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Thread: Viking world population genomics

  1. #1
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    4 out of 4 members found this post helpful.

    Viking world population genomics

    Link: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/703405v1

    "Abstract

    The Viking maritime expansion from Scandinavia (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) marks one of the swiftest and most far-flung cultural transformations in global history. During this time (c. 750 to 1050 CE), the Vikings reached most of western Eurasia, Greenland, and North America, and left a cultural legacy that persists till today. To understand the genetic structure and influence of the Viking expansion, we sequenced the genomes of 442 ancient humans from across Europe and Greenland ranging from the Bronze Age (c. 2400 BC) to the early Modern period (c. 1600 CE), with particular emphasis on the Viking Age. We find that the period preceding the Viking Age was accompanied by foreign gene flow into Scandinavia from the south and east: spreading from Denmark and eastern Sweden to the rest of Scandinavia.

    Despite the close linguistic similarities of modern Scandinavian languages, we observe genetic structure within Scandinavia, suggesting that regional population differences were already present 1,000 years ago. We find evidence for a majority of Danish Viking presence in England, Swedish Viking presence in the Baltic, and Norwegian Viking presence in Ireland, Iceland, and Greenland. Additionally, we see substantial foreign European ancestry entering Scandinavia during the Viking Age. We also find that several of the members of the only archaeologically well-attested Viking expedition were close family members. By comparing Viking Scandinavian genomes with present-day Scandinavian genomes, we find that pigmentation-associated loci have undergone strong population differentiation during the last millennia.

    Finally, we are able to trace the allele frequency dynamics of positively selected loci with unprecedented detail, including the lactase persistence allele and various alleles associated with the immune response. We conclude that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial foreign engagement: distinct Viking populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, while Scandinavia also experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent."

  2. #2
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    2 out of 2 members found this post helpful.
    More:

    "In order to explore the genomic history of the Viking era, we shotgun sequenced 442 ancient human
    remains, from the Bronze Age c. 2400 BC to the Medieval Age c. 1600 AD (Fig. 1). The majority of
    these individuals (n=376) were sequenced to between 0.1 and 11X average depth of coverage. The
    dataset includes Bronze Age (n=2) and Iron Age (n=10) individuals from Scandinavia; Early Viking
    Age (n=43) individuals from Estonia (n=34), Denmark (n=6) and Sweden (n=3); ancient individuals
    associated with Norse culture from Greenland (n=23), VA individuals from Denmark (n=78), Faroe
    Islands (n=1), Iceland (n=17), Ireland (n=4), Norway (n=29), Poland (n=8), Russia (n=33), Sweden
    (n=118), UK (n=42), Ukraine (n=3) as well as medieval individuals from Faroe Islands (n=16), Italy
    (n=5), Norway (n=7), Poland (n=2) and Ukraine (n=1). The VA individuals were supplemented with
    additional published genomes (n=21) from Sigtuna, in Sweden6. The skeletons originate from major
    archaeological sites of VA Scandinavian settlements and activities from Europe to Greenland
    (Supplementary Table 1). The data from the ancient individuals were analyzed together with
    previously published data from a total of 3,855 present-day individuals across two reference panels,
    and data from 922 individuals of ancient origin (Supplementary Note 6)."

  3. #3
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    6 out of 6 members found this post helpful.
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  4. #4
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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
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    VK456 I1a1e Female N/A
    VK457 I5a Female N/A
    VK458 I1a1a3 Female N/A
    VK459 W3a1 Female N/A
    VK460 I3 Female N/A
    VK461 H7b Male N1a1a1a1a1a2a1a
    VK462 H1e1a Female N/A
    VK463 H1b5 Male R1a1a1b1a2b
    VK464 H1 Female N/A
    VK466 H6a1a4 Male R1
    VK467 H1a Male CT
    VK468 H1a1 Male R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2b1a
    VK469 H3ac Male R1b1a1b1a1a1c2b2a1b1a
    VK470 HV0 Female N/A
    VK471 H1m Male R1a1
    VK472 H13a1a1b Female N/A
    VK473 N1a1a1a1 Male I1a1b
    VK474 J1d Male E1b1b1b2a1a4
    VK475 H1a Male R1a1a1b1a2b
    VK476 X2+225 Female N/A
    VK477 H1b1+16362 Female N/A
    VK478 H1m Female N/A
    VK479 H1a1 Male G2a2b2a1a1b1a1a2a1a
    VK480 U4a2a1 Male R1a1a1b1a2a
    VK481 T2a1a Male N1a1a1a1a1a1a
    VK482 H1a Male I1
    VK483 H16 Male I1a2a1a1d1a
    VK484 H6a1a Male R1a1a1b1a2b3a
    VK485 H16 Male I1a2a1a1d1a
    VK486 U4a2a Male R1a1a1b1a2b3a
    VK487 H17a2 Male R1a1a1b
    VK488 H5c Male I1a1b1
    VK489 T2e1 Male N1a1a1a1a1a1a
    VK490 H16 Male I1a2a1a1d1a1a
    VK491 H6a1a Male I1a2a1a1d1a1a
    VK492 H1b5 Male I1a2a1a1d1a
    VK493 H2a2a1 Male R1a1a1b1
    VK494 X2c2 Male R1a1a
    VK495 H1b Male I1a
    VK496 H1a Male I1a2a2a
    VK497 H16 Male I1a2a1a1d1a1a
    VK498 H1q Male R1a1a1b1a3a2a1
    VK504 H28a Male N1a1a1a1a1a
    VK505 J1b1a1b Male N1a1a1a1a1a1a
    VK506 J1c2 Male I1a
    VK507 HV6 Male I1a1b1
    VK508 J1c5 Male N1a1a1a1a1a1a
    VK509 H1n+146 Male I1a1b1
    VK510 H10e Male I1a1b1
    VK511 T2a1a Male I1a1b1a1
    VK512 H2a2b1 Male N1a1a1a1a1a1a
    VK513 J1c1b Male R1a1a1
    VK514 K2b1a1 Male R1a1a1b1a3a1
    VK515 H52 Male I1a2a1a1d1a
    VK516 H6a1a Male R1a1a1b1a3a2
    VK517 J1c3f Male I2a1b1a2b1a2a
    VK518 U5b1b1a Female N/A
    VK519 HV0a1 Male I1
    VK520 U5b2a1a2 Female N/A
    VK521 H16b Male I1a2a2a
    VK522 H1a3b Female N/A
    VK523 I1a1 Female N/A
    VK524 HV0a1 Male I1a2a1a1d1a
    VK525 U5a1a2a Female N/A
    VK526 J2b1a3 Female N/A
    VK527 J1c3f Female N/A
    VK528 K1a4a1b Male R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a4d1
    VK529 H7 Male I1a1b1a4a2
    VK530 H1as Female N/A
    VK531 U2e2a Male R1b1a1
    VK532 U2e2a1a Male I1a2a
    VK533 H13a1a1e Male N1a1a1a1a1a1a
    VK534 H1 Male R1b1a1b1a1a2
    VK535 T1a5 Male R1b1a1b1b3a
    VK536 H3h6 Female N/A
    VK537 V Female N/A
    VK538 H+16291 Male L1a1b
    VK539 V Male I1
    VK540 V Female N/A
    VK541 H7 Male R1a1a1b1a1a1c1
    VK542 H5a2a Male I2a1a2b1a1a
    VK543 I2 Male R1a1a1
    VK544 H24a Female N/A
    VK545 H1bb Male R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a1a1a1a1a1a
    VK546 HV6 Male R1a1a1
    VK547 V Male I1a1b1a4a2
    VK548 A12a Female N/A
    VK549 T2b5a Male I1a1b1
    VK550 V Male N1a1a1a1a1a1a1b
    VK551 J2a1a1a2 Male R1a1a1b1a3a1
    VK552 H10e Male I1a2a1a1d
    VK553 K1c1h Male I1a1b1
    VK554 W6a Male I1
    VK555 U3b1b Male I1a2a1a1d1a
    VK579 H1s Male N1a1a1a1a
    VK582 H6a1b3 Male I2a1b1a

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    Thanks for sharing kudos 😉
    2 e1b1b1 haplotypes :
    1 M78-v13 from funen dennmark
    800-1050ad late Viking age
    1 m123 from gotland Sweden 900-1050 ad late Viking age
    the auther say the presence of those e1b1b1 although rare is probably geneflow from south since both were found in late viking age ....

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    Thanks for sharing kudos ������
    2 e1b1b1 haplotypes :
    1 M78-v13 from funen dennmark
    800-1050ad late Viking age
    1 m123 from gotland Sweden 900-1050 ad late Viking age
    the auther say the presence of those e1b1b1 although rare is probably geneflow from south since both were found in late viking age ....
    The E-V13 one has non-scandinavian autosomal results. It is very likely from further south.

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    A sample from 11-12th cent. Puglia, Italy, is autosomally ~90% southern European and belongs to Y-haplogroup R1b-Z2103>Z2108/Z2109.
    Last edited by Ownstyler; 18-07-19 at 14:48.

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b
    MtDNA haplogroup
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    Ethnic group
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    Country: Poland



    Vikings sorted by Polish admixture:

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/bior...?download=true

    I think that VK157, VK156 and VK154 have similar results to what I would score here (or my mother, as she has strong "Finnish / Fennoscandian" admix):



    In other words, VK157, VK156 and VK154 were probably like your average modern North-Western Pole (such as my aunt from Tuchola; I need to test her).

    =====

    In Gotland 5/18 Viking samples (or ca. 28%) have over 50% of Polish-like admixture. Unexpected.

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    As for the issue of British/Irish gene flow to Norway vs. Norwegian gene flow to Britain/Ireland:

    Quote from the study: "(...) The genetic impacts are stronger in the other direction. The ‘British-like’ populations of Orkney became ‘Scandinavian’ culturally, whilst other British populations found themselves in Iceland and Norway, and beyond. Present-day Norwegians vary between 12 and 25% in their ‘British-like’ ancestry, whilst it is still (a more uniform) 10% in Sweden. (...)"

    ^^^ This conclusion is based on a comparison of actual DNA from Pre-Viking Scandinavians and modern Scandinavians - modern Scandinavians, especially West Norwegians, have British admixture that was, apparently, still completely absent from Pre-Viking Scandinavia.

    My guess is that Vikings from Orkney and other areas which became culturally Viking later migrated ("back-migrated") a lot to Scandinavia proper.

    This is how this British DNA was absorbed.

    In absolute numbers, I'm quite sure more people migrated from Norway to Ireland and Britain than the other way around.

    HOWEVER, at that time Norway was very sparsely populated and had a very small population compared to the British Isles.

    So the overall impact of the gene flow, percentage-wise, could actually be stronger in Scandinavia than in Britain/Ireland.

    Example: 500 people moving from Ireland to Norway could make a stronger impact in DNA than 3000 people migrating from Norway to Ireland.

    =====

    Let's use a modern example too, who would make more impact on overall genetics of the other country?:

    - 3 million Swedes moving to Nigeria

    OR:

    - 1 million Nigerians moving to Sweden

    ^^^ The answer is obvious, you just need to compare the size of native populations in both countries.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ownstyler View Post
    The E-V13 one has non-scandinavian autosomal results. It is very likely from further south.
    thanks :)
    and the e-m123 is actuality L-791 https://www.yseq.net/product_info.php?products_id=7398
    so we are not related at all as i am e-m84 the other branch of e-m34
    E-L791 is the line of napoleon though :)

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    Modern Orcadians are quite diverse, some look like they might have no Germanic admixture at all (despite their language/culture).

    Sample S_Orcadian-1.DG from Reich dataset is almost 100% Insular Celtic (very similar to Late Bronze Age Scotland samples).

    On the other hand, sample S_Orcadian-2.DG from the same dataset is more Germanic-influenced.

    Studies such as POBI also show that Orkney Islands have several distinct genetic clusters, despite the small size of these islands!

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    PCA with Viking Age Gotland samples... :


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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Whoa,
    VK139 J1c3k Male R1a1a1b1a1a1c1
    That's L1029, a subclade of M458! I am also L1029 and mtdna J1c! Could this now be the earliest sample of M458?

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    2 out of 2 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Joey37 View Post
    Whoa,
    VK139 J1c3k Male R1a1a1b1a1a1c1
    That's L1029, a subclade of M458! I am also L1029 and mtdna J1c! Could this now be the earliest sample of M458?
    I think so. Assuming he’s closer to the 9th century. I believe there was a medieval samples from the 11th century before.

    Hopefully we get some gedmatch kits soon

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Post #8.

    I think they believe they were Scandinavian 'Varangian/Rus' vikings, the five 'Bodzia'cemetary, Mtdna results were -
    157 (E864/1)was H1c.
    156 (E58) was J1c2c2a.
    155 E870) was H1c
    154 (E37) was H1c3.
    153 (E63) was H1c3.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by paul333 View Post
    Quote Post #8.

    I think they believe they were Scandinavian 'Varangian/Rus' vikings, the five 'Bodzia'cemetary, Mtdna results were -
    157 (E864/1)was H1c.
    156 (E58) was J1c2c2a.
    155 E870) was H1c
    154 (E37) was H1c3.
    153 (E63) was H1c3.
    I believe the L1029 samples from Lutsk is Rus Viking. A lot of Varangian were incorporated from Kievan Rus. The later folk were more ethnically mixed. Became like a mercenary corps of sorts.

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    Dibran,

    I believe the L1029 samples from Lutsk is Rus Viking.
    Ukrainian sample VK541 from Lutsk (autosomally >95% Polish, Y-DNA R1a-L1029) was a prince:




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    Quote Originally Posted by Tomenable View Post
    Dibran,



    Ukrainian sample VK541 from Lutsk (autosomally >95% Polish, Y-DNA R1a-L1029) was a prince:



    yup. So it looks like a distinct possibility. This could explain how it got to England too. With either these Vikings in Denmark bearing the line or maybe early wends assimilated into some of the Saxon movements.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Joey37 View Post
    Whoa,
    VK139 J1c3k Male R1a1a1b1a1a1c1
    That's L1029, a subclade of M458! I am also L1029 and mtdna J1c! Could this now be the earliest sample of M458?
    Also,

    look up the Jomsviking league. It was originally a mixed Scando-Slavic Viking group on Wolins island/city.

    By the 11th century they were composed predominantly of Vinds(per the Swedish Sagas). Vinds were their name for Wends. They were some of the most viscous Vikings.

    They also staged some unsuccessful raids of Denmark in the 11th century.

    In the case of English and Irish L1029, it is probably from these, If not earlier assimilated wends that may have moved with Saxon’s.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    from Supplementary
    page 12 -Among the ancient samples, two individuals were derived haplogroups were identified as E1b1b1- M35.1, which are frequently encountered in modern southern Europe, Middle East and NorthAfrica . Interestingly, the individuals carrying these haplogroups had much less Scandinavian ancestry compared to the most samples inferred from haplotype based analysis. A similar pattern was also observed for less frequent haplogroups in our ancient dataset, such as G (n=3), J (n=3) and T (n=2),, indicating a possible non-Scandinavian male genetic component in the Viking Age NorthernEurope. Interestingly, individuals carrying these haplogroups were from the later Viking Age (10th century and younger), which might indicate some male gene influx into the Viking population during the Viking period. Worth mentioning, that due to the small sample size of the rare haplogroups, these differences might be of stochastic nature therefore the results based on uniparental markers should be interpreted with caution.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    There were 29 U106 samples in this group.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Wheal View Post
    There were 29 U106 samples in this group.
    u106 is the germanic branch if i am not mistaken .....
    the vikings descendants from north germanic tribes .....

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    u106 is the germanic branch if i am not mistaken .....
    the vikings descendants from north germanic tribes .....
    yes I think so,

    My father matches SaamiKola25, kit # M109244, 17 segments with the largest at 5.2cM for a total of 63.0 cM.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Tomenable View Post
    Vikings sorted by Polish admixture:

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/bior...?download=true

    I think that VK157, VK156 and VK154 have similar results to what I would score here (or my mother, as she has strong "Finnish / Fennoscandian" admix):



    In other words, VK157, VK156 and VK154 were probably like your average modern North-Western Pole (such as my aunt from Tuchola; I need to test her).

    =====

    In Gotland 5/18 Viking samples (or ca. 28%) have over 50% of Polish-like admixture. Unexpected.
    And, if I may ask, what are Polish like autosomally in terms of ancient, Iron Age ancestry? Do you think that Polish-like admixture is a truly "Proto-Slavic" sign, or do Polish people in fact inherit a mix of Slavic, Baltic and Germanic speakers' admixtures (and maybe even others)?

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    it is wired how vk-474 the E-L791 dude is 98.4% polish like autosomaly maybe he was a Baltic warrior who end up somehow in gotland ....

    those tribes were so close to gotland
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old_Pr...bes_c_1200.svg
    Last edited by kingjohn; 20-07-19 at 16:44.

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