Estimates from DNA data suggest a rapid expansion and development of R1a-Z93 almost as soon as it arrived in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea around 2,400 BC, with multiple Russian and Middle Eastern branches forming within a few hundred years. By around 1,500 BC, some of its Middle Eastern branches also appear to have spread Eastwards into South Central Asia, establishing a significant Southern presence for it over a vast area from the South Eastern Mediterranean to Arabia to India.

What were the reasons for its success over a large area that was already heavily populated with relatively advanced civilisations?