The emergence of haplogroup R * is related to the Siberian culture of Mal'ta – Buret '. But it has been shown that the boy from Malta had a Mongoloid phenotype very similar to today's Siberian populations, dark eyes and hair. We know that people from Yamnaya Culture had a fairly high percentage of ANE genetics, but how did Yamnaya people become 'Caucasian' in the process? Was the ANE population losing its Mongoloid character as they advanced on the steppe and possibly mixed with other populations on the way?

By the term 'Caucasian' I am referring to the craniofacial characterization that we are used to seeing in Europeans and other western Asian populations today.