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Thread: Mytrueancestry.com

  1. #2201
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1a2 -Z19945
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H12a

    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: United States



    1 members found this post helpful.
    Edit ...
    deep dive map




    1. Hellenic Roman Monterotondo (165 AD) ..... 10.39 - R1548 -
    Top
    98
    % match vs all users


    2. Tuscan Medieval Cancelleria Basilica (1350 AD) ..... 10.88 - R1290 -
    Top
    98
    % match vs all users


    3. Imperial Rome Empire Via Paisiello (100 AD) ..... 11.19 - R114 -
    Top
    98
    % match vs all users


    4. Imperial Rome Centocelle (200 AD) ..... 11.31 - R49 -
    Top
    99
    % match vs all users


    5. Central Roman (590 AD) ..... 11.62 - SZ36 -
    Top
    97
    % match vs all users


    6. Tuscan Late Medieval Villa Magna Italy (1355 AD) ..... 11.81 - R56 -
    Top
    99
    % match vs all users


    7. Hellenic Roman (590 AD) ..... 11.97 - SZ40 - ?
    Top
    97
    % match vs all users


    8. Medieval Villa Magna Italy (1100 AD) ..... 11.97 - R58 -
    Top
    99
    % match vs all users


    9. Late Roman Empire Crypta Balbi (500 AD) ..... 12.03 - R107 -
    Top
    98
    % match vs all users


    10. Hellenic Roman Casale del Dolce (145 AD) ..... 12.04 - R123 -
    Top
    98
    % match vs all users


    11. Hellenic Roman Marcellino (400 AD) ..... 12.08 - R136-
    Top
    97
    % match vs all users


    12. Tuscan Medieval Villa Magna Italy (905 AD) ..... 12.3 - R60 -
    Top
    97
    % match vs all users


    13. Central Roman San Ercolano (100 AD) ..... 12.42 - R117 -
    Top
    98
    % match vs all users


    14. Central Roman (580 AD) ..... 12.48 - CL121 -
    Top
    97
    % match vs all users


    15. Hellenic Roman ANAS (200 AD) ..... 12.53 - R73 -
    Top
    97
    % match vs all users


    16. Central Roman / Mixed (590 AD) ..... 12.57 - SZ19 -
    Top
    98
    % match vs all users


    17. Torna Alta Andalusia (1550 AD) ..... 12.69 - I3808 -
    Top
    99
    % match vs all users


    18. Medieval Villa Magna Italy (1100 AD) ..... 12.87 - R65 -
    Top
    97
    % match vs all users


    19. Imperial Rome Centocelle (190 AD) ..... 13.01 - R50 -
    Top
    98
    % match vs all users


    20. Central Roman Mausoleo Augusto (500 AD) ..... 13.12- R30 -
    Top
    98
    % match vs all users
    Last edited by Salento; 19-01-20 at 14:13.

  2. #2202
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-V22>YF66572
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c5c1

    Ethnic group
    España
    Country: Spain



    2 members found this post helpful.
















  3. #2203
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b-DF27-FGC35133

    Country: Brazil



    3 members found this post helpful.
    I have excepcional and unique relationship with two individuals. I do not had see this. Cool.





  4. #2204
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Duarte I also have Illercavones. Who was going to tell me when the first time and the only one I was and the state in Lleida I was there on the stage of the Principal Theater of Lleida at the premiere of a movie where I had a small role, the truth is that via the people much prettier than layetanos. Cogotas already knew it and I knew it because I said long ago that a brother of my maternal grandfather carved some bulls in wood and they are nailed to Guisando's bulls. The iberian settlemen as the town where I live already gives me an attack, I have asked but they have not answered me yet.

  5. #2205
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b-BY3449
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H1e1a

    Ethnic group
    Italian and Iberian
    Country: Brazil



    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Duarte View Post
    I have excepcional and unique relationship with two individuals. I do not had see this. Cool.
    I have with one! NOICE!


  6. #2206
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1a-YP445
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c2b

    Ethnic group
    Celto-Germanic
    Country: USA - Rhode Island



    1 members found this post helpful.
    I am #1 match to Trumpington Meadows Bronze Age in England!

  7. #2207
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-V22>YF66572
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c5c1

    Ethnic group
    España
    Country: Spain



    Quote Originally Posted by Joey37 View Post
    I am #1 match to Trumpington Meadows Bronze Age in England!
    The old kits that I created from Iberia de El Argar, La loma del puerco, Cogotas, ilergetes, e.t.c selected Trumpington or what it means that Trumpington would get them.

  8. #2208
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    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: USA - New York



    3 members found this post helpful.
    Nice, guys. :)

    Only two show up and I don't completely understand either one, but I'll give it my best shot.





    I quite understand that in terms of modern populations, both of these ancient samples plot somewhere near Toscana. The question is "why"?

    We don't really know anything about the Crete Armenoi sample other than to say it's not from the Minoan period but rather later, and she's an outlier as far as Minoans are concerned.

    As for Scythian Moldova, why a "Tuscan" like individual is a member of an Iron Age pastoral group with origins on the steppes I don't know. Perhaps it's a similar situation to that in Iron Age Thrace, where there were "Tuscan like", broadly speaking, individuals, and also in late Empire/Early Medieval Antiquity, along with some more northwestern leaning Tuscans.

    Is it that there were still populations much like those on the northern part of the Italian peninsula spread all over Central Europe, the Balkans, and even into Moldova?

    From the paper...

    " Between 700 and 300 BCE, the Scythians, representing mobile pastoral nomads of a new militaristic type (1), dominated the Pontic-Kazakh steppe, occupying an area from the Altai to the Carpathian Mountains. Their decline began around 300 BCE and was caused by intensifying hostile relations with the Macedonians in the West and the invasion of the Sarmatians from the East. The Sarmatians and the Scythians are thought to have coexisted for a few centuries, but eventually, the former group prevailed (2), resulting in the Scythian downfall. The Sarmatians are believed to comprise a number of groups of similar nomadic background (8), and they became the politically most influential force within the eastern fringes of the Roman Empire at the time. Their decline (~400 CE) was associated with the attack of the Goths and the subsequent invasion of the Huns (8)."

    "
    The Scythians reported in this study, from the core Scythian territory in the North Pontic steppe (12), showed high intragroup diversity. In the PCA, they are positioned as four visually distinct groups compared to the gradient of present-day populations (Fig. 1C): (i) A group of three individuals (scy009, scy010, and scy303) showed genetic affinity to north European populations, hereafter referred to as a north European (NE) cluster. (ii) A group of four individuals (scy192, scy197, scy300, and scy305) showed genetic similarities to southern European populations, hereafter referred to as a south European (SE) cluster. (iii) A group of three individuals (scy006, scy011, and scy193) located between the genetic variation of Mordovians and populations of the North Caucasus, hereafter referred to as a steppe cluster (SC). In addition, one Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individual (kzb004), the most recent Cimmerian (cim357), and all Sarmatians fell within this cluster."

    "
    Scythians belonging to the SE cluster were closer to Hungarian Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals including Vatya and Maros. " This doesn't at all surprise me. Other studies have shown the tie between Italians (and I) and the Hungarian Bronze Age and Maros as well.

    "
    Some of the Scythians of the western Pontic-Caspian steppe lacked the SA and the East Eurasian components altogether and instead were more similar to a Montenegro Iron Age individual (3), possibly indicating assimilation of the earlier local groups by the Scythians. "

    https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/10/eaat4457



    Non si fa il proprio dovere perchè qualcuno ci dica grazie, lo si fa per principio, per se stessi, per la propria dignità. Oriana Fallaci

  9. #2209
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b-U152-Z56-BY3957
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c7a

    Ethnic group
    15/32 British, 5/32 German, 9/64 Irish, 1/8 Scots Gaelic, 5/64 French, 1/32 Welsh
    Country: USA - Washington



    1 members found this post helpful.
    Wouldnt it be cool if the Moderators made a map; based on MyTrueAncestry samples?
    It would be awesome to compare how accurate Tacitus and Livy was. : D
    Here is my Admixture.
    28% Celt

    72% Germanic

    22.5% Danish Viking
    14.5% Frankish
    8.5% Suebi
    8.5% Saxon
    12.5% Viking (6.5% Norseman, 6% Swedes)
    5.5% East Germanic (2% Visigoth, 2% Vandal, 1.5% Ostrogoth)

  10. #2210
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-V22>YF66572
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c5c1

    Ethnic group
    España
    Country: Spain



    Now that I am looking for my father in a simile like a stolen child and I will not stop until I get it. I know that everything is autosomal but it must also be there somewhere. So I had already noticed this sample and I will create the kit.



    I have seen something and it has several Deep Dive from Egypt and Cluana Ancona and more... I have to go to the blog all the files and then publish them here, web of work.

  11. #2211
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1B U106 L44
    MtDNA haplogroup
    A2

    Ethnic group
    Mixed , mostly Italian
    Country: Uruguay



    Mine....


    Hispano-Roman Taifa of Valencia
    1200 AD
    I12647
    mtDNA: H1ak1
    You are a top 96% match to this sample! This makes your relationship to this individual exceptional.
    Shared DNA: (Sample Quality: 33)
    3 SNP chains (min. 60 SNPs) / 17.72 cM
    Largest segment=158 SNPs / 7.59 cM

    Your raw DNA is 96% closer than other matching users

    Iberian Cordoba Caliphate
    1050 AD
    I7498
    mtDNA: H3a1Y-DNA: E1b1b1a1b1a
    You are a top 98% match to this sample! This makes your relationship to this individual exceptional.
    Shared DNA: (Sample Quality: 34)
    3 SNP chains (min. 60 SNPs) / 12.24 cM
    Largest segment=287 SNPs / 6.06 cM

    Your raw DNA is 98% closer than other matching users


    Ostrogoth Mix
    495 AD
    AEH_1
    mtDNA: H5 ?
    You are a top 97% match to this sample! This makes your relationship to this individual exceptional.
    Shared DNA: (Sample Quality: 8)
    2 SNP chains (min. 60 SNPs) / 4.9 cM
    Largest segment=376 SNPs / 2.81 cM

    Your raw DNA is 97% closer than other matching users

  12. #2212
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-V22>YF66572
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c5c1

    Ethnic group
    España
    Country: Spain



    1 members found this post helpful.


    1. Spanish_Cataluna (7.155)
    2. Spanish_Murcia (7.269)
    3. Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon (7.528)
    4. Spanish_Valencia (7.691)
    5. Portuguese (8.220)
    6. Spanish_Extremadura (8.433)
    7. Spanish_Andalucia (8.449)
    8. Spanish_Castilla_La_Mancha (8.936)





    1. Spanish_Aragon (5.017)
    2. Spanish_Valencia (6.046)
    3. Spanish_Castilla_La_Mancha (6.695)
    4. Spanish_Andalucia (7.904)
    5. Southwest_French (8.076)
    6. Spanish_Cantabria (8.328)
    7. Spanish_Murcia (8.987)
    8. Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon (9.225)



    These two men are classified in MTA as Roman culture.


    These samples of who could be treated?

  13. #2213
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1a2 -Z19945
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H12a

    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: United States



    2 members found this post helpful.
    ... updates ...





    Edit: ‘cause of dynamic hierarchy



    Last edited by Salento; 20-01-20 at 08:42.

  14. #2214
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b-DF27-FGC35133

    Country: Brazil



    Good morning to all buddies with the wishes of a nice and productive week.

    @Carlos @HYGILI4K. Very cool, guys.
    Quote Originally Posted by Carlos View Post
    Duarte I also have Illercavones. Who was going to tell me when the first time and the only one I was and the state in Lleida I was there on the stage of the Principal Theater of Lleida at the premiere of a movie where I had a small role, the truth is that via the people much prettier than layetanos. Cogotas already knew it and I knew it because I said long ago that a brother of my maternal grandfather carved some bulls in wood and they are nailed to Guisando's bulls. The iberian settlemen as the town where I live already gives me an attack, I have asked but they have not answered me yet.
    Quote Originally Posted by HYGILI4K View Post
    I have with one! NOICE!

    My two special relashionships: A Celt and an Iberian. Am I a Cetiberian? Coincidence or not, only Carlos' oracle can answer. LOL. Morning, Carlos :)






  15. #2215
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-V22>YF66572
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c5c1

    Ethnic group
    España
    Country: Spain



    2 members found this post helpful.
    ^^
    Yes, we are Celtiberians; although people don't want to recognize it lol
    Look at the Celtiberian helmets they found in Aragon, my paternal grandmother was Cortés who is an Aragonese surname that emigrates to Extremadura and Andalusia.







  16. #2216
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-V22>YF66572
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c5c1

    Ethnic group
    España
    Country: Spain





    My match with Scy



    Match of the scy197b kit with Egypt



    My comparation with scy197b.


    Mi comparation imputes with scy197b


    Perhaps in me and Egypt, philistina or ancient Greece is almost erased footprint, but in this sample of exceptional match with me it was still preserved.




    Comparing the map above and the result of my Juan graph, I see some consistency with the results of scy197b.




    Deep Dive scy197b


    My Deep Dive


  17. #2217
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b-DF27-FGC35133

    Country: Brazil



    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Carlos View Post
    ^^
    Yes, we are Celtiberians; although people don't want to recognize it lol
    Look at the Celtiberian helmets they found in Aragon, my paternal grandmother was Cortés who is an Aragonese surname that emigrates to Extremadura and Andalusia.






    That's it Carlos. Beautiful and very well designed helmets. A people who knew how to defend themselves when necessary. The aracle of truth never lies. If he said we are cetiiberian, then it is because we are.

  18. #2218
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1a2-Z19945
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H95a1

    Ethnic group
    North Italian
    Country: Australia



    I still only get

    Your Top 10 Archaeogenetic matches by Era...

    (Smaller numbers mean closer matches to you, up to 10 samples per era)


    Neolithic Age



    32. Proto Thracian/Illyrian Vucedol (2775 BC) ..... 14.31 - I3499 -
    Top 98% match vs all users

    Early Bronze Age



    33. Illyrian / Dalmatian (1600 BC) ..... 14.39 - I4332 -
    Top 95% match vs all users

    38. Illyrian / Dalmatian (1600 BC) ..... 15.0 - I4331 -
    Top 93% match vs all users

    93. [Hidden] - upgrade to Zeus ..... 19.25 - OTTM_151ind2 -
    Top 94% match vs all users


    Late Bronze Age



    1. Protovillanovia Martinsicuro (930 BC) ..... 5.076 - R1 -
    Top 99% match vs all users

    4. Illyrian / Dalmatian (1200 BC) ..... 8.937 - I3313 -
    Top 98% match vs all users

    52. Thraco-Cimmerian Black Sea (900 BC) ..... 15.89 - MJ12 -
    Top 97% match vs all users






    can someone tell me about this sample

    - OTTM_151ind2 -
    Fathers mtdna T2b17
    Grandfather mtdna T1a1e
    Sons mtdna K1a4o
    Mum paternal line R1b-S8172
    Grandmum paternal side I1d1-P109
    Wife paternal line R1a-Z282

  19. #2219
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    Level completed: 89%, Points required for next Level: 94
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1a2-Z19945
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H95a1

    Ethnic group
    North Italian
    Country: Australia



    what my father gets .................it is his only ancient match

    Scythian Moldova

    scy301 (300 BC)

    mtDNA Haplogroup: U5b2a3

    Y-DNA Haplogroup: R1b1a1a2


    Deep Dive Match! 55% closer than others who share this deep dive sample
    Genetic Distance: 19.344
    Sample Match! 52% closer than others users

  20. #2220
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    Level completed: 41%, Points required for next Level: 650
    Overall activity: 69.0%

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-V22>YF66572
    MtDNA haplogroup
    J1c5c1

    Ethnic group
    España
    Country: Spain



    1 members found this post helpful.
    Carlos Oracle (Deep Studies)



    Scy197b


    Scy187b



    Me





    I think I'm going to create the Medieval Tyrolian SZ18 kit. (I know and I have in mind that there were Ladinos in Bolzano but the problem is that my ear only tolerates going east in derived Latin : Spanish, Italian and French and that fact is very significant for myself in my study of my father's search.)




    I will wait imagine that they are overflowed


  21. #2221
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1a2-Z19945
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H95a1

    Ethnic group
    North Italian
    Country: Australia



    Quote Originally Posted by Carlos View Post
    Carlos Oracle (Deep Studies)



    Scy197b


    Scy187b



    Me





    I think I'm going to create the Medieval Tyrolian SZ18 kit. (I know and I have in mind that there were Ladinos in Bolzano but the problem is that my ear only tolerates going east in derived Latin : Spanish, Italian and French and that fact is very significant for myself in my study of my father's search.)




    I will wait imagine that they are overflowed


    SZ18 is
    SZ18:
    mtDNA: H13a1a2
    Y-DNA: E1b1b1a1b2(CTS2817)

    Do they really mark this sample as Ladini from the alps ?



    and I would like to see what scy197b is

    as I only found

    scy197:
    mtDNA: U5a1a1
    Y-DNA: R1b1a1a2


    others found with scy197 are

    scy300:
    mtDNA: H5b

    scy301:
    mtDNA: U5b2a3
    Y-DNA: R1b1a1a2

    scy303:
    mtDNA: U5a1a2b

    scy305:
    mtDNA: U5a2b
    Y-DNA: R1b1a1a2

    scy311:
    mtDNA: T2b

  22. #2222
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    MtDNA haplogroup
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    Country: Australia



    The new ............Deep Dive Breakdown for me is

    Genetic Closeness = Gallo-Roman

    Total SNP = Gallo-Roman

    Longest SNP = Illyrian


    .............................................

    I have no links with the new Trojans or Minoans added or any other Anatolians ( inc. Byzantines )

  23. #2223
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1a2-Z19945
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H95a1

    Ethnic group
    North Italian
    Country: Australia



    Oldest samples that match myself

    32. Proto Thracian/Illyrian Vucedol (2775 BC) ..... 14.31 - I3499 -
    Top 98% match vs all users
    I3499
    mtDNA: T2e
    Y-DNA: R1b1a1a2a2




    33. Illyrian / Dalmatian (1600 BC) ..... 14.39 - I4332 -
    Top 95% match vs all user
    I4332
    mtDNA: W3a1



    38. Illyrian / Dalmatian (1600 BC) ..... 15.0 - I4331 -
    Top 93% match vs all users
    I4331
    mtDNA: I1a1
    Y-DNA: J2b2a





    93. [Hidden] - upgrade to Zeus ..... 19.25 - OTTM_151ind2 -
    Top 94% match vs
    OTTM_151ind2
    mtDNA: X2b+226




    1. Protovillanovia Martinsicuro (930 BC) ..... 5.076 - R1 -
    Top 99% match vs all users
    R1
    mtDNA: U5a2b




    4. Illyrian / Dalmatian (1200 BC) ..... 8.937 - I3313 -
    Top 98% match vs all users
    I3313
    mtDNA: HV0e





    52. Thraco-Cimmerian Black Sea (900 BC) ..... 15.89 - MJ12 -
    Top 97% match vs all use
    MJ-12:
    mtDNA: H35



    .................................................. ....

    my father data has same as above plus

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/135962v1
    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...962v1.full.pdf

    E09538=UNTA58_68Sk1
    mtDNA: J1c
    Y-DNA: G2a2a1a2a1a



    UNTA58_147, UNTA58_153, UNTA85_1412, Straubing(Early Bronze Age), 2031–1776 calBC


    https://science.sciencemag.org/conte...cience.aax6219
    DOI: 10.1126/science.aax6219


    https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/sites/...ience_2019.pdf

  24. #2224
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
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    Country: Spain



    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by torzio View Post
    SZ18 is
    SZ18:
    mtDNA: H13a1a2
    Y-DNA: E1b1b1a1b2(CTS2817)

    Do they really mark this sample as Ladini from the alps ?



    and I would like to see what scy197b is

    as I only found

    scy197:
    mtDNA: U5a1a1
    Y-DNA: R1b1a1a2


    others found with scy197 are

    scy300:
    mtDNA: H5b

    scy301:
    mtDNA: U5b2a3
    Y-DNA: R1b1a1a2

    scy303:
    mtDNA: U5a1a2b

    scy305:
    mtDNA: U5a2b
    Y-DNA: R1b1a1a2

    scy311:
    mtDNA: T2b
    He still doesn't let me create the SZ18 kit. The scy197b is a Scythian from Moldova











    Fig. 1 Radiocarbon ages and geographical locations of the ancient samples used in this study.Figure panels presented counterclockwise: (A) Bar plot visualizing approximate timeline of presented and previously published individuals. (B) Map showing the locations of ancient individuals sequenced in this study and the locations of previously published ancient individuals used in comparative analyses. (C) Principal component analysis (PCA) plot visualizing 35 Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals presented in this study and in published ancient individuals (table S5) in relation to modern reference panel from the Human Origins data set (41).


    RESULTS

    We produced genome-wide sequence data with genome coverage between 0.01× and 2.9× per individual for 35 Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals from the Pontic-Caspian steppe from four chronologically sequential cultural groups, which comprise Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals (n = 13), Cimmerians (n = 3), Scythians (n = 14), and Sarmatians (n = 5), with radiocarbon dates between ca. 1900 BCE and 400 CE (Fig. 1, A and B; tables S1 to S3; and fig. S1, A and B). All DNA libraries displayed damage patterns typical of ancient DNA (fig. S2) (14). To ensure data integrity, we calculated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)–based contamination levels using distribution of private polymorphisms in mtDNA (15) and a Bayesian likelihood method (16). The former yielded point estimates of contamination between 0 and 10% [95% confidence intervals (CIs) between 0 and 17%], and the latter method revealed that all individuals carried sequences with >89% probability of being authentic (table S4). Thus, we included all sequenced individuals in the downstream analyses.
    Late Bronze Age (LBA) Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals carried mtDNA haplogroups associated with Europeans or West Eurasians (17) including H, J1, K1, T2, U2, U4, and U5 (table S3). In contrast, the Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) additionally carried mtDNA haplogroups associated with Central Asia and the Far East (A, C, D, and M) (table S3) (11, 18). The absence of East Asian mitochondrial lineages in the more eastern and older Srubnaya-Alakulskaya population suggests that the appearance of East Asian haplogroups in the steppe populations might be associated with the Iron Age nomads, starting with the Cimmerians. The Y chromosome haplogroup variation in 17 of 18 males was limited to two major haplogroup lineages within the macrohaplogroup “R” (table S3). The Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals carried the Y haplogroup R1a, which showed a major expansion during the Bronze Age (19). It has previously been found in Bronze Age individuals from the Krasnoyarsk Kurgan in Siberia (20). The Iron Age nomads mostly carried the R1b Y haplogroup, which is characteristic of the Yamnaya of the Russian steppe (4). An exception was a Cimmerian individual (cim358) who carried the Q1* lineage associated with the east (table S3).
    Genetic relationships between Eurasian steppe nomads and present-day populations

    PCA on the autosomal genomic data (Fig. 1C and table S5) revealed the following: (i) Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals exhibited genetic affinity to northern and northeastern present-day Europeans (fig. S3), and these results were also consistent with outgroup f3 statistics (table S6 and fig. S4A). (ii) The Cimmerian individuals, representing the time period of transition from Bronze to Iron Age, were not homogeneous regarding their genetic similarities to present-day populations according to the PCA. F3 statistics confirmed the heterogeneity of these individuals in comparison with present-day populations (table S6 and figs. S3 and S4C). (iii) The Scythians reported in this study, from the core Scythian territory in the North Pontic steppe (12), showed high intragroup diversity. In the PCA, they are positioned as four visually distinct groups compared to the gradient of present-day populations (Fig. 1C): (i) A group of three individuals (scy009, scy010, and scy303) showed genetic affinity to north European populations, hereafter referred to as a north European (NE) cluster. (ii) A group of four individuals (scy192, scy197, scy300, and scy305) showed genetic similarities to southern European populations, hereafter referred to as a south European (SE) cluster. (iii) A group of three individuals (scy006, scy011, and scy193) located between the genetic variation of Mordovians and populations of the North Caucasus, hereafter referred to as a steppe cluster (SC). In addition, one Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individual (kzb004), the most recent Cimmerian (cim357), and all Sarmatians fell within this cluster. In contrast to the Scythians, and despite being from opposite ends of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, the five Sarmatians grouped close together in this cluster. (iv) A group of three Scythians (scy301, scy304, and scy311) formed a discrete group



















    RESEARCH ARTICLEANTHROPOLOGY
    Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads



    • Maja Krzewińska1,*,,
    • Gülşah Merve Kılınç1,*,,
    • Anna Juras2,
    • Dilek Koptekin3,
    • Maciej Chyleński4,
    • Alexey G. Nikitin5,
    • Nikolai Shcherbakov6,
    • Iia Shuteleva6,7,
    • Tatiana Leonova6,
    • Liudmila Kraeva8,
    • Flarit A. Sungatov9,
    • Alfija N. Sultanova9,
    • Inna Potekhina10,
    • Sylwia Łukasik2,
    • Marta Krenz-Niedbała2,
    • Love Dalén11,
    • Vitaly Sinika12,13,
    • Mattias Jakobsson14,15,16,
    • Jan Storå17 and
    • Anders Götherström1,






    See all authors and affiliations
    Science Advances 03 Oct 2018:
    Vol. 4, no. 10, eaat4457
    DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4457








    Abstract

    For millennia, the Pontic-Caspian steppe was a connector between the Eurasian steppe and Europe. In this scene, multidirectional and sequential movements of different populations may have occurred, including those of the Eurasian steppe nomads. We sequenced 35 genomes (low to medium coverage) of Bronze Age individuals (Srubnaya-Alakulskaya) and Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) that represent four distinct cultural entities corresponding to the chronological sequence of cultural complexes in the region. Our results suggest that, despite genetic links among these peoples, no group can be considered a direct ancestor of the subsequent group. The nomadic populations were heterogeneous and carried genetic affinities with populations from several other regions including the Far East and the southern Urals. We found evidence of a stable shared genetic signature, making the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe a likely source of western nomadic groups.

    INTRODUCTION

    The Pontic-Caspian steppe (PCS), stretching from the southern Urals to the western North Pontic lands, was the stage of various demographic changes in the past, and several of those remain unknown. During the Bronze and Iron Age, the area was inhabited by a succession of nomadic populations that had significant impact on the cultural development of both Asia and Europe (1, 2). Possibly the best known of these groups is the Yamnaya. Recent genomic studies have revealed cross-continental Early Bronze Age migrations (~3000 BCE) of the nomadic people associated with the Yamnaya horizon (3, 4). The migration introduced the Caucasus genetic component to the genetic landscape of Europe. In Central Europe, Yamnaya ancestry first appeared among people from the Corded Ware complex and has since been found in many subsequent ancient and present-day populations. However, the Pontic-Caspian steppe was critical not only for Early Bronze Age Yamnaya migrations but also because of succeeding movements and population transformations that took place in the developed classical stage of the Late Bronze and Iron Ages between 1800 BCE and 400 CE. This period covered the development of the Srubnaya and Alakulskaya Cultures (~1800–1200 BCE), associated with small settlement sites distributed from the Urals to the Dnieper valley (1). From around 1000 BCE, pre-Scythian nomadic populations started to appear in the western Pontic-Caspian steppe including the Cimmerians known from historical sources (5). Despite regional variation and local peculiarities, the Cimmerians were not associated with any uniform type of archaeological material culture (6). In the seventh century BCE, they were succeeded by the Scythians, who plausibly pushed the Cimmerians into Asia Minor (7). Between 700 and 300 BCE, the Scythians, representing mobile pastoral nomads of a new militaristic type (1), dominated the Pontic-Kazakh steppe, occupying an area from the Altai to the Carpathian Mountains. Their decline began around 300 BCE and was caused by intensifying hostile relations with the Macedonians in the West and the invasion of the Sarmatians from the East. The Sarmatians and the Scythians are thought to have coexisted for a few centuries, but eventually, the former group prevailed (2), resulting in the Scythian downfall. The Sarmatians are believed to comprise a number of groups of similar nomadic background (8), and they became the politically most influential force within the eastern fringes of the Roman Empire at the time. Their decline (~400 CE) was associated with the attack of the Goths and the subsequent invasion of the Huns (8).
    The genomic structure of the Bronze and Iron Age (1800 BCE–400 CE) populations in the Pontic-Caspian steppe has not been fully resolved. While earlier genomic studies have suggested close links between the Srubnaya and the central European Late Neolithic and Bronze Age populations (9), our knowledge of the genetic origins of the Cimmerians is limited. Genetic analyses of maternal lineages of Scythians suggest a mixed origin and an east-west admixture gradient across the Eurasian steppe (1012). The genomics of two early Scythian Aldy-Bel individuals (13) showed genetic affinities to eastern populations of Central Asia (12). However, population interactions and the origin of Scythians of the Pontic-Caspian steppe remain poorly understood. Similarly, little is known about the origins and genetic affinities of the Sarmatians. Genomic studies suggest that the latter group may have been genetically similar to the eastern Yamnaya and Poltavka Bronze Age groups (12). To investigate the demographic dynamics in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, we generated and analyzed genomes of the Late Bronze and Iron Age individuals from the region (Fig. 1, A and B).





    Fig. 1 Radiocarbon ages and geographical locations of the ancient samples used in this study.Figure panels presented counterclockwise: (A) Bar plot visualizing approximate timeline of presented and previously published individuals. (B) Map showing the locations of ancient individuals sequenced in this study and the locations of previously published ancient individuals used in comparative analyses. (C) Principal component analysis (PCA) plot visualizing 35 Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals presented in this study and in published ancient individuals (table S5) in relation to modern reference panel from the Human Origins data set (41).


    RESULTS

    We produced genome-wide sequence data with genome coverage between 0.01× and 2.9× per individual for 35 Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals from the Pontic-Caspian steppe from four chronologically sequential cultural groups, which comprise Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals (n = 13), Cimmerians (n = 3), Scythians (n = 14), and Sarmatians (n = 5), with radiocarbon dates between ca. 1900 BCE and 400 CE (Fig. 1, A and B; tables S1 to S3; and fig. S1, A and B). All DNA libraries displayed damage patterns typical of ancient DNA (fig. S2) (14). To ensure data integrity, we calculated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)–based contamination levels using distribution of private polymorphisms in mtDNA (15) and a Bayesian likelihood method (16). The former yielded point estimates of contamination between 0 and 10% [95% confidence intervals (CIs) between 0 and 17%], and the latter method revealed that all individuals carried sequences with >89% probability of being authentic (table S4). Thus, we included all sequenced individuals in the downstream analyses.
    Late Bronze Age (LBA) Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals carried mtDNA haplogroups associated with Europeans or West Eurasians (17) including H, J1, K1, T2, U2, U4, and U5 (table S3). In contrast, the Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) additionally carried mtDNA haplogroups associated with Central Asia and the Far East (A, C, D, and M) (table S3) (11, 18). The absence of East Asian mitochondrial lineages in the more eastern and older Srubnaya-Alakulskaya population suggests that the appearance of East Asian haplogroups in the steppe populations might be associated with the Iron Age nomads, starting with the Cimmerians. The Y chromosome haplogroup variation in 17 of 18 males was limited to two major haplogroup lineages within the macrohaplogroup “R” (table S3). The Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals carried the Y haplogroup R1a, which showed a major expansion during the Bronze Age (19). It has previously been found in Bronze Age individuals from the Krasnoyarsk Kurgan in Siberia (20). The Iron Age nomads mostly carried the R1b Y haplogroup, which is characteristic of the Yamnaya of the Russian steppe (4). An exception was a Cimmerian individual (cim358) who carried the Q1* lineage associated with the east (table S3).
    Genetic relationships between Eurasian steppe nomads and present-day populations

    PCA on the autosomal genomic data (Fig. 1C and table S5) revealed the following: (i) Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals exhibited genetic affinity to northern and northeastern present-day Europeans (fig. S3), and these results were also consistent with outgroup f3 statistics (table S6 and fig. S4A). (ii) The Cimmerian individuals, representing the time period of transition from Bronze to Iron Age, were not homogeneous regarding their genetic similarities to present-day populations according to the PCA. F3 statistics confirmed the heterogeneity of these individuals in comparison with present-day populations (table S6 and figs. S3 and S4C). (iii) The Scythians reported in this study, from the core Scythian territory in the North Pontic steppe (12), showed high intragroup diversity. In the PCA, they are positioned as four visually distinct groups compared to the gradient of present-day populations (Fig. 1C): (i) A group of three individuals (scy009, scy010, and scy303) showed genetic affinity to north European populations, hereafter referred to as a north European (NE) cluster. (ii) A group of four individuals (scy192, scy197, scy300, and scy305) showed genetic similarities to southern European populations, hereafter referred to as a south European (SE) cluster. (iii) A group of three individuals (scy006, scy011, and scy193) located between the genetic variation of Mordovians and populations of the North Caucasus, hereafter referred to as a steppe cluster (SC). In addition, one Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individual (kzb004), the most recent Cimmerian (cim357), and all Sarmatians fell within this cluster. In contrast to the Scythians, and despite being from opposite ends of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, the five Sarmatians grouped close together in this cluster. (iv) A group of three Scythians (scy301, scy304, and scy311) formed a discrete group















    https://advances.sciencemag.org/cont...OxGk2nX8MZIVeI

    The scy197b was a Scythian from Moldova no more no less.

  25. #2225
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Carlos View Post
    He still doesn't let me create the SZ18 kit. The scy197b is a Scythian from Moldova









    Fig. 1 Radiocarbon ages and geographical locations of the ancient samples used in this study.Figure panels presented counterclockwise: (A) Bar plot visualizing approximate timeline of presented and previously published individuals. (B) Map showing the locations of ancient individuals sequenced in this study and the locations of previously published ancient individuals used in comparative analyses. (C) Principal component analysis (PCA) plot visualizing 35 Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals presented in this study and in published ancient individuals (table S5) in relation to modern reference panel from the Human Origins data set (41).


    RESULTS

    We produced genome-wide sequence data with genome coverage between 0.01× and 2.9× per individual for 35 Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals from the Pontic-Caspian steppe from four chronologically sequential cultural groups, which comprise Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals (n = 13), Cimmerians (n = 3), Scythians (n = 14), and Sarmatians (n = 5), with radiocarbon dates between ca. 1900 BCE and 400 CE (Fig. 1, A and B; tables S1 to S3; and fig. S1, A and B). All DNA libraries displayed damage patterns typical of ancient DNA (fig. S2) (14). To ensure data integrity, we calculated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)–based contamination levels using distribution of private polymorphisms in mtDNA (15) and a Bayesian likelihood method (16). The former yielded point estimates of contamination between 0 and 10% [95% confidence intervals (CIs) between 0 and 17%], and the latter method revealed that all individuals carried sequences with >89% probability of being authentic (table S4). Thus, we included all sequenced individuals in the downstream analyses.
    Late Bronze Age (LBA) Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals carried mtDNA haplogroups associated with Europeans or West Eurasians (17) including H, J1, K1, T2, U2, U4, and U5 (table S3). In contrast, the Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) additionally carried mtDNA haplogroups associated with Central Asia and the Far East (A, C, D, and M) (table S3) (11, 18). The absence of East Asian mitochondrial lineages in the more eastern and older Srubnaya-Alakulskaya population suggests that the appearance of East Asian haplogroups in the steppe populations might be associated with the Iron Age nomads, starting with the Cimmerians. The Y chromosome haplogroup variation in 17 of 18 males was limited to two major haplogroup lineages within the macrohaplogroup “R” (table S3). The Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals carried the Y haplogroup R1a, which showed a major expansion during the Bronze Age (19). It has previously been found in Bronze Age individuals from the Krasnoyarsk Kurgan in Siberia (20). The Iron Age nomads mostly carried the R1b Y haplogroup, which is characteristic of the Yamnaya of the Russian steppe (4). An exception was a Cimmerian individual (cim358) who carried the Q1* lineage associated with the east (table S3).
    Genetic relationships between Eurasian steppe nomads and present-day populations

    PCA on the autosomal genomic data (Fig. 1C and table S5) revealed the following: (i) Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals exhibited genetic affinity to northern and northeastern present-day Europeans (fig. S3), and these results were also consistent with outgroup f3 statistics (table S6 and fig. S4A). (ii) The Cimmerian individuals, representing the time period of transition from Bronze to Iron Age, were not homogeneous regarding their genetic similarities to present-day populations according to the PCA. F3 statistics confirmed the heterogeneity of these individuals in comparison with present-day populations (table S6 and figs. S3 and S4C). (iii) The Scythians reported in this study, from the core Scythian territory in the North Pontic steppe (12), showed high intragroup diversity. In the PCA, they are positioned as four visually distinct groups compared to the gradient of present-day populations (Fig. 1C): (i) A group of three individuals (scy009, scy010, and scy303) showed genetic affinity to north European populations, hereafter referred to as a north European (NE) cluster. (ii) A group of four individuals (scy192, scy197, scy300, and scy305) showed genetic similarities to southern European populations, hereafter referred to as a south European (SE) cluster. (iii) A group of three individuals (scy006, scy011, and scy193) located between the genetic variation of Mordovians and populations of the North Caucasus, hereafter referred to as a steppe cluster (SC). In addition, one Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individual (kzb004), the most recent Cimmerian (cim357), and all Sarmatians fell within this cluster. In contrast to the Scythians, and despite being from opposite ends of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, the five Sarmatians grouped close together in this cluster. (iv) A group of three Scythians (scy301, scy304, and scy311) formed a discrete group

















    RESEARCH ARTICLEANTHROPOLOGY
    Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads



    • Maja Krzewińska1,*,,
    • Gülşah Merve Kılınç1,*,,
    • Anna Juras2,
    • Dilek Koptekin3,
    • Maciej Chyleński4,
    • Alexey G. Nikitin5,
    • Nikolai Shcherbakov6,
    • Iia Shuteleva6,7,
    • Tatiana Leonova6,
    • Liudmila Kraeva8,
    • Flarit A. Sungatov9,
    • Alfija N. Sultanova9,
    • Inna Potekhina10,
    • Sylwia Łukasik2,
    • Marta Krenz-Niedbała2,
    • Love Dalén11,
    • Vitaly Sinika12,13,
    • Mattias Jakobsson14,15,16,
    • Jan Storå17 and
    • Anders Götherström1,






    See all authors and affiliations
    Science Advances 03 Oct 2018:
    Vol. 4, no. 10, eaat4457
    DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4457








    Abstract

    For millennia, the Pontic-Caspian steppe was a connector between the Eurasian steppe and Europe. In this scene, multidirectional and sequential movements of different populations may have occurred, including those of the Eurasian steppe nomads. We sequenced 35 genomes (low to medium coverage) of Bronze Age individuals (Srubnaya-Alakulskaya) and Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) that represent four distinct cultural entities corresponding to the chronological sequence of cultural complexes in the region. Our results suggest that, despite genetic links among these peoples, no group can be considered a direct ancestor of the subsequent group. The nomadic populations were heterogeneous and carried genetic affinities with populations from several other regions including the Far East and the southern Urals. We found evidence of a stable shared genetic signature, making the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe a likely source of western nomadic groups.

    INTRODUCTION

    The Pontic-Caspian steppe (PCS), stretching from the southern Urals to the western North Pontic lands, was the stage of various demographic changes in the past, and several of those remain unknown. During the Bronze and Iron Age, the area was inhabited by a succession of nomadic populations that had significant impact on the cultural development of both Asia and Europe (1, 2). Possibly the best known of these groups is the Yamnaya. Recent genomic studies have revealed cross-continental Early Bronze Age migrations (~3000 BCE) of the nomadic people associated with the Yamnaya horizon (3, 4). The migration introduced the Caucasus genetic component to the genetic landscape of Europe. In Central Europe, Yamnaya ancestry first appeared among people from the Corded Ware complex and has since been found in many subsequent ancient and present-day populations. However, the Pontic-Caspian steppe was critical not only for Early Bronze Age Yamnaya migrations but also because of succeeding movements and population transformations that took place in the developed classical stage of the Late Bronze and Iron Ages between 1800 BCE and 400 CE. This period covered the development of the Srubnaya and Alakulskaya Cultures (~1800–1200 BCE), associated with small settlement sites distributed from the Urals to the Dnieper valley (1). From around 1000 BCE, pre-Scythian nomadic populations started to appear in the western Pontic-Caspian steppe including the Cimmerians known from historical sources (5). Despite regional variation and local peculiarities, the Cimmerians were not associated with any uniform type of archaeological material culture (6). In the seventh century BCE, they were succeeded by the Scythians, who plausibly pushed the Cimmerians into Asia Minor (7). Between 700 and 300 BCE, the Scythians, representing mobile pastoral nomads of a new militaristic type (1), dominated the Pontic-Kazakh steppe, occupying an area from the Altai to the Carpathian Mountains. Their decline began around 300 BCE and was caused by intensifying hostile relations with the Macedonians in the West and the invasion of the Sarmatians from the East. The Sarmatians and the Scythians are thought to have coexisted for a few centuries, but eventually, the former group prevailed (2), resulting in the Scythian downfall. The Sarmatians are believed to comprise a number of groups of similar nomadic background (8), and they became the politically most influential force within the eastern fringes of the Roman Empire at the time. Their decline (~400 CE) was associated with the attack of the Goths and the subsequent invasion of the Huns (8).
    The genomic structure of the Bronze and Iron Age (1800 BCE–400 CE) populations in the Pontic-Caspian steppe has not been fully resolved. While earlier genomic studies have suggested close links between the Srubnaya and the central European Late Neolithic and Bronze Age populations (9), our knowledge of the genetic origins of the Cimmerians is limited. Genetic analyses of maternal lineages of Scythians suggest a mixed origin and an east-west admixture gradient across the Eurasian steppe (1012). The genomics of two early Scythian Aldy-Bel individuals (13) showed genetic affinities to eastern populations of Central Asia (12). However, population interactions and the origin of Scythians of the Pontic-Caspian steppe remain poorly understood. Similarly, little is known about the origins and genetic affinities of the Sarmatians. Genomic studies suggest that the latter group may have been genetically similar to the eastern Yamnaya and Poltavka Bronze Age groups (12). To investigate the demographic dynamics in the Pontic-Caspian steppe, we generated and analyzed genomes of the Late Bronze and Iron Age individuals from the region (Fig. 1, A and B).





    Fig. 1 Radiocarbon ages and geographical locations of the ancient samples used in this study.Figure panels presented counterclockwise: (A) Bar plot visualizing approximate timeline of presented and previously published individuals. (B) Map showing the locations of ancient individuals sequenced in this study and the locations of previously published ancient individuals used in comparative analyses. (C) Principal component analysis (PCA) plot visualizing 35 Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals presented in this study and in published ancient individuals (table S5) in relation to modern reference panel from the Human Origins data set (41).


    RESULTS

    We produced genome-wide sequence data with genome coverage between 0.01× and 2.9× per individual for 35 Bronze Age and Iron Age individuals from the Pontic-Caspian steppe from four chronologically sequential cultural groups, which comprise Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals (n = 13), Cimmerians (n = 3), Scythians (n = 14), and Sarmatians (n = 5), with radiocarbon dates between ca. 1900 BCE and 400 CE (Fig. 1, A and B; tables S1 to S3; and fig. S1, A and B). All DNA libraries displayed damage patterns typical of ancient DNA (fig. S2) (14). To ensure data integrity, we calculated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)–based contamination levels using distribution of private polymorphisms in mtDNA (15) and a Bayesian likelihood method (16). The former yielded point estimates of contamination between 0 and 10% [95% confidence intervals (CIs) between 0 and 17%], and the latter method revealed that all individuals carried sequences with >89% probability of being authentic (table S4). Thus, we included all sequenced individuals in the downstream analyses.
    Late Bronze Age (LBA) Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals carried mtDNA haplogroups associated with Europeans or West Eurasians (17) including H, J1, K1, T2, U2, U4, and U5 (table S3). In contrast, the Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) additionally carried mtDNA haplogroups associated with Central Asia and the Far East (A, C, D, and M) (table S3) (11, 18). The absence of East Asian mitochondrial lineages in the more eastern and older Srubnaya-Alakulskaya population suggests that the appearance of East Asian haplogroups in the steppe populations might be associated with the Iron Age nomads, starting with the Cimmerians. The Y chromosome haplogroup variation in 17 of 18 males was limited to two major haplogroup lineages within the macrohaplogroup “R” (table S3). The Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals carried the Y haplogroup R1a, which showed a major expansion during the Bronze Age (19). It has previously been found in Bronze Age individuals from the Krasnoyarsk Kurgan in Siberia (20). The Iron Age nomads mostly carried the R1b Y haplogroup, which is characteristic of the Yamnaya of the Russian steppe (4). An exception was a Cimmerian individual (cim358) who carried the Q1* lineage associated with the east (table S3).
    Genetic relationships between Eurasian steppe nomads and present-day populations

    PCA on the autosomal genomic data (Fig. 1C and table S5) revealed the following: (i) Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individuals exhibited genetic affinity to northern and northeastern present-day Europeans (fig. S3), and these results were also consistent with outgroup f3 statistics (table S6 and fig. S4A). (ii) The Cimmerian individuals, representing the time period of transition from Bronze to Iron Age, were not homogeneous regarding their genetic similarities to present-day populations according to the PCA. F3 statistics confirmed the heterogeneity of these individuals in comparison with present-day populations (table S6 and figs. S3 and S4C). (iii) The Scythians reported in this study, from the core Scythian territory in the North Pontic steppe (12), showed high intragroup diversity. In the PCA, they are positioned as four visually distinct groups compared to the gradient of present-day populations (Fig. 1C): (i) A group of three individuals (scy009, scy010, and scy303) showed genetic affinity to north European populations, hereafter referred to as a north European (NE) cluster. (ii) A group of four individuals (scy192, scy197, scy300, and scy305) showed genetic similarities to southern European populations, hereafter referred to as a south European (SE) cluster. (iii) A group of three individuals (scy006, scy011, and scy193) located between the genetic variation of Mordovians and populations of the North Caucasus, hereafter referred to as a steppe cluster (SC). In addition, one Srubnaya-Alakulskaya individual (kzb004), the most recent Cimmerian (cim357), and all Sarmatians fell within this cluster. In contrast to the Scythians, and despite being from opposite ends of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, the five Sarmatians grouped close together in this cluster. (iv) A group of three Scythians (scy301, scy304, and scy311) formed a discrete group















    https://advances.sciencemag.org/cont...OxGk2nX8MZIVeI

    The scy197b was a Scythian from Moldova no more no less.

    thanks

    I asked , because I only go to one site which gives me the markers and the official papers ..................but it updates only 6 times a year

    https://umap.openstreetmap.fr/en/map...6/51.000/2.000

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