"Kalmyks, the only Mongolic-speaking population in Europe, live in the southeast of the European Plain, in Russia. They adhere to Buddhism and speak a dialect of the Mongolian language. Historical and linguistic evidence, as well a shared clan names, suggests a common origin with Oirats of western Mongolia; yet, only a limited number of genetic studies have focused on this topic. Here we compare the paternal genetic relationship of Kalmyk clans with ethnographically related groups from Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan and China, within the context of their neighbouring populations. A phylogeny of 37 high-coverage Y-chromosome sequences, together with further genotyping of larger sample sets, reveals that all the Oirat-speaking populations studied here, including Kalmyks, share, as a dominant paternal lineage, Y-chromosomal haplogroup C3c1-M77, which is also present in several geographically distant native Siberian populations. We identify a subset of this clade, C3c1b-F6379, specifically enriched in Kalmyks as well as in Oirat-speaking clans in Inner Asia. This sub-clade coalesces at around 1500 years before present, before the Genghis Khan era, and significantly earlier than the split between Kalmyks and other Oirat speakers about 400 years ago. We also show that split between the dominant hg C variant among Buryats—C3-M407—and that of C3-F6379, took place in the Early Upper Palaeolithic, suggesting an extremely long duration for the dissipation of hg C3-M217 carriers across northern Eurasia, which cuts through today’s major linguistic phyla."