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Thread: New Ftdna origins

  1. #1
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
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    1 members found this post helpful.

    New Ftdna origins

    Here are my results from Ftdna new origins ancestral breakup

    for Anatolia......they persist with a Azeri line , even though it is not shown on map.............I do not know




    I have different results for all the following, Ancestry, 23andme, Myheritage
    Last edited by torzio; 26-01-20 at 22:12.
    Fathers mtdna T2b17
    Grandfather mtdna T1a1e
    Sons mtdna K1a4o
    Mum paternal line R1b-S8172
    Grandmum paternal side I1d1-P109
    Wife paternal line R1a-Z282

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    my results remain the same
    now they have pictures to describe each component
    except that no change in my components and there %

  3. #3
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
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    Ethnic group
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    2 members found this post helpful.
    I don't like myOrigins. It doesn't make sense for me. Where is my italian (southeast europe)?

    Why British Isles is so high?


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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    my results remain the same
    now they have pictures to describe each component
    except that no change in my components and there %
    they also have your matches by clicking the icon on the map...............I do not know which they select, I presume people who have an account and are at least 3rd cousins or closer



    checking these tabs
    the red near bassano del grappa is my mother family
    the blue is a marriage to a family from 1780
    the red is a marriage to another family in 1830
    both these ther families are in the USA


    the blue near Montebelluna is my paternal line
    the red is a marriage to a person from 1880


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    I only have one of the DNA matches identified with a location on the map and he is identified as a direct paternal and maternal ancestor. Does this mean that this individual and I share both a maternal and a paternal ancestor in our ancestry? It does not show any kind of paternal or maternal ancestor for any other match.

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    Quote Originally Posted by HYGILI4K View Post
    I don't like myOrigins. It doesn't make sense for me. Where is my italian (southeast europe)?

    Why British Isles is so high?

    Italy I think is included in SouthEast Europe.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bigsnake49 View Post
    Italy I think is included in SouthEast Europe.
    But why only 19%, if dad is full italian? And where this British Isles came from?

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by HYGILI4K View Post
    But why only 19%, if dad is full italian? And where this British Isles came from?
    On Ftdna I only get 17% SE Europe (my father's also full Italian), the rest is categorized as Middle-Eastern (19%). I also have 9% Eastern Europe, which is completely off. Ftdna reports are among the worst (for me, in any case).

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    They have changed the format. Now cousins appear on the maps, I don't know why they select these cousins in particular. The one on the Greek island is also on MyHeritage and I share with him only 0.4%. His surname is actually Iraqi and he has ancestors in Belgium, Poland, Greece and Turkey with surnames in addition to all those countries. The one from Alsace is not in My Heritage, the mother seems to be from Puerto Rico, in that case I am useful to him more than he is to me because they give mitochondrial, I do not see what their DNA is, and they should be able to see the haplogroups of the cousins far away. So much privacy, that they don't get into all this if they don't answer the messages later.

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    Quote Originally Posted by torzio View Post
    Here are my results from Ftdna new origins ancestral breakup

    for Anatolia......they persist with a Azeri line , even though it is not shown on map.............I do not know




    I have different results for all the following, Ancestry, 23andme, Myheritage
    I don't believe in what I am seeing, Torzio. You are only 89% European. And I, who am a mixed-race Brazilian, am 92% European. I'm sorry my friend. This must be a tragedy for you. I had ended my participation in Eupedia but, when I saw your post, I couldn't help making that ridiculous comment. At least you were honest in publishing real data. In that I congratulate you. But as mediocrity has been the most prevalent here lately, I will not feel guilty making this stupid comment before to leave definitively. I had leave out by the French way, but it woke me up again. Now, i am back to sleep. Cheers :)


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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Duarte what are you saying. A Celtiberian never throws in the towel. I do not understand that posture. I try to cultivate humility, I really am but I have an ego so big that it is even above myself so it does not allow me to sink and well used encourages you to move on. Never surrender.

    This song by Mónica Naranjo says it very well: Jamás

    I will fight until the end
    lose everything and fail
    never surrender


  12. #12
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    Quote Originally Posted by Duarte View Post
    I don't believe in what I am seeing, Torzio. You are only 89% European. And I, who am a mixed-race Brazilian, am 92% European. I'm sorry my friend. This must be a tragedy for you. I had ended my participation in Eupedia but, when I saw your post, I couldn't help making that ridiculous comment. At least you were honest in publishing real data. In that I congratulate you. But as mediocrity has been the most prevalent here lately, I will not feel guilty making this stupid comment before to leave definitively. I had leave out by the French way, but it woke me up again. Now, i am back to sleep. Cheers :)

    no issue here.....before this ftdna program, the previous one I sat on the french, italian, swiss border.......these programs , like the other companies give you results based on the data they have on hand.

    here are others companies....they are all different

    ancestry
    France47%
    Italy29%

    Northern Italy

    Germanic Europe11%
    Greece & the Balkans7%
    England, Wales & Northwestern Europe3%
    Sardinia3%


    myheritage

    Europe 100.0%
    South Europe 70.2%
    Italian 70.2%

    East Europe 15.6%
    Balkan 15.6%

    North and West Europe 14.2%
    Irish, Scottish, and Welsh 14.2%


    and 23andme below


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    my wife new ftdna origins

    European 95%
    West and Central Europe 51%
    Southeast Europe 44%


    Trace Results
    East Europe <3%
    Asia Minor <3%



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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Carlos View Post
    Duarte what are you saying. A Celtiberian never throws in the towel. I do not understand that posture. I try to cultivate humility, I really am but I have an ego so big that it is even above myself so it does not allow me to sink and well used encourages you to move on. Never surrender.

    This song by Mónica Naranjo says it very well: Jamás

    I will fight until the end
    lose everything and fail
    never surrender

    Hi Carlos.There is no way, for while. I need a time. I go hibernate. God save the glorious Celtiberians. Kisses and hugs dear friend. See you later, I hope. :)

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    In this other company they make another division neither so far apart, for them the Celtiberians do not exist Iberian 91%. More or less I get an idea of everything.


    As reinforcement I have the history of repopulation of my region:

    THE REPOBLATION OF ANDALUSIA
    https://www.colmich.edu.mx/relacione...lezJimenez.pdf


    M a n u el G onzález Jiménez
    UNIVERSIDAD DE SEVILLA

    The repopulation was a habitual practice in the Iberian Peninsula during all the Average Age. Until the
    11th century, it was developed over a wide barren or semi-populated territorial strip, located from the
    Mediterranean to the Atlantic, as a border between Christian Spain and Al-Andalus. Since the mid-eleventh century,
    the repopulation is a forced consequence of territorial advances
    carried out by the different Christian political formations at the expense
    of the muslims. In short, it was about populating abandoned or defectively populated lands, or consolidating, through the massive arrival of Christian settlers, the occupation of
    the newly conquered lands to Islam. Both formulas had
    place in Andalusia during the final centuries of the Middle Ages.


    The conquest of the territory that we properly call Andalusia
    -Current provinces of Jaén, Córdoba, Sevilla, Huelva and Cádiz, geographically belonging to the Guadalquivir Valley- was conquered for the most part during the thirteenth century. This was a result, in
    good measure of the political crisis that affected the Almohad Empire
    after the defeat of the Navas de Tolosa (1212), which allowed everyone
    the Christian kingdoms that had border with Al-Andalus (Aragon,
    Castilla, León and Portugal) develop and, in most cases,
    finalize the reconquest of the territories that in previous deals
    They had self-attributed. In the specific case of Castilla, this process
    it was carried out in its first phase by Fernando m (1217-1252),
    which was also king of León since 1230, in a series of campaigns initiated around 1225 that would culminate in 1248 with the conquest of Seville.
    In the time of Alfonso x (1252-1284), the incorporation into Castilla of the entire Guadalquivir valley was completed through the
    conquest of the kingdom of Mist (1262), the bay of Cádiz and everything
    the sector closest to the Strait of Gibraltar agglutinated around
    Jerez (1264-1266).

    During the later reigns the conquest of the
    Betic geographical space with the conquest of the important squares
    de Estrecho -Tarifa (1292), Gibraltar (1309 for the first time; 1462
    definitely), Algeciras (1344) - and some others like Olvera
    (1327), Alcalá la Real (1342), Antequera (1410) and Archidona (1462).

    THE REPOPULATION OF THE CENTURY Xlll

    Phases and modalities

    Although, as we shall see, the repopulation activity extended beyond the Middle Ages, the twentieth century was undoubtedly its peak. Within this initiated process, like the conquests, around 1230, two phases or moments can be indicated: an initial one that
    it arrives until 1264, during which the repopulation was compatible with the permanence in the region of masses of Moors submitted (MudeJares) under the capitulations granted by Fernando III to those places that did not resist: the Castilian advance. Such pacts guaranteed Muslims to remain on their land while retaining ownership of their property, their laws, religion and organizational system and the same tax regime of the Almohad era. The
    Mudejar population was majority in the countryside, although exceptionally it survived in some medium-sized cities. Very different was the case of the large cities and district headwaters (Baeza, Ubeda, Jaén, Córdoba and Seville itself) that were submitted after a more or less prolonged siege. The laws of war of the time imposed in these cases mass expulsion
    of the Muslim population that was forced to undertake, carrying only their personal property, a rosary of exiles whose final destination was the kingdom of Granada or North Africa. It was in the places thus conquered that Christian repopulationists would concentrate mostly.
    The revolt of the Andalusian and Murcian Mudejars in the spring of 1264 put a dramatic end to this experiment of a system - which with all the reservations of the case could be called, using words of R.I. Burns, "colonial" - based on exploitation of the benefits of war through the military, political and fiscal control of the submitted Muslim population. The revolt, which had been encouraged and supported by the Grenadians, had once submitted the Mudejar, a double result: the expulsion or departure of most Muslims, who, from this moment, would be reduced to an almost residual minority, and the acceleration of the process of Castilianization initiated selectively in the previous stage .

    The land deals

    Every repopulation process is, in the end, a form of appropriation of a space by a society. In times well before the xill century, this appropriation was very spontaneous. In the case of Andalusia, as before Toledo, the repopulation - and the other concomitant processes: granting of privileges, land distribution, creation of manors, etc. - was well controlled by the Crown and had very little spontaneity, although it cannot be ruled out either. at all, especially in some marginal areas of the territory. The most striking aspect of this process was undoubtedly the massive distribution of land, houses and other real estate with which the monarchs - and, in their lordships, the lords - attracted the region to repopulate. This was intended to populate the territory, thus attending both the consolidation of the conquest and its adequate defense. These land distributions are contained in singular documents, in the case of a concession to an individual or an institution, or in distribution books where the delivery of real estate, villager to villager, is collected in a specific location. They record two types of donations:
    1. Large lots of land or donations, which include buildings and agricultural facilities, usually granted to members of the royal family, nobles, ecclesiastics, cathedral councils, monasteries
    and military orders.
    2. And lots of goods, technically called inheritances or neighborhoods, which include houses, cereal lands and, sometimes, olive groves, sufficient to meet the needs of a family according to their social category.

    The first donations do not entail the obligation to populate. All the more, the beneficiary is required to provide a specific military service. They could be considered in such cases as fiefdoms.
    On the other hand, the inheritances were delivered with the condition of populating personally in the place and fulfilling the military obligations of their social category. Therefore, as a general principle, it can be said that in the beginning all the restockers are
    owners definition. These deals were undoubtedly the most spectacular part of the repopulation process, as can be deduced from the fact that in the course of about 40 or 50 years almost all the territorial property of
    Andalusia changed hands, given the practical disappearance of the Mudejar population. On the other hand, the distributions originated a society of owners in which those of medium and small entity predominated. The great owners constituted
    A minority within the whole. If later the large estate would be imposed in large areas of the region, it was as a result of a complex series of factors and an evolution that began in the thirteenth century itself but that lasted well into the Modern Age.

    The society of restockers

    The conquest of Andalusia meant a demographic break with the immediate past of the region. The practical substitution of one population for another explains
    that in the region a different type of society was implanted from the one that existed before the conquest. In the first place, it is a society similar to that from which the repopulators came from: that is, a Western and, more specifically, feudal society. Indeed, it is they distinguish the basic groups of the feudal society of the time: a minority of the privileged - a knights of blood or function, and the clergy - and a mass of non-privileged (peasants and artisans)
    which constitute what some texts of the time call the "other people".
    Secondly, they are people from all regions encompassed within the Crown of Castile, from the other kingdoms of the Peninsula and even from other parts of Europe. Its presence in Andalusia explains the implementation of political, economic, social and even cultural structures that owed very little to the Islamic past of the region.
    Now, although this society was, as it could not be otherwise, basically similar to the model prevailing at the time, it had differentiating features. The most important is to be a society of free men - even those submitted to manor - full owners of their own plots. Thus it is justified that in Andalusia there were no servants of the field, subject to limitations in their personal freedom and movement, and forced to pay benefits and taxes derived from the use of the land. Finally, Andalusian society, from the 13th century to 1492
    (conquest of Granada), was a frontier society. This feature is already observed in the distribution books, in which the repopulationists appear grouped around social categories of a clear military character: noble knights, members of the small nobility
    of Castilian-Leonese blood; citizen gentlemen, or townspeople who owned horses and weapons and who were in a position to fight in the same way as the nobility, and simple pawns or foot soldiers (spearmen, crossbowmen and other personnel).

    The survivals of the Islamic past

    If the repopulation is part of a process of greater scope of control of the space, and there were so many modifications in the structures of the property, in the forms of settlement, in the field of institutions and culture, it seems that it is more justified talk about a complex breakdown process that altered substantially and they distinguish the basic groups of the feudal society of the time: a minority of the privileged - a knights of blood or function, and the clergy - and a mass of non-privileged (peasants and artisans)
    which constitute what some texts of the time call the "other people".
    Secondly, they are people from all regions encompassed within the Crown of Castilla, from the other kingdoms of the Peninsula and even from other parts of Europe. Its presence in Andalusia explains the implementation of political, economic, social and even cultural structures that owed very little to the Islamic past of the region.
    Now, although this society was, as it could not be otherwise, basically similar to the model prevailing at the time, it had differentiating features. The most important is to be a society of free men - even those submitted to manor - full owners of their own plots. Thus it is justified that in Andalusia there were no servants of the field, subject to limitations in their personal freedom and movement, and forced to pay benefits and taxes derived from the use of the land.
    Finally, Andalusian society, from the 13th century until 1492 (conquest of Granada), was a frontier society. This feature is already observed in the books of distribution, in which the repopulationists appear grouped around social categories of a clear military character: gentlemen noblemen, members of the small nobility of Castilian-Leonese blood; citizen gentlemen, or people of
    people who owned horses and weapons and were able to fight in the same way as the nobility, and simple pawns or foot soldiers (lancers, crossbowmen and other personnel).

    The survivals of the Islamic past

    definitely the historical trajectory of the region. This is what Julio González, a pioneer in Andalusian repopulation studies, referred to when he spoke about Seville about a “deep and radical” renovation and, more explicitly, M.A. Ladero when pointing out “the uprooting of a social formation, the Islamic-Andalusian, and its replacement
    on the other, the Christian-European represented by the repopulators ”.
    Now, if this was so, what survived the past, apart from "loose features of the old structure"? Apparently, and leaving aside certain cultural influences of difficult identification, the basic network of the settlement (of Roman origin, in the background) and more or less abundant elements of material culture. Possibly
    must have survived much more than we suppose, although in any case it would be necessary to take into account, for an easier solution of the problem, that Andalusia, from its very conquest and by its very
    The condition of the border world with Islam was permanently subjected to oriental influences.

    The inheritance of the Islamic past is perceptible in certain functional stays in the countryside, especially in regard to agricultural or industrial facilities, such as mills
    flour or oil, and the same could be said of the physical model of the great exploitation - machares, farmhouses and burj or towers - of which
    Andalusian farmhouses and farms derive. Certainly, certain urban traditions such as the irregular layout of the streets, the location of the religious and commercial centers (alhóndigas and alcaicerías) or some aspects of the urban infrastructure, such as drinking water pipes or the sewerage network, also survived.
    However, the main problem arises regarding the survival of hydraulic techniques and infrastructures, which remained in Valencia and Murcia. The preserved documentation documents so only the irrigation of orchards through the traditional system of ferris wheels and pools. But news regarding the existence of larger irrigation based on a network of ditches. In the absence of archaeological evidence, everything seems to indicate that irrigation was restricted to orchard areas, of reduced dimensions, where textile plants such as flax and cotton (in Ecija) were cultivated, in addition to fruit and vegetables, and, more rarely, Olive and mulberry trees.

    The new social structuring of space

    The conquest and the effects of the repopulation affected the structuring of a space until then organized to serve a different model of society and economy. The mass exoduses of
    Muslim population, first of the cities and later of the countryside, and subsequent land deals contributed to transform, even physically, the physiognomy of the region. Therefore, despite
    of the survivals that we alluded to before, the changes far exceeded those. It could not be otherwise given the following facts:

    1. Redistribution of ownership of the land operated through the distributions.
    2. The new type of economy introduced in the region by the stockholders.
    3. The political and military circumstances that conditioned the life of much of Andalusia during the period of 1252-1350.

    We have already alluded to what land deals meant: the complete renovation of almost all of the land within two generations. A process of such dimensions had to have a visible impact on the organization of space, through the disintegration of large operating units prior to
    the conquest, or of the grouping of plots in properties of smaller extension.
    As for the former, although we know very little about the land ownership structures in Almohad Andalusia, everything seems to indicate the existence of large properties held by the local nobility and bourgeoisie. So at least it happened in the surroundings of Seville. Many of these properties, as included in the book of the distribution, retained the structure of such at the time of the conquest, to the point of being in some cases with annexes in the form of neighborhoods. The largest and best farms passed entirely at the hands of the nobility and the Church.
    But most of them disintegrated into family-type exploitation units, of varying dimensions according to the beneficiary's social category, 4 that altered not only the same plot but also the minor road network and the traditional distribution of crops. The same devastating effects had to produce the inverse process of concentration of plots in the lands dedicated to cereal crops or in the communal ejidos and ejidos of the populations where the settlers settled.

    But the main landscape modifications derived from a different or at least peculiar conception of agricultural economics. We know little about Andalusí (Al_Andalus) agriculture. But it seems that the cultivation systems and the food traditions of the conquerors went by other paths. On the one hand, absolute predominance of a "cereal-based agriculture", which would corner other crops that required special techniques, unknown to the stockholders, safe markets and abundant labor. On the other, different cultivation systems: predominance of dry land and rotation biennial. To all this should be added the ignorance by repopulation of any other method of soil regeneration that was not "fallow" and grazing dry land. And that this
    This was proved by the existence of an extensive cattle ranch that fit perfectly with the eating habits and with the economic practices of the stockholders.
    As for the settlement, the conquest reinforced the role of cities, although in a different sense from the traditional one, emphasizing their administrative and military values, and, at the same time, profoundly altering the rural population. In fact, since its inception, the repopulation is organized from the urban centers, converted into administrative enclaves, agglutinators of the Christian settlement, into centers of power and defense of the territory.
    From them the repopulation of the territory is also organized and a coherent system of use of natural resources is established and a permanent flow from the countryside to the city is created and vice versa.
    This approach - initially compatible with the existence of numerous Mudejar villages - eventually became definitive, for reasons that we have already analyzed: the shortage of repopulators, the exodus or expulsion, after 1264, of the Mudejar population and the Threat of Grenadians and Moroccans. The transformation of the old Islamic villages into depopulated and the abandonment of the fields explains the extraordinary boom reached by livestock throughout the region and the interest that, from its origins around 1270, had the great cattle organization of the Mesta by the Andalusian pastures.

    Restocking balance of the thirteenth century

    The repopulation of Andalusia was an impressive effort for the Castilian-Leonese society of the thirteenth century, also forced to repopulate, simultaneously, much of Extremadura, La Mancha and Murcia. This justifies the impression that is deduced from the testimonies of the time of an impressive lack of human resources. And it is explained that the Christians of the North who went to Andalusia could not fill all the gaps produced by the expulsion and exodus of the Muslim population. In these circumstances, only cities and nuclei of strategic value were repopulated, and their immediate rural environment. The villages and the numerous rural enclaves of the Islamic era were largely unpopulated, thus becoming depopulated on which the repopulation efforts that would concentrate in the following centuries would be concentrated We will consider later. It goes without saying that the most unpopulated territories were those located near the border with the kingdom of Granada, which, to a large extent, only they would repopulate after the fall of the city of the Alhambra in the hands of the Catholic Monarchs.
    This relative failure of the repopulation of the thirteenth century was also due to other factors already mentioned: the abandonment and return of their places of origin of many of those who had come to repopulate; to the economic difficulties of the time that made Andalusia the most expensive region of the kingdom, and to the insecurity of the territory, threatened since 1275 by Grenadians and Moroccans. All these factors made Andalusia a little or not at all attractive area for potential stockholders.
    In conclusion, it can be affirmed that at the end of the 13th century Andalusia presented itself as a region threatened by border war, marked by the destruction of several decades of wars and located far below its possibilities and its demographic needs.
    However, it may not be convenient to load the inks too much.
    The repopulation of the century, despite its limitations, achieved the main objective: to control a strategic space and lay the demographic, institutional and cultural foundations of a completely transformed Andalusia. Naturally, I am referring to the "Castilianization" of the territory not as a result of the implementation of a mixed model of Christian-Mudejar society, which was the one that was initially tried, but by the community of origin
    and culture of most of its inhabitants. In fact, almost eliminated, by the expulsion or by voluntary exile, the native population, only the Jewish minority subtracted - returned to their individuals
    neighborhoods or juderías- and, in some cities like Seville, the colonies of foreign merchants who, despite their origin, barely kept within the whole of the society of repopulation.
    And it was precisely in this majority where a process of amalgam of influences took place that would lead after several generations to an Andalusia differentiated by accidental but very striking features, among which certain Speech variants compared to northern Castilian and others of a more anecdotal nature, such as a certain propensity for exaggeration, already pointed out at a very early date by Juan Ruiz, archpriest of Hita, in her famous Book of Good Love:

    The repopulations of the XV-XV centuries

    The repopulation activity continued during the last two medieval centuries, although at a much slower pace and with less spectacular results. This was the result of the intermittency with which the conquest operations that were practically interrupted in 1350 took place. During the fifteenth century the conquests before the final war of Granada (1482-92) were more sporadic than in the previous century, deserving to be noted by its meaning those of Antequera (1410) and Gibraltar (1462). In general terms, these conquests had a very local reach and can be considered as readjustments of the border designed in the thirteenth century.
    But, along with the repopulation of newly conquered places, it is possible to speak of another type of repopulation, which we will call from the interior, through which the agricultural and demographic recovery of the depopulated produced by the conquest took place and by the restricted or selective nature that had the "official" restocking of the century Xlll

    Border repopulations

    The border is, without a doubt, the area where it is best seen how difficult the task of repopulating was. This explains the very limited and even modest nature of border repopulations, despite the incentives that were granted to border towns since Alfonso x. Indeed, since its reign and at the same time that the defense of the border with the kingdom of Granada was organized, a border right oriented to attract residents was outlined.
    The most general aspect of this right is made up of the numerous tax exemptions that were granted to the inhabitants of the castles and towns of the border, culminating in the time of Alfonso XI with the most desired of all: that of the payment of alcabala.

    The military obligations of the inhabitants of the border were reduced to those of a merely defensive nature. Therefore, they were either exempt from attending the host or the obligation was limited to a reduced territorial scope, between Guadalquivir and
    the sea. Very soon this obligation was replaced by that of providing permanent defense and surveillance services in the town of which they were residents. And, even in this case, such services were paid by the Crown with welded according to the greater or lesser degree of military specialization of the neighbor. To these benefits was added, from the effective reign of Alfonso XI (1325-1350), the delivery to the repopulators of annual cereal concessions. However, the most distinctive feature of border law was the so-called privilege of homicians, formulated for the first time in the Gibraltar village letter (1310). By virtue of it, all those criminals who lived on the border for a certain time - a year and a day - could obtain forgiveness for their crimes, except for certain crimes such as treason, breaking truces or peace of the king or abduction of His lord's wife.
    This privilege would reach an extraordinary diffusion during the reign of Alfonso Xi, who granted it to almost all border towns and castles, starting with Alcaudete (1326) and Olvera (1327).
    Even today, the popular saying of the Sierra de Cádiz - "Kill the man and go to Olvera" - recalls this uniqueness of the Andalusian villages of the "Moorish band". The institution was also in force on the border of Portugal and Granada with the kingdom of Castile.
    Despite all these privileges, the border was populated with many difficulties, and there is more than one test. A well-documented case is that of Medina Sidonia, a town that was repopulated in the time of Alfonso x (1264-66) with about 200 inhabitants. By 1346 it had only 310 neighbors and that as a result of a second distribution ordered by Leonor de Guzmán, lady of the town and official lover of the Castilian monarch. Twenty years later, after two epidemic waves, the population had been reduced to 150 neighbors.
    Another perfectly documented case is that of Antequera, where in 1410 it was intended to install 620 neighbors. It was not so. To the

    At the end of the war in Granada, the city had no more than 375 neighbors, of which more than a hundred had settled in it after the conquest of Malaga (1487). Obvious signal that the border remained a repulsive environment for the population, to
    Despite the policy of privileges and exemptions deployed by the Crown over more than two centuries.
    Therefore, the fact that the end of the war and the disappearance of the border caused a real wave of repopulations and the urban population growth of the border towns that, until the end of the 15th century, had been confined were very significant to the reduced scope of its walled enclosures, in the shadow of its impressive castles. Antequera, again, is a paradigm of the new situation. In 1512 it already had about 2,000 neighbors. A few years later, the informants of Hernando Colón, the son of the Admiral, noted that "the village - that is, the walled enclosure - was small, but with large suburbs populated in a few years." In 1534 the number of neighbors exceeded the figure of 2 600.

    Interior restocking

    Since the end of the thirteenth century, Andalusia has been observed - although the phenomenon has only been analyzed in the sector of the Kingdom of Seville - an intense repopulation activity of a very different sign than what we have considered until now. In general terms, it is a task carried out by the landlords (noble, ecclesiastical and military orders) and, to a lesser extent, by the councils.
    Years ago I defined this process as an operation that managed to transform and humanize a rural landscape characterized by the predominance of uncultivated spaces and by the depopulated caused by the conquest, by the selective nature of the first repopulation and by the disappearance of the Mudejar population. Well, the repopulating activity of one and the other tried to make effective the domain -also jurisdictional- over empty spaces of population and get them to be, through the settlement of repopulating, productive and profitable. The results were not entirely negligible since only in the Kingdom of Seville were populated, between 1302 and 1346, no less than about 30 villages.
    The phenomenon was not reduced to the fourteenth century. On the contrary, it lasted throughout the fifteenth and first third of the sixteenth centuries.5 Here are briefly expressed the features of the process.

    1. Repopulations documented throughout the fourteenth century were carried out by very insignificant contingents of restockers: no more than 40 or 50 neighbors.
    2. Unlike the repopulation of the xill century, these peasant-repopulators came from the towns near the repopulated villages, so we are faced with short migrations
    radio that speak more of a redistribution of the population than of the arrival of stockholders from outside the region.
    3. During the fourteenth century the repopulations were the effect not so much of the existence of demographic pressure, but of the confluence of two different but coincidental factors: on the part of the landlords, the need to face the economic crisis characteristic of the period by putting into operation some
    semi-abandoned properties; on the part of the peasants, the possibility that the repopulation offered them to redo their battered family assets and return to own land, even if it was at the cost of accepting a not too generous manorial regime, as evidenced by the conserved letters-towns. Perhaps the peasants were also looking for security that was not guaranteed in the realengo. The result was the recreation, on a stately initiative, of a functional smallholding -which already existed in Islamic times- that placed an abundant, safe and submissive workforce in the vicinity of the large farms.
    To these factors was added, in the fifteenth century, population growth. As far as we know, this growth was simply spectacular: over 300% in some areas of Andalusia. It allowed to resume successfully, once the epidemics of the previous century were overcome, the repopulation process.
    4. But in addition to the economic interest of the landlords, there was another factor that should be highlighted: the possibility of transforming their large properties into true manors by installing them in repobladores-vassals. This is observed with all
    clarity in some village letters of the first half of the fourteenth century in which the Lord reserves, in addition to civil and criminal jurisdiction, the confirmation of the municipal authorities chosen by the neighbors. The passage of large property to the manor has not yet been sufficiently explained. But it is evident that, both in the fourteenth and the following centuries, the jurisdictional lords rivaled the attraction of villagers-vassals to their manors, to whom they distributed their own lands.
    5. The disappearance of the border with the kingdom of Granada, conquered, as is known, between 1482 and 1492, led, on the one hand, the increase of the population of the old border enclaves, and, on the other, the appearance of new populations in the same line. The phenomenon was particularly intense in the kingdoms of Jaén and Seville.

    The Repopulation of the Kingdom of Granada

    The repopulation of the kingdom of Granada - initiated from 1482 and, especially, from 1485 (conquest of Ronda) - has many points in common with the repopulation of the Guadalquivir valley in the thirteenth century.
    It was an operation sponsored by the Crown, with techniques and methodology all similar to those of the xill century: the installation of settlers following the method of distribution. The entity of the lots distributed depends on the social status of the stockholder.
    The restockers came from all the territories of the kingdom of Castile. There were, also, other peninsular kingdoms, such as Valencia, Mallorca and Portugal. Logically, for the most part they came from the nearest regions: the Andalucía del Guadalquivir,
    Murcia and Extremadura.

    Together with the real estate incentive, the repopulators received from the Catholic Monarchs the complete exemption from the payment of taxes for a certain period of time ranging from three to five years, which in fact lasted throughout the nineties of the XV century.
    The repopulation affected only the places that had resisted the Castilian conquest. Many towns and cities (Granada, among them) and entire rural regions obtained from the kings capitulations that allowed the Muslims to remain in their places of origin, keeping their organizational system, religion, customs and properties almost unchanged. They were also allowed to emigrate freely - until the end of 1493 - to North Africa or any
    other part. In this way a difficult, if not impossible, coexistence began between the minority of emigrated Christians (about 40,000 families) and the Mudejar majority.
    Soon the problems arose and the ruptures began of the capitulations. At the end of 1499, the Moors in the Granada neighborhood of Albaicín revolted, who were forced to convert to Christianity. The revolt soon spread through the mountains (Alpujarras, Almería and Sierra Bermeja), continuing until 1501. Crushed at the cost of a hard military effort, the kings made the decision to order the conversion of the Mudejars, both from Granada and the rest of the kingdom. In this way and by way of imposition the Moors became "new Christians" or Moors. His assimilation was difficult. In 1568 the general uprising of
    the moriscos of the Alpujarras. After a hard war, the Moors would return to submit, then taking the decision to banish most of the Moorish population to points outside the kingdom of Granada.

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Carlos View Post


    In this other company they make another division neither so far apart, for them the Celtiberians do not exist Iberian 91%. More or less I get an idea of everything.


    As reinforcement I have the history of repopulation of my region:

    THE REPOBLATION OF ANDALUSIA
    https://www.colmich.edu.mx/relacione...lezJimenez.pdf


    M a n u el G onzález Jiménez
    UNIVERSIDAD DE SEVILLA

    The repopulation was a habitual practice in the Iberian Peninsula during all the Average Age. Until the
    11th century, it was developed over a wide barren or semi-populated territorial strip, located from the
    Mediterranean to the Atlantic, as a border between Christian Spain and Al-Andalus. Since the mid-eleventh century,
    the repopulation is a forced consequence of territorial advances
    carried out by the different Christian political formations at the expense
    of the muslims. In short, it was about populating abandoned or defectively populated lands, or consolidating, through the massive arrival of Christian settlers, the occupation of
    the newly conquered lands to Islam. Both formulas had
    place in Andalusia during the final centuries of the Middle Ages.


    The conquest of the territory that we properly call Andalusia
    -Current provinces of Jaén, Córdoba, Sevilla, Huelva and Cádiz, geographically belonging to the Guadalquivir Valley- was conquered for the most part during the thirteenth century. This was a result, in
    good measure of the political crisis that affected the Almohad Empire
    after the defeat of the Navas de Tolosa (1212), which allowed everyone
    the Christian kingdoms that had border with Al-Andalus (Aragon,
    Castilla, León and Portugal) develop and, in most cases,
    finalize the reconquest of the territories that in previous deals
    They had self-attributed. In the specific case of Castilla, this process
    it was carried out in its first phase by Fernando m (1217-1252),
    which was also king of León since 1230, in a series of campaigns initiated around 1225 that would culminate in 1248 with the conquest of Seville.
    In the time of Alfonso x (1252-1284), the incorporation into Castilla of the entire Guadalquivir valley was completed through the
    conquest of the kingdom of Mist (1262), the bay of Cádiz and everything
    the sector closest to the Strait of Gibraltar agglutinated around
    Jerez (1264-1266).

    During the later reigns the conquest of the
    Betic geographical space with the conquest of the important squares
    de Estrecho -Tarifa (1292), Gibraltar (1309 for the first time; 1462
    definitely), Algeciras (1344) - and some others like Olvera
    (1327), Alcalá la Real (1342), Antequera (1410) and Archidona (1462).

    THE REPOPULATION OF THE CENTURY Xlll

    Phases and modalities

    Although, as we shall see, the repopulation activity extended beyond the Middle Ages, the twentieth century was undoubtedly its peak. Within this initiated process, like the conquests, around 1230, two phases or moments can be indicated: an initial one that
    it arrives until 1264, during which the repopulation was compatible with the permanence in the region of masses of Moors submitted (MudeJares) under the capitulations granted by Fernando III to those places that did not resist: the Castilian advance. Such pacts guaranteed Muslims to remain on their land while retaining ownership of their property, their laws, religion and organizational system and the same tax regime of the Almohad era. The
    Mudejar population was majority in the countryside, although exceptionally it survived in some medium-sized cities. Very different was the case of the large cities and district headwaters (Baeza, Ubeda, Jaén, Córdoba and Seville itself) that were submitted after a more or less prolonged siege. The laws of war of the time imposed in these cases mass expulsion
    of the Muslim population that was forced to undertake, carrying only their personal property, a rosary of exiles whose final destination was the kingdom of Granada or North Africa. It was in the places thus conquered that Christian repopulationists would concentrate mostly.
    The revolt of the Andalusian and Murcian Mudejars in the spring of 1264 put a dramatic end to this experiment of a system - which with all the reservations of the case could be called, using words of R.I. Burns, "colonial" - based on exploitation of the benefits of war through the military, political and fiscal control of the submitted Muslim population. The revolt, which had been encouraged and supported by the Grenadians, had once submitted the Mudejar, a double result: the expulsion or departure of most Muslims, who, from this moment, would be reduced to an almost residual minority, and the acceleration of the process of Castilianization initiated selectively in the previous stage .

    The land deals

    Every repopulation process is, in the end, a form of appropriation of a space by a society. In times well before the xill century, this appropriation was very spontaneous. In the case of Andalusia, as before Toledo, the repopulation - and the other concomitant processes: granting of privileges, land distribution, creation of manors, etc. - was well controlled by the Crown and had very little spontaneity, although it cannot be ruled out either. at all, especially in some marginal areas of the territory. The most striking aspect of this process was undoubtedly the massive distribution of land, houses and other real estate with which the monarchs - and, in their lordships, the lords - attracted the region to repopulate. This was intended to populate the territory, thus attending both the consolidation of the conquest and its adequate defense. These land distributions are contained in singular documents, in the case of a concession to an individual or an institution, or in distribution books where the delivery of real estate, villager to villager, is collected in a specific location. They record two types of donations:
    1. Large lots of land or donations, which include buildings and agricultural facilities, usually granted to members of the royal family, nobles, ecclesiastics, cathedral councils, monasteries
    and military orders.
    2. And lots of goods, technically called inheritances or neighborhoods, which include houses, cereal lands and, sometimes, olive groves, sufficient to meet the needs of a family according to their social category.

    The first donations do not entail the obligation to populate. All the more, the beneficiary is required to provide a specific military service. They could be considered in such cases as fiefdoms.
    On the other hand, the inheritances were delivered with the condition of populating personally in the place and fulfilling the military obligations of their social category. Therefore, as a general principle, it can be said that in the beginning all the restockers are
    owners definition. These deals were undoubtedly the most spectacular part of the repopulation process, as can be deduced from the fact that in the course of about 40 or 50 years almost all the territorial property of
    Andalusia changed hands, given the practical disappearance of the Mudejar population. On the other hand, the distributions originated a society of owners in which those of medium and small entity predominated. The great owners constituted
    A minority within the whole. If later the large estate would be imposed in large areas of the region, it was as a result of a complex series of factors and an evolution that began in the thirteenth century itself but that lasted well into the Modern Age.

    The society of restockers

    The conquest of Andalusia meant a demographic break with the immediate past of the region. The practical substitution of one population for another explains
    that in the region a different type of society was implanted from the one that existed before the conquest. In the first place, it is a society similar to that from which the repopulators came from: that is, a Western and, more specifically, feudal society. Indeed, it is they distinguish the basic groups of the feudal society of the time: a minority of the privileged - a knights of blood or function, and the clergy - and a mass of non-privileged (peasants and artisans)
    which constitute what some texts of the time call the "other people".
    Secondly, they are people from all regions encompassed within the Crown of Castile, from the other kingdoms of the Peninsula and even from other parts of Europe. Its presence in Andalusia explains the implementation of political, economic, social and even cultural structures that owed very little to the Islamic past of the region.
    Now, although this society was, as it could not be otherwise, basically similar to the model prevailing at the time, it had differentiating features. The most important is to be a society of free men - even those submitted to manor - full owners of their own plots. Thus it is justified that in Andalusia there were no servants of the field, subject to limitations in their personal freedom and movement, and forced to pay benefits and taxes derived from the use of the land. Finally, Andalusian society, from the 13th century to 1492
    (conquest of Granada), was a frontier society. This feature is already observed in the distribution books, in which the repopulationists appear grouped around social categories of a clear military character: noble knights, members of the small nobility
    of Castilian-Leonese blood; citizen gentlemen, or townspeople who owned horses and weapons and who were in a position to fight in the same way as the nobility, and simple pawns or foot soldiers (spearmen, crossbowmen and other personnel).

    The survivals of the Islamic past

    If the repopulation is part of a process of greater scope of control of the space, and there were so many modifications in the structures of the property, in the forms of settlement, in the field of institutions and culture, it seems that it is more justified talk about a complex breakdown process that altered substantially and they distinguish the basic groups of the feudal society of the time: a minority of the privileged - a knights of blood or function, and the clergy - and a mass of non-privileged (peasants and artisans)
    which constitute what some texts of the time call the "other people".
    Secondly, they are people from all regions encompassed within the Crown of Castile, from the other kingdoms of the Peninsula and even from other parts of Europe. Its presence in Andalusia explains the implementation of political, economic, social and even cultural structures that owed very little to the Islamic past of the region.
    Now, although this society was, as it could not be otherwise, basically similar to the model prevailing at the time, it had differentiating features. The most important is to be a society of free men - even those submitted to manor - full owners of their own plots. Thus it is justified that in Andalusia there were no servants of the field, subject to limitations in their personal freedom and movement, and forced to pay benefits and taxes derived from the use of the land.
    Finally, Andalusian society, from the 13th century until 1492 (conquest of Granada), was a frontier society. This feature is already observed in the books of distribution, in which the repopulationists appear grouped around social categories of a clear military character: gentlemen noblemen, members of the small nobility of Castilian-Leonese blood; citizen gentlemen, or people of
    people who owned horses and weapons and were able to fight in the same way as the nobility, and simple pawns or foot soldiers (lancers, crossbowmen and other personnel).

    The survivals of the Islamic past

    definitely the historical trajectory of the region. This is what Julio González, a pioneer in Andalusian repopulation studies, referred to when he spoke about Seville about a “deep and radical” renovation and, more explicitly, M.A. Ladero when pointing out “the uprooting of a social formation, the Islamic-Andalusian, and its replacement
    on the other, the Christian-European represented by the repopulators ”.
    Now, if this was so, what survived the past, apart from "loose features of the old structure"? Apparently, and leaving aside certain cultural influences of difficult identification, the basic network of the settlement (of Roman origin, in the background) and more or less abundant elements of material culture. Possibly
    must have survived much more than we suppose, although in any case it would be necessary to take into account, for an easier solution of the problem, that Andalusia, from its very conquest and by its very
    The condition of the border world with Islam was permanently subjected to oriental influences.

    The inheritance of the Islamic past is perceptible in certain functional stays in the countryside, especially in regard to agricultural or industrial facilities, such as mills
    flour or oil, and the same could be said of the physical model of the great exploitation - machares, farmhouses and burj or towers - of which
    Andalusian farmhouses and farms derive. Certainly, certain urban traditions such as the irregular layout of the streets, the location of the religious and commercial centers (alhóndigas and alcaicerías) or some aspects of the urban infrastructure, such as drinking water pipes or the sewerage network, also survived.
    However, the main problem arises regarding the survival of hydraulic techniques and infrastructures, which remained in Valencia and Murcia. The preserved documentation documents so only the irrigation of orchards through the traditional system of ferris wheels and pools. But news regarding the existence of larger irrigation based on a network of ditches. In the absence of archaeological evidence, everything seems to indicate that irrigation was restricted to orchard areas, of reduced dimensions, where textile plants such as flax and cotton (in Ecija) were cultivated, in addition to fruit and vegetables, and, more rarely, Olive and mulberry trees.

    The new social structuring of space

    The conquest and the effects of the repopulation affected the structuring of a space until then organized to serve a different model of society and economy. The mass exoduses of
    Muslim population, first of the cities and later of the countryside, and subsequent land deals contributed to transform, even physically, the physiognomy of the region. Therefore, despite
    of the survivals that we alluded to before, the changes far exceeded those. It could not be otherwise given the following facts:

    1. Redistribution of ownership of the land operated through the distributions.
    2. The new type of economy introduced in the region by the stockholders.
    3. The political and military circumstances that conditioned the life of much of Andalusia during the period of 1252-1350.

    We have already alluded to what land deals meant: the complete renovation of almost all of the land within two generations. A process of such dimensions had to have a visible impact on the organization of space, through the disintegration of large operating units prior to
    the conquest, or of the grouping of plots in properties of smaller extension.
    As for the former, although we know very little about the land ownership structures in Almohad Andalusia, everything seems to indicate the existence of large properties held by the local nobility and bourgeoisie. So at least it happened in the surroundings of Seville. Many of these properties, as included in the book of the distribution, retained the structure of such at the time of the conquest, to the point of being in some cases with annexes in the form of neighborhoods. The largest and best farms passed entirely at the hands of the nobility and the Church.
    But most of them disintegrated into family-type exploitation units, of varying dimensions according to the beneficiary's social category, 4 that altered not only the same plot but also the minor road network and the traditional distribution of crops. The same devastating effects had to produce the inverse process of concentration of plots in the lands dedicated to cereal crops or in the communal ejidos and ejidos of the populations where the settlers settled.

    But the main landscape modifications derived from a different or at least peculiar conception of agricultural economics. We know little about Andalusí (Al_Andalus) agriculture. But it seems that the cultivation systems and the food traditions of the conquerors went by other paths. On the one hand, absolute predominance of a "cereal-based agriculture", which would corner other crops that required special techniques, unknown to the stockholders, safe markets and abundant labor. On the other, different cultivation systems: predominance of dry land and rotation biennial. To all this should be added the ignorance by repopulation of any other method of soil regeneration that was not "fallow" and grazing dry land. And that this
    This was proved by the existence of an extensive cattle ranch that fit perfectly with the eating habits and with the economic practices of the stockholders.
    As for the settlement, the conquest reinforced the role of cities, although in a different sense from the traditional one, emphasizing their administrative and military values, and, at the same time, profoundly altering the rural population. In fact, since its inception, the repopulation is organized from the urban centers, converted into administrative enclaves, agglutinators of the Christian settlement, into centers of power and defense of the territory.
    From them the repopulation of the territory is also organized and a coherent system of use of natural resources is established and a permanent flow from the countryside to the city is created and vice versa.
    This approach - initially compatible with the existence of numerous Mudejar villages - eventually became definitive, for reasons that we have already analyzed: the shortage of repopulators, the exodus or expulsion, after 1264, of the Mudejar population and the Threat of Grenadians and Moroccans. The transformation of the old Islamic villages into depopulated and the abandonment of the fields explains the extraordinary boom reached by livestock throughout the region and the interest that, from its origins around 1270, had the great cattle organization of the Mesta by the Andalusian pastures.

    Restocking balance of the thirteenth century

    The repopulation of Andalusia was an impressive effort for the Castilian-Leonese society of the thirteenth century, also forced to repopulate, simultaneously, much of Extremadura, La Mancha and Murcia. This justifies the impression that is deduced from the testimonies of the time of an impressive lack of human resources. And it is explained that the Christians of the North who went to Andalusia could not fill all the gaps produced by the expulsion and exodus of the Muslim population. In these circumstances, only cities and nuclei of strategic value were repopulated, and their immediate rural environment. The villages and the numerous rural enclaves of the Islamic era were largely unpopulated, thus becoming depopulated on which the repopulation efforts that would concentrate in the following centuries would be concentrated We will consider later. It goes without saying that the most unpopulated territories were those located near the border with the kingdom of Granada, which, to a large extent, only they would repopulate after the fall of the city of the Alhambra in the hands of the Catholic Monarchs.
    This relative failure of the repopulation of the thirteenth century was also due to other factors already mentioned: the abandonment and return of their places of origin of many of those who had come to repopulate; to the economic difficulties of the time that made Andalusia the most expensive region of the kingdom, and to the insecurity of the territory, threatened since 1275 by Grenadians and Moroccans. All these factors made Andalusia a little or not at all attractive area for potential stockholders.
    In conclusion, it can be affirmed that at the end of the 13th century Andalusia presented itself as a region threatened by border war, marked by the destruction of several decades of wars and located far below its possibilities and its demographic needs.
    However, it may not be convenient to load the inks too much.
    The repopulation of the century, despite its limitations, achieved the main objective: to control a strategic space and lay the demographic, institutional and cultural foundations of a completely transformed Andalusia. Naturally, I am referring to the "Castilianization" of the territory not as a result of the implementation of a mixed model of Christian-Mudejar society, which was the one that was initially tried, but by the community of origin
    and culture of most of its inhabitants. In fact, almost eliminated, by the expulsion or by voluntary exile, the native population, only the Jewish minority subtracted - returned to their individuals
    neighborhoods or juderías- and, in some cities like Seville, the colonies of foreign merchants who, despite their origin, barely kept within the whole of the society of repopulation.
    And it was precisely in this majority where a process of amalgam of influences took place that would lead after several generations to an Andalusia differentiated by accidental but very striking features, among which certain Speech variants compared to northern Castilian and others of a more anecdotal nature, such as a certain propensity for exaggeration, already pointed out at a very early date by Juan Ruiz, archpriest of Hita, in her famous Book of Good Love:

    The repopulations of the XV-XV centuries

    The repopulation activity continued during the last two medieval centuries, although at a much slower pace and with less spectacular results. This was the result of the intermittency with which the conquest operations that were practically interrupted in 1350 took place. During the fifteenth century the conquests before the final war of Granada (1482-92) were more sporadic than in the previous century, deserving to be noted by its meaning those of Antequera (1410) and Gibraltar (1462). In general terms, these conquests had a very local reach and can be considered as readjustments of the border designed in the thirteenth century.
    But, along with the repopulation of newly conquered places, it is possible to speak of another type of repopulation, which we will call from the interior, through which the agricultural and demographic recovery of the depopulated produced by the conquest took place and by the restricted or selective nature that had the "official" restocking of the century Xlll

    Border repopulations

    The border is, without a doubt, the area where it is best seen how difficult the task of repopulating was. This explains the very limited and even modest nature of border repopulations, despite the incentives that were granted to border towns since Alfonso x. Indeed, since its reign and at the same time that the defense of the border with the kingdom of Granada was organized, a border right oriented to attract residents was outlined.
    The most general aspect of this right is made up of the numerous tax exemptions that were granted to the inhabitants of the castles and towns of the border, culminating in the time of Alfonso XI with the most desired of all: that of the payment of alcabala.

    The military obligations of the inhabitants of the border were reduced to those of a merely defensive nature. Therefore, they were either exempt from attending the host or the obligation was limited to a reduced territorial scope, between Guadalquivir and
    the sea. Very soon this obligation was replaced by that of providing permanent defense and surveillance services in the town of which they were residents. And, even in this case, such services were paid by the Crown with welded according to the greater or lesser degree of military specialization of the neighbor. To these benefits was added, from the effective reign of Alfonso XI (1325-1350), the delivery to the repopulators of annual cereal concessions. However, the most distinctive feature of border law was the so-called privilege of homicians, formulated for the first time in the Gibraltar village letter (1310). By virtue of it, all those criminals who lived on the border for a certain time - a year and a day - could obtain forgiveness for their crimes, except for certain crimes such as treason, breaking truces or peace of the king or abduction of His lord's wife.
    This privilege would reach an extraordinary diffusion during the reign of Alfonso Xi, who granted it to almost all border towns and castles, starting with Alcaudete (1326) and Olvera (1327).
    Even today, the popular saying of the Sierra de Cádiz - "Kill the man and go to Olvera" - recalls this uniqueness of the Andalusian villages of the "Moorish band". The institution was also in force on the border of Portugal and Granada with the kingdom of Castile.
    Despite all these privileges, the border was populated with many difficulties, and there is more than one test. A well-documented case is that of Medina Sidonia, a town that was repopulated in the time of Alfonso x (1264-66) with about 200 inhabitants. By 1346 it had only 310 neighbors and that as a result of a second distribution ordered by Leonor de Guzmán, lady of the town and official lover of the Castilian monarch. Twenty years later, after two epidemic waves, the population had been reduced to 150 neighbors.
    Another perfectly documented case is that of Antequera, where in 1410 it was intended to install 620 neighbors. It was not so. To the

    At the end of the war in Granada, the city had no more than 375 neighbors, of which more than a hundred had settled in it after the conquest of Malaga (1487). Obvious signal that the border remained a repulsive environment for the population, to
    Despite the policy of privileges and exemptions deployed by the Crown over more than two centuries.
    Therefore, the fact that the end of the war and the disappearance of the border caused a real wave of repopulations and the urban population growth of the border towns that, until the end of the 15th century, had been confined were very significant to the reduced scope of its walled enclosures, in the shadow of its impressive castles. Antequera, again, is a paradigm of the new situation. In 1512 it already had about 2,000 neighbors. A few years later, the informants of Hernando Colón, the son of the Admiral, noted that "the village - that is, the walled enclosure - was small, but with large suburbs populated in a few years." In 1534 the number of neighbors exceeded the figure of 2 600.

    Interior restocking

    Since the end of the thirteenth century, Andalusia has been observed - although the phenomenon has only been analyzed in the sector of the Kingdom of Seville - an intense repopulation activity of a very different sign than what we have considered until now. In general terms, it is a task carried out by the landlords (noble, ecclesiastical and military orders) and, to a lesser extent, by the councils.
    Years ago I defined this process as an operation that managed to transform and humanize a rural landscape characterized by the predominance of uncultivated spaces and by the depopulated caused by the conquest, by the selective nature of the first repopulation and by the disappearance of the Mudejar population. Well, the repopulating activity of one and the other tried to make effective the domain -also jurisdictional- over empty spaces of population and get them to be, through the settlement of repopulating, productive and profitable. The results were not entirely negligible since only in the Kingdom of Seville were populated, between 1302 and 1346, no less than about 30 villages.
    The phenomenon was not reduced to the fourteenth century. On the contrary, it lasted throughout the fifteenth and first third of the sixteenth centuries.5 Here are briefly expressed the features of the process.

    1. Repopulations documented throughout the fourteenth century were carried out by very insignificant contingents of restockers: no more than 40 or 50 neighbors.
    2. Unlike the repopulation of the xill century, these peasant-repopulators came from the towns near the repopulated villages, so we are faced with short migrations
    radio that speak more of a redistribution of the population than of the arrival of stockholders from outside the region.
    3. During the fourteenth century the repopulations were the effect not so much of the existence of demographic pressure, but of the confluence of two different but coincidental factors: on the part of the landlords, the need to face the economic crisis characteristic of the period by putting into operation some
    semi-abandoned properties; on the part of the peasants, the possibility that the repopulation offered them to redo their battered family assets and return to own land, even if it was at the cost of accepting a not too generous manorial regime, as evidenced by the conserved letters-towns. Perhaps the peasants were also looking for security that was not guaranteed in the realengo. The result was the recreation, on a stately initiative, of a functional smallholding -which already existed in Islamic times- that placed an abundant, safe and submissive workforce in the vicinity of the large farms.
    To these factors was added, in the fifteenth century, population growth. As far as we know, this growth was simply spectacular: over 300% in some areas of Andalusia. It allowed to resume successfully, once the epidemics of the previous century were overcome, the repopulation process.
    4. But in addition to the economic interest of the landlords, there was another factor that should be highlighted: the possibility of transforming their large properties into true manors by installing them in repobladores-vassals. This is observed with all
    clarity in some village letters of the first half of the fourteenth century in which the Lord reserves, in addition to civil and criminal jurisdiction, the confirmation of the municipal authorities chosen by the neighbors. The passage of large property to the manor has not yet been sufficiently explained. But it is evident that, both in the fourteenth and the following centuries, the jurisdictional lords rivaled the attraction of villagers-vassals to their manors, to whom they distributed their own lands.
    5. The disappearance of the border with the kingdom of Granada, conquered, as is known, between 1482 and 1492, led, on the one hand, the increase of the population of the old border enclaves, and, on the other, the appearance of new populations in the same line. The phenomenon was particularly intense in the kingdoms of Jaén and Seville.

    The Repopulation of the Kingdom of Granada

    The repopulation of the kingdom of Granada - initiated from 1482 and, especially, from 1485 (conquest of Ronda) - has many points in common with the repopulation of the Guadalquivir valley in the thirteenth century.
    It was an operation sponsored by the Crown, with techniques and methodology all similar to those of the xill century: the installation of settlers following the method of distribution. The entity of the lots distributed depends on the social status of the stockholder.
    The restockers came from all the territories of the kingdom of Castile. There were, also, other peninsular kingdoms, such as Valencia, Mallorca and Portugal. Logically, for the most part they came from the nearest regions: the Andalucía del Guadalquivir,
    Murcia and Extremadura.

    Together with the real estate incentive, the repopulators received from the Catholic Monarchs the complete exemption from the payment of taxes for a certain period of time ranging from three to five years, which in fact lasted throughout the nineties of the XV century.
    The repopulation affected only the places that had resisted the Castilian conquest. Many towns and cities (Granada, among them) and entire rural regions obtained from the kings capitulations that allowed the Muslims to remain in their places of origin, keeping their organizational system, religion, customs and properties almost unchanged. They were also allowed to emigrate freely - until the end of 1493 - to North Africa or any
    other part. In this way a difficult, if not impossible, coexistence began between the minority of emigrated Christians (about 40,000 families) and the Mudejar majority.
    Soon the problems arose and the ruptures began of the capitulations. At the end of 1499, the Moors in the Granada neighborhood of Albaicín revolted, who were forced to convert to Christianity. The revolt soon spread through the mountains (Alpujarras, Almería and Sierra Bermeja), continuing until 1501. Crushed at the cost of a hard military effort, the kings made the decision to order the conversion of the Mudejars, both from Granada and the rest of the kingdom. In this way and by way of imposition the Moors became "new Christians" or Moors. His assimilation was difficult. In 1568 the general uprising of
    the moriscos of the Alpujarras. After a hard war, the Moors would return to submit, then taking the decision to banish most of the Moorish population to points outside the kingdom of Granada.

    you do realise that Myheritage as of 6 months ago ( I do not know if this is still the case ) use Ftdna scientists and their lab in the USA to give you these admixture results .......they do instruct these scientists to check other parts of your DNA though

  17. #17
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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Duarte: I am just posting and hoping you stay on the board. I have only been here for 3 months and you were I think the first person here who responded back to a question I had. Your work with Jovialis was excellent and greatly appreciated. Obviously, you have to make a decision as to what is best for you but I have enjoyed reading your post and greatly appreciated the work you did in making the Ancient Roman thread one that we could all learn from. I know I did, me a descendant of Sicilian immigrant farmers to the USA had a close distance with Iron Age Roman 437 and the Tuscan Italian SZ sample in the Lombard paper, the name escapes me know. I was able to learn that based on the work you and Jovialis did. Cheers and Again I hope you stay on board.

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    The only one that comes to me is a Swedish cousin (40cM), although the most interesting thing is that he has a paternal haplogroup E (BY176308). I didn't find your clade anywhere, he is half Polish and half Swedish.


    Quote Originally Posted by Duarte View Post
    And I, who am a mixed-race Brazilian, am 92% European.
    You are not mixed race.

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    Quote Originally Posted by torzio View Post
    my wife new ftdna origins
    Your wife is my match

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dou View Post
    The only one that comes to me is a Swedish cousin (40cM), although the most interesting thing is that he has a paternal haplogroup E (BY176308). I didn't find your clade anywhere, he is half Polish and half Swedish.

    You are not mixed race.
    They are already dating. I have already contacted one of the best genealogies in Spain, I have always felt that my country has been brought to me by some country in Europe, not because I am Andalusian I will be Phoenician, no son things are not that easy


    You've been in the forum for a short time, everyone knows that Duarte is a blacker black than bitumen.

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    Quote Originally Posted by HYGILI4K View Post
    Your wife is my match
    Who are you .....email me privately

    I only have her family line to 1710 in Gaiarine veneto

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    For me, MyHeritage has a more detailed breakdown of my ancestry:

    Attachment 11780
    Where as FTDNA only has:
    Attachment 11781

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    --------------------------------- repeat
    Last edited by Carlos; 30-01-20 at 23:53.

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    Dear @torzio.
    I would like to make a personal apology to you for my rudeness in post #10. I am not in the habit of being rude to people and I think I was quite rude to you, going beyond the limit of reasonableness. I believe that we are living in a tense and delicate political moment in Brazil and I unloaded on you something that should unload on some people who are part of my daily life here in Brazil. Forgive me. I respect you the way you are and your opinions the way they are. Disagreeing does not necessarily mean disrespect. If I didn't make that personal apology, I wouldn't be okay with myself.
    Cheers :)

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Duarte View Post
    Dear @torzio.
    I would like to make a personal apology to you for my rudeness in post #10. I am not in the habit of being rude to people and I think I was quite rude to you, going beyond the limit of reasonableness. I believe that we are living in a tense and delicate political moment in Brazil and I unloaded on you something that should unload on some people who are part of my daily life here in Brazil. Forgive me. I respect you the way you are and your opinions the way they are. Disagreeing does not necessarily mean disrespect. If I didn't make that personal apology, I wouldn't be okay with myself.
    Cheers :)
    I have no issue with yourself

    i have never liked myorigins, the previous version, the one before myorigins was far superior

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