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Thread: Two Iberia Papers with article.

  1. #251
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    ^^But if he says it continuously. He has published it and always mentions it. It has never been hidden or ignored or hidden or hidden, I have never seen it.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by halfalp View Post
    You didn't see his previous posts, he has a black skin bias, but he dont quite tell it. I'm slightly aware of France history, thank you.
    You are mistaken. I have no obsession with blackness. The truth is that the old European nobility never had much sympathy for the sunburned skin and the calloused hands of the peasants. In China of nowadays the same thing happens. People living in cities do not like to expose themselves to the sun because they do not want to look like "uneducated" peasants with extremely tanned skin. Even to go to the beach or to the pool they cover themselves totally with clothes similar to the clothes used by divers.
    I do not see where you could see some racial bias in my previous post.
    The French nobility before the French revolution was completely alienated, to the point that a court servant told Marie-Antoinette that the people were revolted because they had no bread to eat and she replied frivolously: "If there is no bread, let them eat brioches”.

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    Quote Originally Posted by halfalp View Post
    You didn't see his previous posts, he has a black skin bias, but he dont quite tell it. I'm slightly aware of France history, thank you.
    That's absurd. He's the furthest thing from a racist.


    Non si fa il proprio dovere perchè qualcuno ci dica grazie, lo si fa per principio, per se stessi, per la propria dignità. Oriana Fallaci

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    L618
    This map makes my journey. Arrives in Romania. With whom did you reach the Iberian peninsula?
    Last edited by Carlos; 24-03-19 at 03:07.

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    THE NEW YORK TIMES

    A History of the Iberian Peninsula, as Told by Its Skeletons

    With an analysis of DNA from nearly 300 fossilized remains, scientists are peering into human prehistory in the region

    By Carl Zimmer
    March 14, 2019

    For thousands of years, the Iberian Peninsula — home now to Spain and Portugal — has served as a crossroads.
    Phoenicians from the Near East built trading ports there 3,000 years ago, and Romans conquered the region around 200 B.C. Muslim armies sailed from North Africa and took control of Iberia in the 8th century A.D. Some three centuries later, they began losing territory to Christian states.
    Along with historical records and archaeological digs, researchers now have a new lens on Iberia’s past: DNA preserved in the region’s ancient skeletons. Archaeologists and geneticists are extracting genetic material spanning not just Iberia’s written history but its prehistory, too.
    “We wanted to bridge the ancient populations and the modern populations,” said Iñigo Olalde, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School. Dr. Olalde is the lead author of a paper published on Thursday in Science that analyzes the DNA of 271 ancient Iberians.

    In recent years, scientists have created similar chronologies for entire continents, based on hundreds of samples of ancient DNA. Now researchers are starting to narrow their focus to smaller regions.
    With a total of 419 ancient human genomes obtained by various laboratories, Iberia offers a rich trove. Scientists have recovered only 174 ancient genomes in Britain, and just eight in Japan.

    This dense record shows that Iberia’s genetic profile changed markedly in response to major events in history, such as the Roman conquest. But researchers have also uncovered evidence of migrations that were previously unknown. Iberia, it now seems, was a crossroads long before recorded history, as far back as the last ice age.

    The oldest known human DNA in Iberia comes from a 19,000-year-old skeleton found in 2010 in a cave called El Mirón, in northern Spain. The skeleton belonged to a woman, a member of a band of Ice Age hunter-gatherers.
    People in Iberia continued to live as hunter-gatherers for thousands of years after that, long after the end of the Ice Age. Dr. Olalde and his colleagues analyzed DNA from four additional hunter-gatherers, while a separate team, based at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, extracted DNA from 10 more.

    Both teams obtained the same striking result: Iberian hunter-gatherers had a remarkable mix of genes, showing that they descended from two profoundly distinct groups of early European hunter-gatherers.

    One of these groups can be traced as far back as 35,000 years, thanks to a skeleton discovered at a site in Belgium called Goyet. The Goyet-related people spread across Europe, only to be replaced on much of the continent near the end of the Ice Age by a genetically distinct population.
    The earliest sign of the second group appears 14,000 years ago, known to researchers by DNA in a skeleton at an Italian site called Villabruna.
    But in Iberia, the new studies find, the Goyet and Villabruna people coexisted. Hunter-gatherers across the peninsula had a mixture of ancestry from the two peoples.
    “This is quite amazing, because it’s not happening in other areas,” said Vanessa Villalba-Mouco, the lead author of the Max Planck study, published in Current Biology.

    Ms. Villalba-Mouco speculated that the geography of Iberia — located in a far corner of Europe — may have allowed the Goyet people to endure there after they disappeared elsewhere. “Maybe nobody was bothering these hunter-gatherers,” she said.
    But whatever solitude Iberia might have offered came to an end about 7,500 years ago, when new people arrived with crops and livestock. These first farmers, originally from Anatolia, brought with them a distinctive genetic signature.


    After their arrival, the genetic makeup of Iberians changed dramatically. Ninety percent of the DNA from the later skeletons derives from the Anatolian farmers; 10 percent comes from the hunter-gatherers.
    But this shift was not a simple story of an older population replaced by a newer one. Starting about 6,000 years ago, Dr. Olalde and his colleagues found, hunter-gatherer ancestry in Iberian farmers actually increased to 20 percent.
    [Like the Science Times page on Facebook. | Sign up for the Science Times newsletter.]

    It’s possible that hunter-gatherers endured beyond the advent of farming. They may have taken up farming as well, and perhaps later the two cultures merged.

    For centuries afterward, the researchers found, there was little change in the genetic profile of Iberians. But there are hints of a few remarkable migrations.
    A skeleton from an elaborate grave in central Spain about 4,400 years old belonged to a man whose ancestry was 100 percent North African.
    “That’s crazy,” said David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School and a co-author of the paper in Science. “We double-checked it because it was so weird.”

    Another striking result emerged when the researchers studied the DNA from a 3,500-year-old woman. They concluded she had a North African grandparent.
    These findings suggest that people were moving into Iberia from Africa more than 3,000 years before the rise of the Roman Empire. “These are cosmopolitan places,” Dr. Reich said.
    About 4,500 years ago, still another wave of people arrived, profoundly altering the makeup of Iberia.

    A few centuries earlier, nomads from the steppes of what is now Russia turned up in Eastern Europe with horses and wagons. They spread across the continent, giving up nomadic life and intermarrying with European farmers.
    When they finally reached Iberia, these people spread out far and wide. “They really have an impact on the whole peninsula,” said Dr. Olalde.
    But skeletal DNA from that period is striking and puzzling. Over all, Bronze Age Iberians traced 40 percent of their ancestry to the newcomers.
    DNA from the men, however, all traced back to the steppes. The Y chromosomes from the male farmers disappeared from the gene pool.
    To archaeologists, the shift is a puzzle.

    “I cannot say what it is,” said Roberto Risch, an archaeologist at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, who was not involved in the new studies. But he ruled out wars or massacres as the cause. “It’s not a particularly violent time,” he said.

    Instead, Dr. Risch suspects “a political process” is the explanation. In their archaeological digs, Dr. Risch and his colleagues have found that Iberian farmers originally lived in egalitarian societies, storing their wealth together and burying their dead in group graves.
    But over several centuries, palaces and fortresses began to rise, and power became concentrated in the hands of a few. Dr. Risch speculated that the cultural shift had something to do with the genetic shift found by Dr. Olalde and his colleagues.
    The Bronze Age in Iberia was followed by the Iron Age about 2,800 years ago. In skeletons from this period, Dr. Olalde and his colleagues found clues of more arrivals.

    Iron Age Iberians could trace some of their ancestry to new waves of people arriving from northern and Central Europe, possibly marking the rise of so-called Celtiberian culture on the peninsula.
    In addition, the scientists found a growing amount of North African ancestry in skeletons from the Iron Age. That may reflect trade around the Mediterranean, which brought North Africans to Iberian towns, where they settled down.

    North African ancestry increased in Iberia even more after Romans took control. Now the peninsula was part of an empire that thrived on widespread trade. At the same time, people from southern Europe and the Near East also began leaving an imprint.
    This shift in ancestry could explain one of the biggest mysteries in Iberian history. Researchers have long puzzled over the distinctive culture of the Basque region in northern Spain.

    The Basque speak a language that is unrelated to other European tongues. Some researchers have speculated that they descended from a population that had been distinct since the Bronze Age or earlier.

    Genetically, at least, that doesn’t seem to be the case. Before the Roman era, the Basque had DNA that was indistinguishable from that of other Iron Age Iberians. But Roman genes did not flow into Basque Country.
    After the fall of Rome, ancient DNA in Iberia reflects its medieval history. Skeletons from the Muslim era show growing ancestry from both North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa.

    Which brings us, just a millennium later, to the present. In February, Clare Bycroft of the Wellcome Trust Center for Human Genetics at the University of Oxford and her colleagues published a study of the DNA of 1,413 people in Spain.
    The team was able to identify pieces of North African DNA in people across Spain. The researchers estimated that the subjects’ North African ancestors lived about 800 years ago, during Muslim rule.
    The researchers were also able to group Spaniards into five genetic clusters. On a map, these groups form five strips running north to south. Those strips line up neatly with history.

    At the height of the Muslim rule, a few small Christian states survived on the northern coast of Spain. As Muslims lost power, those states expanded their southern borders, starting roughly 900 years ago.
    Up until now, wide swaths of time typically separated genetic studies of living people and those of ancient DNA. But now, in places like Iberia, the gaps are being filled in, creating an unbroken genetic chronology.
    “The two worlds are starting to merge,” said Dr. Bycroft.

    A version of this article appears in print on March 19, 2019, on Page D5 of the New York edition with the headline: Stories of Migrant Peoples, Written in DNA. Order Reprints | Today’s Paper | Subscribe

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    ^^

    The New York Time for issues of Spain both past and present is very imprecise and inaccurate and does not usually contrast the news.


    In current affairs usually screw up because you have to imagine what he will do in past issues.


    The last place we have to resort to the Iberians to know ourselves is the New York Time.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Carlos View Post
    ^^

    The New York Time for issues of Spain both past and present is very imprecise and inaccurate and does not usually contrast the news.


    In current affairs usually screw up because you have to imagine what he will do in past issues.


    The last place we have to resort to the Iberians to know ourselves is the New York Time.
    ^^ Hi Carlos. Great hug my beloved friend :)

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    Have Reich said the following " A few centuries earlier, nomads from the steppes of what is now Russia turned up in Eastern Europe with horses and wagons. They spread across the continent, giving up nomadic life and intermarrying with European farmers. " Or is it the NYT Author's projection?

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    Quote Originally Posted by halfalp View Post
    Have Reich said the following " A few centuries earlier, nomads from the steppes of what is now Russia turned up in Eastern Europe with horses and wagons. They spread across the continent, giving up nomadic life and intermarrying with European farmers. " Or is it the NYT Author's projection?
    The part of the text that you emphasized and highlighted is linked to the following article by Carl Zimmer (2015):


    DNA Deciphers Roots of Modern Europeans

    For centuries, archaeologists have reconstructed the early history of Europe by digging up ancient settlements and examining the items that their inhabitants left behind. More recently, researchers have been scrutinizing something even more revealing than pots, chariots and swords: DNA.
    On Wednesday in the journal Nature, two teams of scientists — one based at the University of Copenhagen and one based at Harvard University — presented the largest studies to date of ancient European DNA, extracted from 170 skeletons found in countries from Spain to Russia. Both studies indicate that today’s Europeans descend from three groups who moved into Europe at different stages of history.
    The first were hunter-gatherers who arrived some 45,000 years ago in Europe. Then came farmers who arrived from the Near East about 8,000 years ago.
    Finally, a group of nomadic sheepherders from western Russia called the Yamnaya arrived about 4,500 years ago. The authors of the new studies also suggest that the Yamnaya language may have given rise to many of the languages spoken in Europe today.


    Ron Pinhasi, an archaeologist at University College Dublin who was not involved in either study, said that the new studies were “a major game-changer. To me, it marks a new phase in ancient DNA research.”
    The two teams worked independently, studying different skeletons and using different methods to analyze their DNA.


    The Harvard team collected DNA from 69 human remains dating back 8,000 years and cataloged the genetic variations at almost 400,000 points. The Copenhagen team collected DNA from 101 skeletons dating back about 5,400 years and sequenced the entire genomes.
    Both teams also compared the newly sequenced DNA to genes retrieved from other ancient Europeans and Asians, and to living humans.


    Until about 9,000 years ago, Europe was home to a genetically distinct population of hunter-gatherers, the researchers found. Then, 9,000 to 7,000 years ago, the genetic profiles of the inhabitants in some parts of Europe abruptly changed, acquiring DNA from Near Eastern populations.


    Archaeologists have long known that farming practices spread into Europe at the time from Turkey. But the new evidence shows that it wasn’t just the ideas that spread — the farmers did, too.





    The hunter-gatherers didn’t disappear, however. They managed to survive in pockets across Europe between the farming communities.


    “It’s an amazing cultural process,” said David Reich, a geneticist at Harvard Medical School who led the university’s team. “You have groups which are as genetically distinct as Europeans and East Asians. And they’re living side by side for thousands of years.”
    From 7,000 to 5,000 years ago, however, hunter-gatherer DNA began turning up in the genes of European farmers. “There’s a breakdown of these cultural barriers, and they mix,” Dr. Reich said.
    About 4,500 years ago, the final piece of Europe’s genetic puzzle fell into place. A new infusion of DNA arrived — one that is still very common in living Europeans, especially in central and northern Europe.
    The closest match to this new DNA, both teams of scientists found, comes from skeletons found in Yamnaya graves in western Russia and Ukraine.



    Archaeologists have long been fascinated by the Yamnaya, who left behind artifacts on the steppes of western Russia and Ukraine dating from 5,300 to 4,600 years ago. The Yamnaya used horses to manage huge herds of sheep, and followed their livestock across the steppes with wagons full of food and water.
    It was an immensely successful way of life, allowing the Yamnaya to build huge funeral mounds for their dead, which they filled with jewelry, weapons and even entire chariots.
    David W. Anthony, an archaeologist at Hartwick College and an author of the Harvard study, said it was likely that the expansion of Yamnaya into Europe was relatively peaceful. “It wasn’t Attila the Hun coming in and killing everybody,” he said.
    Instead, Dr. Anthony said he thought the most likely scenario was that the Yamnaya “entered into some kind of stable opposition” with the resident Europeans that lasted for a few centuries. But then, gradually, the barriers between the cultures eroded.


    The Copenhagen team’s study suggests that the Yamnaya didn’t just expand west into Europe, however. The scientists examined DNA from 4,700-year-old skeletons from a Siberian culture called the Afanasievo. It turns out that they inherited Yamnaya DNA, too.
    Dr. Anthony said he was surprised by the possibility that Yamnaya pushed out over a range of about 4,000 miles. “I myself have a hard time wrapping my head around explanations for that,” he said.

    The two studies also add new fuel to a debate about how languages spread across Europe and Asia. Most European tongues belong to the Indo-European family, which also includes languages in southern and Central Asia.


    For decades, linguists have debated how Indo-European got to Europe. Some favor the idea that the original farmers brought Indo-European into Europe from Turkey. Others think the language came from the Russian steppes thousands of years later.
    The new genetic results won’t settle the debate, said Eske Willerslev, an evolutionary biologist at Copenhagen University who led the Danish team. But he did say the results were consistent with the idea that the Yamnaya brought Indo-European from the steppes to Europe.
    The eastward expansion of Yamnaya, evident in the genetic findings, also supports the theory, Dr. Willerslev said. Linguists have long puzzled over an Indo-European language once spoken in western China called Tocharian. It is known only from 1,200-year-old manuscripts discovered in ancient desert towns. It is possible that Tocharian was a vestige of the eastern spread of the Yamnaya.
    “We can just say that the expansion fits very well with the geographical spread of the Indo-European language,” said Dr. Willerslev.


    Paul Heggarty, a linguist at the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology, said that the new studies were important but still too limited to settle the debate over the origins of Indo-European. “I don’t think we’re there yet,” he said.
    Dr. Heggarty noted that the studies showed the arrival of Yamnaya in Central Europe about 4,500 years ago. But Greek is an Indo-European language, and the oldest evidence of writing in Europe shows that Greek had developed about 3,500 years ago. By then, it was distinct from other Indo-European languages in Southern Europe, like Latin.


    If the Yamnaya were the source of Indo-European languages, they would have had to have reached southern Europe soon after they had made it to Central Europe.
    Dr. Heggarty speculated instead that early European farmers, the second wave of immigrants, may have brought Indo-European to Europe from the Near East. Then, thousands of years later, the Yamnaya brought the language again to Central Europe.



    More ancient DNA could swing the balance of evidence in favor of one theory over the other, Dr. Heggarty said. A stronger case for a steppe origin of Indo-European might emerge, for example, if scientists discovered that Greeks around 4,500 years ago abruptly acquired Yamnaya DNA.
    “Let’s see whether they look like the steppe people or not,” he said.


    Correction: Jan. 13, 2016The Matter column on June 16, about two studies of ancient European DNA extracted from skeletons found in countries from Spain to Russia, misstated the age of the skeletons from which a team from the University of Copenhagen analyzed DNA. The 101 skeletons dated back about 5,400 years, not 3,400 years. This correction was delayed because the error was only recently pointed out to editors.



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