), nevertheless it is very cose to the reconstructed proto-IE form for "river".

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    "Do not hold in serious linguistics"?
    Well, how about this one :
    Iberian sisbi "seven" sis-bi (2nd six).
    English seven se-ben (2nd six, just look at (t)wen-ty = 2 ten).

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Lambersky, what you write is funny, full of all directions research and imagination, but only funny. No debate. No offense.

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    Normal

    Well that is normal that you should write this because you don't know nothing about Basque, as do every indo-europeanist.
    I can destroy indo-european hypothesis in a few line.

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    You communicate what I took for comparisons supposed to convince us about closeness of words. You failed complitely, at the linguistic comparative level. To see that doesn't need knowing a lot of basque language, in my opinion at least. No offense.

    PS some of the curious words you put are they ancient or proto-basque rebuilt?

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    Looks like Gianfranco Forni should get back into the oven as he is underdone. This is where people who go on about haplogroups are so far up their rear ends. The male Basques may be high in R1b. So what? They have Steppe herder ancestry like most Europeans, and in most cases, language is passed on by mothers. It is called our mother tongue for a reason, and our fatherland for another, the male ancestry of Basques being Steppe herder. R1b may be very old, but in Europe it was mostly introduce in the Bronze Age. The Hunter Gatherers were mainly I2, though maybe one Villabuna WHG was R1b, but the Villabuna Hunter Gatherers had Near Eastern like ancestry.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ozzie View Post
    Looks like Gianfranco Forni should get back into the oven as he is underdone. This is where people who go on about haplogroups are so far up their rear ends. The male Basques may be high in R1b. So what? They have Steppe herder ancestry like most Europeans, and in most cases, language is passed on by mothers. It is called our mother tongue for a reason, and our fatherland for another, the male ancestry of Basques being Steppe herder. R1b may be very old, but in Europe it was mostly introduce in the Bronze Age. The Hunter Gatherers were mainly I2, though maybe one Villabuna WHG was R1b, but the Villabuna Hunter Gatherers had Near Eastern like ancestry.
    You run fast and far.
    Language passed by mothers? a shortcut. Maybe the husbands (rather than fathers?) language passed by mothers?
    I think things are not always so straightaway. What is not to say that Basques could'nt have inherited their language from mothers lines. We have to wait more clues here, the question is not answered.
    Villabruna HG's with Near Eastern ancestry? rather a common one, inherited in both regions from a previous source uneasy to trace back precisely for geography. It depends at what age of Paleolithic.
    Not that I've something against near-East 'per se': I suppose a lot of our ancestors came to Europe through Near East or Caucasus or Western Central Asia (peri-Black Sea-Caspian regions) what doesn't exclude other ways for some others (Central North Asia at some stage). All depends of time.

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    Steppe ancestry? Ha ha ha, Basque people never lived east to the place where they live now. This is obvious as there is no linguistic connexion in the whole of Eurasia (except Japanese, but that is another topic and Basque is even older than the whole of japanic).
    You're just a parrot man, no offense, you keep on retelling the same old bull**ies over and over again (which were never proved, often controversial, and still now are heatly debated).
    Basque have more R1B than any steppe-herder descendant, much more. The map is clearly speaking of a western origin, not an eastern one.
    As for the mtDNA, again ancient Basque had more X than any steppe-herder or other eurasians, except maybe Druze... but are you going to take Druze people for steppe pastorialists ???
    Those two haplogroups combined are the one at the basis of agriculture and your whole civilization, I know that hurts but there is nothing you can do about it. Your "steppe people" were mere savages in front of Basque ancestors.
    The closest languages to Basque are obviously on the atlantic side and they are Latin, spanish obviously, french, italian, celtic and germanic (and even slavic, greek, albanian, armenian, but again the whole spread from west, not east).
    I will just take three examples, speaking of tool.
    1 – Ginbalet / Gimlet : there is no chance, not even one, this is not the same word, the english one being simplest, and this means two things :
    - Gimlet have existed since palaeolithic times ;
    - English substrate is proto-Basque. This is not the place, but I have a never-ending list of core english words directly coming from Basque (or proto-Basque if you want but you've got to know the power of Basque is its conservativeness).
    2 - Altxarrastelu(a) means "rake" in Basque, from this you'll easily derivate the word "plough" in most IE languages (Italian "aratro", Spanish "aradro", Portuguese "Arado", Bulgarian "ralo", Welsch "aradr", Breton "arar", Latin "arare", Romanian "ara", Belarussian "arać", Greek "arotro"...), those very languages being associated with said "inventors of agriculture". That means that the spread of agriculture wasn’t from the sinkhole which is middle-east as you were told, but from Iberia.
    3 - The wheel, I suppose you use it in everyday life. Not only Basque "Gurpil(a)" and Hittite "Hurkis" are cognates but they obviously stem from the same very word THLULKWITHL, compare with Greek "Kyklos" if you're not convinced. That means that the wheel was conceive by Proto-IE-Iberian people, again this means Iberia. Hittite is quite similar to proto-IE isn't it? How do you explain Hittire being so close to Basque?
    In conlusion, if Basque people wouls have come from steppe, you'll be still living in a cave, eating game food only (if not raw meat).

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    R1b has been in Europe for many thousands of years before Indo-European languages arrived.


    The Basque language is not considered Indo-European. Gianfranco Forni is just one of many amateur linguists who writes amateur studies that have no credibility.
    Last edited by Pax Augusta; 19-02-21 at 19:50.

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    Nota Bene : Everywhere I have written TL you shall read THL (I couldn't write the "plain L" on this thread). This sound do not exist in IE, and even in Basque it is intuitive (for example “to say”is “esan” and “erran”), but have been lost millenias ago. The fact that you don't understand linguistics does not prove my reconstructions are false, even if some are to be improved (for example proto-word for face is not WAITLATLA but WEITHLAITHLI, thus correlated to proto-word for eye WEITHLI.

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    Well somehow Italic languages sound a lot like Basque, so I can understand. His appoach is interesting, as setting Basque appart from Indo-European studies is immature.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Lambersky View Post
    Well somehow Italic languages sound a lot like Basque, so I can understand. His appoach is interesting, as setting Basque appart from Indo-European studies is immature.
    You amaze me, indeed. You go further than any other linguistics lovers here and elsewhere on fora and blogs.
    And I have some doubts concerning the "ethny" (true or psychologic) and the country of residence you are showing here.
    Maybe I am wrong? This debate level is too high for me.

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    Ahhhhh...yet another ethnocentric discussion about the origin of...well everything. This time, Basque nationalists. It could have been Greek nationalists, Albanian nationalists, Northern Macedonians, you name the nationalist group and the words are the same. The world began with their group and the rest of the languages came from their mother tongue. So, so predictable.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Lambersky View Post
    Well that is normal that you should write this because you don't know nothing about Basque, as do every indo-europeanist.
    I can destroy indo-european hypothesis in a few line.
    Can you actually present a coherent argument? Or will you keep deflecting and asking others to disprove Forni? Pro-tip the onus is on him.


    Quote Originally Posted by bigsnake49 View Post
    Ahhhhh...yet another ethnocentric discussion about the origin of...well everything. This time, Basque nationalists. It could have been Greek nationalists, Albanian nationalists, Northern Macedonians, you name the nationalist group and the words are the same. The world began with their group and the rest of the languages came from their mother tongue. So, so predictable.
    Never fails. It will always involve haplogroups in the discussion too.

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    I'm out here for linguistics (tired by people like that). Just a point: even nationalism doesn't allow to distort things in so a way!

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    Well, I think I have presented enough arguments already, but to dismiss the discussion as you do because you ain't got any is counter-wise...
    To me, you're just a troll who does not understand anything about linguistics, History and so on, so you're only defense mechanism is trying to break the luminous ideas of the others.
    People like you do not make advance the search, but help humanity devolving.
    Keep on arguing with you would be sterile.
    So stay with your closed-mind, farewell !

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Lambersky View Post
    Well, I think I have presented enough arguments already, but to dismiss the discussion as you do because you ain't got any is counter-wise...
    To me, you're just a troll who does not understand anything about linguistics, History and so on, so you're only defense mechanism is trying to break the luminous ideas of the others.
    People like you do not make advance the search, but help humanity devolving.
    Keep on arguing with you would be sterile.
    So stay with your closed-mind, farewell !
    You would be mistaken saying that people who disagree with you do not "understand anything about linguistics, history and so on" and that their "only defense mechanism is trying to break the luminous ideas of others". Your argument is being challenged and it is clear you do not like that.

    But anyways, here are some papers you can read through that directly disagree and present valid arguments against Forni and his pet theory.



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    can't understand

    Maybe you're not able to read, but I never said Basque was IE, only that proto-Basque and proto-IE were obviously related.
    I don't need to read those papers, as my level of comprehension is superior than those authors.
    Here are few examples for beginners, but after this do not ask me again, because none of you have the level of understanding which is required (not even the basis) :
    1 - THE VERB "TO BE"
    Euskara - Izan
    Englisc - weosan, wesan, wosa, ˈwe.sɑn, ˈwe.zɑn
    Old High German - Wesan (yes Englisc is older, everything you were told is a lie)
    2 - THE VERB "TO LIVE"
    Euskara - Bizi
    Croatian - Biti
    3 - "YOU ARE"
    Euskara - Zu zara
    English - Thou are
    4 - "A MAN"
    Euskara - Gizonsembea
    Old Lituanian - Žmuõ
    Old Norse - Gumi
    Norwegian - Gume
    Old Saxon/Old high German - Gumo
    Gothic/Englisc - Guma
    5 - "A DEER"
    Euskara - Oreinia
    Ols Norse - Hreinn
    6 - "THE POWER"
    Euskara - Erreginia
    Old Norse - Ragna
    Latin - Regina
    6 - "THE THUNDER"
    Euskara - Trumoia
    Englisc - ðunor
    Old Norse - Thôrr
    7 - "GOD" (BY NAME)
    Euskara - Ortzi
    Old Norse - ὀs, āss
    8 - "GOD" (DESIGNATION)
    Euskara - JaunGoikoa
    Old Norse - Guð, kuþ, goð, ˈɡoð
    9 - "THE WHEEL"
    Euskara -GurPilia
    Goidelic - Cuibhle
    Old Norse - Hvel
    10 - "TO SEE"
    Euskara - Ikusmiratu/Ikusi
    Old Norse - Sy~a
    Englisc - SieƟ
    11 - "THE EAGLE"
    Euskara - Arranioa
    Old Norse - Ari
    12 - "AND"
    Euskara - Eta
    Old Norse - eða
    13 - "ALL"
    Euskara - Osoa/Oroa
    Old Norse - ǫll
    14 - "THE AUROCH"
    Euskara - Uroa
    Old Norse/German - Ur
    15 - "THE EAR"
    Euskara - Belarria
    Old Norse - ɛira/eyra
    16 - NEGATION
    Euskara - Ezezkeria/ezerketa
    Old Norse - Eigi, ekki, ei
    17 - "THE EYE"
    Euskara - Begirra/leihioa
    Old Norse - auẋa
    18 - "THE BEAN"
    Euskara - babarruna
    Old Norse - baun
    Old Prussian - babo
    19 - "THE ICE"
    Euskara - Izotza
    Old Norse - Iz

    I don't believe in such thing as isolates.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Lambersky View Post
    Maybe you're not able to read, but I never said Basque was IE, only that proto-Basque and proto-IE were obviously related.
    I don't need to read those papers, as my level of comprehension is superior than those authors.
    Nice an ad hominem, the title of your thread is literally questioning if Basque is IE or not. You don’t need to read those papers because your comprehension is superior? Dunning-Kruger effect much?


    Here are few examples for beginners, but after this do not ask me again, because none of you have the level of understanding which is required (not even the basis) :


    I don't believe in such thing as isolates.
    Can you demonstrate the actual etymologies and for lack of a better term phylogeny of each of these words you’ve listed?

    The fact that you don’t believe in isolates suggests that your theory entirely depends on that. That’s too bad for your theory then.

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    Basque, Iberian and Tartessian are NOT Indo-European languages, dozens of Spanish linguists have demonstrated this since linguistic studies began. I could give you hundreds of references in this regard. The studies on the relationship between Iberian and Basque continue to progress continuously and soon it will be the most accepted theory by the best Spanish Iberianists.

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    Regarding the linguistic debate and the uniparental markers related to a certain language, the only way to demonstrate which language was spoken by a certain people or culture is to demonstrate an evident genetic continuity. And so far we can only do that in Spain.

    As everyone should know, Iberian was spoken in Roman times from Andalusia, the Spanish and French Mediterranean coast to Herault, the Pyrenees and the Ebro valley. The first case of Df27-Z195 has been documented in Narbonne and the genetic continuity is evident. Can the fanatic Kurganists demonstrate such an obvious genetic continuity between any steppe culture and the BB culture? NO and they will never be able to do it because R1b-P312/DF27 are absolutely western markers.

    Can someone give me a convincing explanation as to why Df27 had to change its language if there were no invasions or conquests. The Bronze Age cultures of the Spanish Mediterranean coast including the Argar and Bronze Valencian cultures are heirs of the BB culture, and the historical Iron Age peoples share uniparental markers with these cultures. For us the debate is closed unless someone can prove otherwise. The BB culture spoke an Ibero/Basque language.

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    In any case, the key to understanding the linguistic debate is not the Basques/Aquitanians, but the Iberians - this is just one example of the genetic continuity in Iberia between the BB culture and the Iron Age.HapY-Df27-Z195

    GBVPK-Grotte Basse de la Vigne Perdue, Narbona (2.380 BC), I1312d, Can Roqueta, Barcelona (1.782 BC), I3397Lloma de Betxi, Valencia (1.741 BC), I4563, Galls Carboners, Tarragona (1.600 BC), I8206.Ampurias, Gerona, Iberian Culture-Indiketes (200 BC)

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    Any kurganist fanatic still dreams of demonstrating that genetic continuity between the steppes, the BB culture, Unetice and the Iron Age Celts, to convince us that the steppe shepherds conquered mainland Europe, exterminated the male lineages of the European neolithic cultures, mingled with their women and imposed their culture (including their language). Nothing could be further from the truth, the Indo-European languages of Western Europe are a matter of the Iron Age and the Roman Empire. The rest are fairy tales

  24. #49
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    That is exact, Bell Beaker culture stemed from Spain.
    Looking the map, it is plain obvious.
    That is funny how the so called historians and ethnologists are so wrong (but is it intended?).
    The fact that Lusitanian was (partly at least, and more than 50%) purely Iberian show that Latin originated near actual Portugal.
    Indic languages are a mix of paleolithic atlantic languages and Dravidian, and the linguistics clearly prove it.
    Guess which family is the closest to Dravidian in the whole world? Well that is Iberian.
    Another thing about BB, and the Basque language ;
    Gar - flame
    Gari - wheat
    Garagar - barley
    Gargardo - beer (< garagar-ardo "wine of barley")

    Now look at armenian and you'll see the great lie about IE (isn't armenian its most divergent branch?)
    Bots - flame
    Tsvoren - wheat
    Gari - barley
    Garejur - beer (<gari-jur "water of barley")

    The funny part about it is that armenian people spread the lie that basque originate in their country.
    Saddly there is no mount Ararat, only Aralar in Biscaye (a little more logical no for Noah to arrive on a coastal country?).
    Everything they tell you is a BIG LIE.

  25. #50
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    Quote Originally Posted by Lambersky View Post
    Maybe you're not able to read, but I never said Basque was IE, only that proto-Basque and proto-IE were obviously related.
    I don't need to read those papers, as my level of comprehension is superior than those authors.
    Here are few examples for beginners, but after this do not ask me again, because none of you have the level of understanding which is required (not even the basis) :
    1 - THE VERB "TO BE"
    Euskara - Izan
    Englisc - weosan, wesan, wosa, ˈwe.sɑn, ˈwe.zɑn
    Old High German - Wesan (yes Englisc is older, everything you were told is a lie)
    2 - THE VERB "TO LIVE"
    Euskara - Bizi
    Croatian - Biti
    3 - "YOU ARE"
    Euskara - Zu zara
    English - Thou are
    4 - "A MAN"
    Euskara - Gizonsembea
    Old Lituanian - Žmuõ
    Old Norse - Gumi
    Norwegian - Gume
    Old Saxon/Old high German - Gumo
    Gothic/Englisc - Guma
    5 - "A DEER"
    Euskara - Oreinia
    Ols Norse - Hreinn
    6 - "THE POWER"
    Euskara - Erreginia
    Old Norse - Ragna
    Latin - Regina
    6 - "THE THUNDER"
    Euskara - Trumoia
    Englisc - ðunor
    Old Norse - Thôrr
    7 - "GOD" (BY NAME)
    Euskara - Ortzi
    Old Norse - ὀs, āss
    8 - "GOD" (DESIGNATION)
    Euskara - JaunGoikoa
    Old Norse - Guð, kuþ, goð, ˈɡoð
    9 - "THE WHEEL"
    Euskara -GurPilia
    Goidelic - Cuibhle
    Old Norse - Hvel
    10 - "TO SEE"
    Euskara - Ikusmiratu/Ikusi
    Old Norse - Sy~a
    Englisc - SieƟ
    11 - "THE EAGLE"
    Euskara - Arranioa
    Old Norse - Ari
    12 - "AND"
    Euskara - Eta
    Old Norse - eða
    13 - "ALL"
    Euskara - Osoa/Oroa
    Old Norse - ǫll
    14 - "THE AUROCH"
    Euskara - Uroa
    Old Norse/German - Ur
    15 - "THE EAR"
    Euskara - Belarria
    Old Norse - ɛira/eyra
    16 - NEGATION
    Euskara - Ezezkeria/ezerketa
    Old Norse - Eigi, ekki, ei
    17 - "THE EYE"
    Euskara - Begirra/leihioa
    Old Norse - auẋa
    18 - "THE BEAN"
    Euskara - babarruna
    Old Norse - baun
    Old Prussian - babo
    19 - "THE ICE"
    Euskara - Izotza
    Old Norse - Iz

    I don't believe in such thing as isolates.

    this heaping or piling of phonetically heterogenous an false "cognates" or "affiliated words" will never prove anything; for someones I even don't see any possible link - the rare possibilities may be just hazard. Let's be serious: the lexicon proximity is inexistant, today and in "pre-proto-past" all the way.

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