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Thread: Decoding Jomon woman

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    Decoding Jomon woman


    "The results of the genome analysis, which was almost as accurate as similar analysis performed on modern people thanks to the well-preserved DNA, suggest that a common ancestor diverged into the Jomon people and Han Chinese about 18,000 to 38,000 years ago, the researchers said."

    The analysis also found that the Jomons are genetically close to groups in East Asian coastal areas from the Russian Far East through the Korean Peninsula, including indigenous Taiwanese people. It also showed they gathered in relatively small population groups and lived by hunting.
    Among other discoveries, the Jomon woman had brown eyes and thin hair, as well as a high alcohol tolerance, and was genetically adapted to a high-fat diet. Many sea lion bones have been dug up at the Funadomari site."

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    "And it turns out, from that perspective, she looks very different from modern-day inhabitants of Japan. The woman, who was elderly when she died, had a high tolerance for alcohol, unlike some modern Japanese people, a genetic analysis revealed. She also had moderately dark skin and eyes and an elevated chance of developing freckles.

    Surprisingly, the ancient woman shared a gene variant with people who live in the Arctic, one that helps people digest high-fat foods. This variant is found in more than 70% of the Arctic population, but it's absent elsewhere"

    "It's likely that the Jomon people lived in small hunter-gatherer groups, likely for about 50,000 years, Kanzawa noted. Moreover, Jomon woman had wet earwax. That's an interesting fact because the gene variant for dry earwax originated in northeastern Asia and today up to 95% of East Asians have dry earwax. (People with the dry earwax variant also lack a chemical that produces smelly armpits.)

    "Jomon woman lived during the Joman period, also known as Japan's Neolithic period, which lasted from about 10,500 B.C. to 300 B.C. Though she died more than three millennia ago — between 3,550 and 3,960 years ago, according to recent radiocarbon dating — researchers found her remains only in 1998, at the Funadomari shell mound on Rebun Island, off the northern coast of Hokkaido."

    Despite her differences from the modern Japanese population, Jomon woman is actually more closely related to today's Japanese, Ulchi (the indigenous culture of eastern Russian), Korean, aboriginal Taiwanese and Philippine people than these populations are to the Han Chinese, Kanzawa said."

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    There's a paper studying farmers in Korea coming too.

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    These results suggest that at the end of the last ice age there were at least three distinct populations of hunter-gatherers in China: the Jomon-related coastal East Asians between Far Eastern Siberia and Taiwan (which was part of mainland China back then); the inland HG ancestors of the Yellow River Ghost Population (as Reich calls them) that later spread millet horticulture and the Sino-Tibetan language family; and the inland HG ancestors of the Yangtze River Ghost Population that later spread rice horticulture and the Austroasiatic, Tai-Kadai and Austronesian language families (if the Austric hypothesis is accepted). When Yangtze River-related migrants introduced rice horticulture and proto-Austronesian to Taiwan, presumably there was some admixing with the coastal East Asian HG aboriginal Taiwanese, but not enough to erase a Jomon-related genetic signature that Austronesian speakers later spread to the Philippines and beyond. By the 13th century, or maybe earlier, Austronesian had become the most widespread language family in the world, from sub-Antarctic Enderby Island to Necker Island north of the Tropic of Cancer, and from Madagascar to Easter Island. Covering more than 207 degrees of longitude and 73 degrees of latitude, the sun has never set on the Austronesian language family since that time. It will be interesting to see if the Jomon-related genetic signature of coastal East Asian HG can still be detected throughout the modern Austronesian speaking populations.

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