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Thread: Diverse genetic origins of medieval steppe nomad conquerors

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    3 members found this post helpful.

    Diverse genetic origins of medieval steppe nomad conquerors

    Abstract

    Over millennia, steppe nomadic tribes raided and sometimes overran settled Eurasian civilizations. Most polities formed by steppe nomads were ephemeral, making it difficult to ascertain their genetic roots or what present-day populations, if any, have descended from them. Exceptionally, the Khazar Khaganate controlled the trade artery between the Black and Caspian Seas in VIII-IX centuries, acting as one of the major conduits between East and West. However, the genetic identity of the ruling elite within the polyglot and polyethnic Khaganate has been a much-debated mystery; a controversial hypothesis posits that post-conversion to Judaism the Khazars gave rise to modern Ashkenazim. We analyzed whole-genome sequences of eight men and one woman buried within the distinctive kurgans of the Khazar upper (warrior) class. After comparing them with reference panels of present-day Eurasian and Iron Age populations, we found that the Khazar political organization relied on a polyethnic elite. It was predominantly descended from Central Asian tribes but incorporated genetic admixture from populations conquered by Khazars. Thus, the Khazar ruling class was likely relatively small and able to maintain a genetic identity distinct from their subjugated populations over the course of centuries. Yet, men of mixed ancestry could also rise into the warrior class, possibly providing troop numbers necessary to maintain control of their large territory. However, when the Khaganate collapsed it left few persistent genetic traces in Europe. Our data confirm the Turkic roots of the Khazars, but also highlight their ethnic diversity and some integration of conquered populations.

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2019.12.15.876912v1

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    ^
    I found this interesting link following your introduction. It also refers to a sample with my haplogroup.


    http://www.karam.org.tr/Makaleler/90...5-%20Brook.pdf

    The Y-DNA haplogroup family E is also common in West Asia as well as
    in Africa. Its branch E1b1b developed in northeastern Africa and E1b1b’s
    descendant branches settled mainly in West Asia, North Africa, and Europe.
    Four participants with solidly confirmed Crimean Karaite ancestry were:

    Sample K09’s Y-DNA belongs to E1b1b1a1c (E-V22). At the 12-marker level he is one step mutation from a Mizrahi from Iraq, a Saudi Arabian, an Albanian, and one man from Belgium. (pag.76)


    I was thinking if it will have anything to do with the arrival of my sister in Europe. He says that haplogroup E is in West Asia, and my haplogroup E-V22 also appears. But I would like to know since when you can be in West Asia.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jovialis View Post
    Abstract

    Over millennia, steppe nomadic tribes raided and sometimes overran settled Eurasian civilizations. Most polities formed by steppe nomads were ephemeral, making it difficult to ascertain their genetic roots or what present-day populations, if any, have descended from them. Exceptionally, the Khazar Khaganate controlled the trade artery between the Black and Caspian Seas in VIII-IX centuries, acting as one of the major conduits between East and West. However, the genetic identity of the ruling elite within the polyglot and polyethnic Khaganate has been a much-debated mystery; a controversial hypothesis posits that post-conversion to Judaism the Khazars gave rise to modern Ashkenazim. We analyzed whole-genome sequences of eight men and one woman buried within the distinctive kurgans of the Khazar upper (warrior) class. After comparing them with reference panels of present-day Eurasian and Iron Age populations, we found that the Khazar political organization relied on a polyethnic elite. It was predominantly descended from Central Asian tribes but incorporated genetic admixture from populations conquered by Khazars. Thus, the Khazar ruling class was likely relatively small and able to maintain a genetic identity distinct from their subjugated populations over the course of centuries. Yet, men of mixed ancestry could also rise into the warrior class, possibly providing troop numbers necessary to maintain control of their large territory. However, when the Khaganate collapsed it left few persistent genetic traces in Europe. Our data confirm the Turkic roots of the Khazars, but also highlight their ethnic diversity and some integration of conquered populations.

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2019.12.15.876912v1
    Another dagger to the heart of the Khazar Jewish "theory".

    All of these later steppe groups seem to have been very inclusive in their practices.


    Non si fa il proprio dovere perchè qualcuno ci dica grazie, lo si fa per principio, per se stessi, per la propria dignità. Oriana Fallaci

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