Eupedia Forums
Site NavigationEupedia Top > Eupedia Forum & Japan Forum
Results 1 to 7 of 7

Thread: Gene flow in Bronze Age Northern Italy through strontium and oxygen isotopes"

  1. #1
    Advisor Angela's Avatar
    Join Date
    02-01-11
    Posts
    19,159


    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: USA - New York



    3 members found this post helpful.

    Gene flow in Bronze Age Northern Italy through strontium and oxygen isotopes"

    See: Claudio Cavazzuti et al:
    "
    Flows of people in villages and large centres in Bronze Age Italy through strontium and oxygen isotopes"
    https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209693

    "This study investigates to what extent Bronze Age societies in Northern Italy were permeable accepting and integrating non-local individuals, as well as importing a wide range of raw materials, commodities, and ideas from networks spanning continental Europe and the Mediterranean.
    During the second millennium BC, the communities of Northern Italy engaged in a progressive stabilization of settlements, culminating in the large polities of the end of the Middle/beginning of the Late Bronze Age pivoted around large defended centres (the Terramare). Although a wide range of exotic archaeological materials indicates that the inhabitants of the Po plain increasingly took part in the networks of Continental European and the Eastern Mediterranean, we should not overlook the fact that the dynamics of interaction were also extremely active on local and regional levels.

    Mobility patterns have been explored for three key-sites, spanning the Early to Late Bronze Age (1900–1100 BC), namely Sant’Eurosia, Casinalbo and Fondo Paviani, through strontium and oxygen isotope analysis on a large sample size (more than 100 individuals). The results, integrated with osteological and archaeological data, document for the first time in this area that movements of people occurred mostly within a territorial radius of 50 km, but also that larger nodes in the settlement system (such as Fondo Paviani) included individuals from more distant areas. This suggests that, from a demographic perspective, the process towards a more complex socio-political system in Bronze Age Northern Italy was triggered by a largely, but not completely, internal process, stemming from the dynamics of intra-polity networks and local/regional power relationships."

    The rise and the fall of the Terramare culture is consequently understood as closely tied to the process that involved the transformation of village communities in Northern Italy into a more articulated network based on ‘nodes’ and dependent communities, a political model possibly inspired by eastern precedents, but largely independent and locally interpreted, to judge by the isotopic evidence presented below.

    Another distinctive feature of the Terramare culture is the widespread adoption of the ‘urnfield’ model as a funerary custom, probably around 1450 cal. BC, significantly earlier than the establishment of the ‘Urnenfelderkultur’ in other areas of Italy, Europe and the Mediterranean [12]. The transition from flat inhumation burial to cremation and internment in urns has been interpreted by archaeologists as reflecting a population shift due to the migration of ‘Italici incineratori’ (‘cremating Italians’) to Northern Italy from the Alpine/Danube areas [1316]. Although this hypothesis has fallen out-of-fashion, individual and population mobility studies remain a fertile ground of research to test both old and new theories."

    It seemed to me they came to the broad conclusion that there was a lot of movement within northern Italy for this long period, but nothing from further abroad. However, for the northern most settlement near Verona that may not be completely accurate.



    Near Parma: "Sant’Eurosia, case ‘a)’ (Fig 14). In spite of the evidence of its collective mobility, the community persisted in burying their dead in the same place. No significant differences can be observed between the mobility patterns of males and females, whose origin seems largely identifiable at the site and in the hinterland area, although a small number of males might have come from north of the Po River, or from the upper Taro river Valley (geolithological zone 3). The carbon isotopes on apatite nonetheless indicates that some kind of change occurred between the social segment buried under the tumuli (generally older) and the burial group in the (generally more recent) flat graves. This discrepancy between the two groups could be related to a shift in the settlement location or of the fields where food was produced, a change in the diet/subsistence strategy, a change in climatic conditions, or a combination of factors."

    Near Modena: "The Middle and Recent Bronze Age urnfield of the terramara at Casinalbo shows a different pattern of mobility. The concentration of males in a very narrow 87Sr/86Sr interval and the dispersion of females appears to suggest a high degree of patrilocality and the occurrence of exogamic practices within the immediate and/or the broader hinterland radius (Fig 14, Casinalbo case ‘c)’), a tendency that has been observed in other European Bronze Age studies, combining isotopes and mtDNA [124]. Interestingly, adult females with remoter origins are normally also those with richer grave goods."

    "Only one adult male seems to have an origin in the broader hinterland, and one from an even further radius. The Casinalbo community therefore appears well-established in the local territory, with marriage customs (and perhaps fosterage practices) probably crucial for the creation and maintenance of socio-political relationships/alliances with the neighbouring communities. Considering that the site and area in general have been deeply investigated from an archaeological point of view, further isotopic investigations could produce an extremely refined picture of the dynamics of mobility on the local scale."

    Near Verona:
    "From the Middle and Late Bronze Age biritual cemetery at Scalvinetto (terramara at Fondo Paviani) we are able to reconstruct a much more articulated framework (Fig 14, Scalvinetto/Fondo Paviani case ‘e’). Our results, considering both strontium and oxygen isotope composition on inhumations and only strontium on cremations, suggest that 28 out of 60 individuals (47%) are not indigenous. Remarkably high 87Sr/86Sr values (>0.7110) are documented exclusively among inhumations. Regarding cremations, 19 individuals are compatible with the site baseline, 6 with the 5–20 km and 20–50 km baselines, and 5 (mostly females) possibly with further distances, though not the Alpine areas (geolithological zone 10). Concerning inhumations, the analysis of δ18O has allowed us to discriminate a considerable number of non-indigenous persons among those individuals that fall in the 5 km 87Sr/86Sr baseline. This also means that the number of outsiders could have been underestimated among the cremations. Among the inhumations, 17 individuals have been identified as non-indigenous. According to the 87Sr/86Sr results, the non-indigenous individuals show a wide spectrum of different provenances, basically from all the geolithological zones. These data reinforce the idea that the terramara at Fondo Paviani, as a consequence of its status as a ‘central place’, attracted a large number of people from different places, both from the hinterland (intra-polity networks) and from a broader radius (inter-polity networks). The occurrence of locally produced Apennine, Aegean-Mycenaean and Levantine-Cypriot Bichrome style ceramics might reflect the presence of foreign potters [125,126], although Jung has considered the possibility that Italian artisans moved (or were sent) to Greece to acquire the know-how from the local ceramic specialists and came back following an apprenticeship [127,128].

    Similarly to Casinalbo, females appear to have been highly mobile, and may come from the immediate or broader hinterland, as well as further distances, especially from warmer places, to judge by the cluster with δ18O greater than 26‰. In contrast to Casinalbo, males are equally mobile. The simplest explanation seems to lie again in marriage practices, but other options cannot be discounted. Subadults, with only one exception, all seem indigenous, confirming that the analysis of younger individuals may be used to strengthen the ‘local’ isotopic signatures.
    δ13C data on the enamel bioapatite have highlighted the presence of a group of individuals (as well as one animal), characterized by a substantial component of C4 plants (millet) in the diet at the age of 3–8 years of age, when the analysed teeth were forming, and another group with a C3 plant oriented regime. Further stable isotope analysis on bone collagen, and possibly on M3 apatite, as well as radiocarbon dates, might contribute to clarify the times and modes of millet introduction among the terramare [65], and/or about the phase of life when millet became an essential part of people’s diet.


    " At the current stage of the research, however, we may argue that in the biritual cemetery of Scalvinetto movements of people occurred more frequently and over a broader radius among those inhumed rather than cremated. However, more mobility studies are needed for a better understanding of the transition from the practice of inhumation to the ‘urnfield model’ around the 15th century BC in Northern Italy."



    There's also this:
    "Strontium isotope baselines. The northern and southern parts of the Po river valley show a different amplitude of bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr baselines. In the southern district, where Sant’Eurosia and Casinalbo are located, the range is significantly narrower both in the plain and in the mountains. Therefore, human mobility within that area and across short distances is harder to retrace, while movements over a broader radius, especially from the northern side of the plain, are more easily identifiable. In the north, where Scalvinetto/Fondo Paviani is situated, the range of 87Sr/86Sr baselines is much broader, as consequence of the local and regional variety of geolithological units and hydrogeological basins forming the alluvial plain. For these reasons, the trajectories of individual human movements within the northern basin of the Po valley can be suggested with greater precision, although, for the same reasons, we must be aware of the risk of identifying as people from Northern Italy individuals from other, more distant, areas with the same isotopic signature."

    So, my takeaway: BRING US THE ANCIENT DNA.


    Non si fa il proprio dovere perchè qualcuno ci dica grazie, lo si fa per principio, per se stessi, per la propria dignità. Oriana Fallaci

  2. #2
    Regular Member Sile's Avatar
    Join Date
    04-09-11
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    5,117

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1a2 -Z19945..Jura
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H95a1 ..Pannoni

    Ethnic group
    North Alpine Italian
    Country: Australia



    1 members found this post helpful.
    có che un pòpoło no 'l defende pi ła só łéngua el xe prónto par èser s'ciavo

    when a people no longer dares to defend its language it is ripe for slavery.

  3. #3
    Advisor Angela's Avatar
    Join Date
    02-01-11
    Posts
    19,159


    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: USA - New York



    2 members found this post helpful.
    So, as he said in the paper, more mobility at the site north of the Po, which is from a later time period, and a trading center, but mainly by women, with only one male coming from further afield. Yet, the burial rites changed to cremation.

    Interestingly, in the paper they merely said that women came from somewhere warmer. Here, he mentions not only southern Italy, but Greece, doubtless because of the presence of pottery from Greece. I think that might be a little too speculative. Pots can be just pots. Also, how would that fit with the change in burial rites?

    However, if he's correct, that might tie in with the Boattini papers showing a more "southeast" cast to the dna along the eastern coast of Italy. As I've speculated for a long time, a lot of the "Greek" like autosomal admixture in certain areas of Italy might have arrived during the Bronze Age.

    The material on Frattesina is new. As a whole, there's less mobility as compared to the earlier sites near Verona. However, there are two elite warriors who are not local. Their provenance, however, is not some exotic locale but the sites near Verona. Furthermore, they can exclude formative years in Greece, the Aegean or the Levant. More than that I don't know if we'll ever get, because these are cremations.

    One caveat for all of it: this kind of analysis covers only the lifetime of the person. Is it possible that during the Bronze Age there was some movement from north of the Alps into Italy which has not been captured through this analysis of the Terramare?

  4. #4
    Moderator
    Join Date
    21-10-16
    Posts
    2,237


    Ethnic group
    Multiracial Brazilian
    Country: Brazil



    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post

    So, my takeaway: BRING US THE ANCIENT DNA.
    And my doubt is: how likely is it that we'll ever get a reasonable and really representative (i.e. not outsiders or newly arrived migrants) amount of aDNA samples from peoples like the Terramare, the Etruscans or the Hittites, who cremated their dead? If they find individuals from the same place and period, can they really make sure they were representative of the majority ethnicity there? I find it all a bit puzzling...

    Or perhaps, if the results of this study point out to the truth of a more local origin of the Terramare, is it possible that they were the ancestors of the Etruscans, therefore a non-IE people, and the urnfield tradition spread to Alpine/Danubian IE peoples through cultural diffusion and perhaps some social prestige associated with the "southern", more sophisticated culture?

  5. #5
    Advisor Angela's Avatar
    Join Date
    02-01-11
    Posts
    19,159


    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: USA - New York



    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Ygorcs View Post
    And my doubt is: how likely is it that we'll ever get a reasonable and really representative (i.e. not outsiders or newly arrived migrants) amount of aDNA samples from peoples like the Terramare, the Etruscans or the Hittites, who cremated their dead? If they find individuals from the same place and period, can they really make sure they were representative of the majority ethnicity there? I find it all a bit puzzling...

    Or perhaps, if the results of this study point out to the truth of a more local origin of the Terramare, is it possible that they were the ancestors of the Etruscans, therefore a non-IE people, and the urnfield tradition spread to Alpine/Danubian IE peoples through cultural diffusion and perhaps some social prestige associated with the "southern", more sophisticated culture?
    Well, cremation was only introduced in later Terramare. At the most recent one near Verona half the samples were still inhumations. That means they have hundreds of Terramare samples from the three sites which could give ancient dna, if only someone would do it. Of course, I'd want to know if the cremation indicates new people, but at least we have possible data from before cremation.

    Villanova presents problems because again cremation was heavily practiced.

    The really disappointing one is Frattesina, which is the first to show "Chieftain" burials. The analysis shows they were raised in Italy, but only that. This is the limitation of strontium and oxygen analysis. I don't know if there was some piece of bone left from the cremations which could be analyzed to give us actual dna.

    With the Etruscans, again, some remains are inhumations and some are cremations. There may not be tons of inhumation samples, but there are some. So we might get some information, but of course it would be better to have a lot of samples to determine you don't just have an outlier. The problem is that once you test a bone it's gone, and you might have nothing to test with more updated methods, so I suppose they have to be very judicious. One thing with the Etruscans is that all the remains are from elite burials so even if they have inhumation remains, they're not going to tell you anything about the mass of the people.

    I think these issues point out why it hasn't been as easy as people think it should have been to get adna from Italy.

    Does anyone remember that study which supposedly was able to get adna from material on the floor of a burial chamber? Perhaps in the future they could work with cremated remains?

  6. #6
    Regular Member
    Join Date
    18-08-15
    Posts
    1,499

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R-L2
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c5a

    Ethnic group
    Swiss
    Country: Switzerland



    Quote Originally Posted by Ygorcs View Post
    And my doubt is: how likely is it that we'll ever get a reasonable and really representative (i.e. not outsiders or newly arrived migrants) amount of aDNA samples from peoples like the Terramare, the Etruscans or the Hittites, who cremated their dead? If they find individuals from the same place and period, can they really make sure they were representative of the majority ethnicity there? I find it all a bit puzzling...

    Or perhaps, if the results of this study point out to the truth of a more local origin of the Terramare, is it possible that they were the ancestors of the Etruscans, therefore a non-IE people, and the urnfield tradition spread to Alpine/Danubian IE peoples through cultural diffusion and perhaps some social prestige associated with the "southern", more sophisticated culture?
    What i doubt even more than the remains of those people, is that they seemed to be highly admixed people culturally and probably genetically too. Hittites and Etruscans if ever get sampled might show genetic signature that we originally would not have linked with what we know of their cultural package. Bronze Age Era seems to be a time were different kind of peoples, with different languages can have the same cultural package and would be highly admixed with local chieftains groups. Weren't the Etruscans originally considered as the true Villanovans? And that the Terramare link was made because Terramare built Lacustrian villages and that Etruscans had a huge knowledge of how to use water and built canals, sewers? It's likely that Italo-Celtic people not differentiated ( or not that much ) were localised in Venetia or even slightly more Alpine and had huge commercial relationship with local Etruscans-related, then over the years they take over the locals. How? I think Villanova had Iron a little bit earlier than Hallstatt, so it's possible that Venetian-Danubian peoples related with Proto-Italics got Iron from Eastern Europe or Anatolia and could overrun the locals by becoming the local elits.

  7. #7
    Regular Member Sile's Avatar
    Join Date
    04-09-11
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    5,117

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1a2 -Z19945..Jura
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H95a1 ..Pannoni

    Ethnic group
    North Alpine Italian
    Country: Australia



    Quote Originally Posted by halfalp View Post
    What i doubt even more than the remains of those people, is that they seemed to be highly admixed people culturally and probably genetically too. Hittites and Etruscans if ever get sampled might show genetic signature that we originally would not have linked with what we know of their cultural package. Bronze Age Era seems to be a time were different kind of peoples, with different languages can have the same cultural package and would be highly admixed with local chieftains groups. Weren't the Etruscans originally considered as the true Villanovans? And that the Terramare link was made because Terramare built Lacustrian villages and that Etruscans had a huge knowledge of how to use water and built canals, sewers? It's likely that Italo-Celtic people not differentiated ( or not that much ) were localised in Venetia or even slightly more Alpine and had huge commercial relationship with local Etruscans-related, then over the years they take over the locals. How? I think Villanova had Iron a little bit earlier than Hallstatt, so it's possible that Venetian-Danubian peoples related with Proto-Italics got Iron from Eastern Europe or Anatolia and could overrun the locals by becoming the local elits.

    .
    I think we need to see cultures as part of ethnicity in those times
    ttake the green plus yellow ...who are the indigenous Euganei people, there tribes being camuni, trumplini ...stoeni in the magre .....veneti where Euganei pre 1150BC .
    the conclusion for myself, is that North East Italy was dominated by the Euganei who had danubian access.......Liguri in the north west Italy who originally went from rhone river france to la Spezia in italy and then the non IE etruscan.......keep in mind that I recently post that the Umbrian cam via south Germany through modern lombardy ( gruppo vale del reno )
    Last edited by Sile; 22-01-19 at 19:02.

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •