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    Genetics Question

    Question 1: Can R1a m513 be directly mutated into R1a z93?
    And Can R1a z93 originate only in M513, not in M420?

    “mutations understood to be equivalent to m420 include m449, m511, m513, l62, and l63”

    in this work, we first aim to address the question of the familial and social organization of scytho-siberian groups by studying the genetic relationship of 29 individuals from the aldy-bel and sagly cultures using autosomal strs. (…) were obtained from 5 archeological sites located in the valley of the eerbek river in tuva republic, russia (fig. 1).

    y-chromosome haplogroups were first assigned using the isogg 2018 nomenclature. in order to improve the precision of haplogroup definition, we also analyzed a set of y-chromosome snp (supplementary table 2). nine samples belonged to the r1a-m513 haplogroup (defined by marker m513) and two of these nine samples were characterized as belonging to the r1a1a1b2-z93 haplogroup or one of its subclades. six samples belonged to the q1b1a-l54 haplogroup and five of these six samples belonged to the q1b1a3-l330 subclade. one sample belonged to the n-m231 haplogroup.

    in the same way, although two groups, of two and three individuals, shared haplotypes belonging to the r1a-m513 haplogroup, these groups likely include a father/son pair (arz-t2 and arz-t12). therefore, among nine r1a-m513 men, we found six independent haplotypes, one being present in two independent instances. all r1a-m513 haplotypes, however, including those attributed to the r1a1a1b2-z93 subclade, only differed by one-step mutations, across 5 loci at most. all r1a-m513 individuals were buried on the same site, eki-ottug 2, in a single kurgan.


    Modern tuva people: M198


    Interestingly, in western Truvinian sample, the frequency of haplogroup R1a1a was considerably
    lower than in the central sample. Based on the closeness of the Altai, which is populated by the representatives of a more Caucasoid SouthSiberian racial
    type, it would be reasonable to expect the west–east decrease of the R1a1a frequency on the territory of Tuva. However, this was not observed, and the change of the haplogroup frequency was rather the opposite, as the eastern samples demonstrated maximum frequency of this haplogroup. At the first glance, the result obtained is paradoxical. Specifically, in terms of anthropology, the most Caucasoid population of the western parts of Tuva displays the minimum of haplogroup R1a1a, while in the most Mongoloid population of Todja, the maximum of this haplogroup is observed


    modern western chinese: M17
    Geographic Region Population Marker Haplogroup
    Yunnan Hui R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Guizhou Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Jiangsu Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Henan Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Henan Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Henan Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Henan Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Henan Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Anhui Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Anhui Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Shanxi Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Shanxi Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Shannxi Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Gansu Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Gansu Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Gansu Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Liaoning Han R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xizang Tibetan R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xizang Tibetan R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xizang Tibetan R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Inner Mongolia Mongolian R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Inner Mongolia Mongolian R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Uygur R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Hazak R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Hazak R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Hazak R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Hazak R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Hazak R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Ningxia Hui R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Ningxia Hui R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Xinjiang Xibe R1a-M17 R1a1*
    Last edited by johen; 27-09-19 at 09:02.

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