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Thread: Upcoming Reich Lab paper on Viminacium etc

  1. #26
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    i think the romans were impressed by the dacian civilization (i may be wrong )
    http://www.angelfire.com/journal/dacians/

    and it wouldn't surprise anyone here if e-v13 was also significant among them ....

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    Quote Originally Posted by Aspar View Post
    There is no evidence for what you are saying but there is a lot of evidence that E-V13 and the direct ancestor of all E-V13'S today lived in the Neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian culture.
    And these guys were among the first builders of large settlements in Europe, way before the Steppe invaders came and destroyed those settlements.
    It extended from the Carpathian Mountains to the Dniester and Dnieper regions, centred on modern-day Moldova and covering substantial parts of western Ukraine and northeastern Romania, encompassing an area of 350,000 km2 (140,000 sq mi), with a diameter of 500 km (300 mi; roughly from Kyiv in the northeast to Brașov in the southwest).[1][2]

    Most likely the Steppe invaders have learned to build cities from the Neolithic people to which the ancestor of all modern E-V13 most likely belong.
    And even more likely is that this ancestor was in the Balkans way before any Steppe people.
    just check the TMRCA's of the E-V13 subclades to see they expanded around 4,7 ka, way after the end of the Cucuteni
    and the steppe invaders, they remained herders, they didn't build cities at that time
    well, I guess some of them became traders

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    pribislav from anthrogenica:
    posted the y haplogroups from those serbian roman and late antiquity
    but i am not sure about the veracity of them so i will wait for the real paper to come out .....

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    nope, the city builders were gone by the time E-V13 started to expand
    the steppe intruders were allready in the Carpathian Basin
    https://www.yfull.com/tree/E-V13/
    the E-V13 godfather had probably learned his stricks from them
    We are grandsons of a man called Proteus( in Ancient Egyptian inscription prt ) who lived somewhere in Early Bronze Age. He was a farmer and warrior who lived in the Alpine region, descended of Old Neolithic Farmers. His family and tribe was killed by some invaders from the East, Bull Beakers. Proteus revenged his family by killing two of the sons of Bull Beaker leader then he escaped further south in Italian Penninsula where he was welcomed and entered the services of the King of Rutulis.

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    Viminacium - 28 (labeled Serbia_Roman):

    E x 13 (L618 x 6; L618>V13 x 3; Z830 x 1; Z830>M123 x 1; Z1902 x 1; M96 x 1)

    G x 5 (PF3148 x 1; PF3148>L91 x 1; P303 x 1; L497 x 1; L497>Z1815 x 1)

    R1b x 3 (Z2103 x 1; U106 x 1; U152>L2>Z367 x 1)

    R1a x 2 (Z2124>Z2122 x 1; Z2124>Z2123 x 1)

    J x 2 (M304 x 1; L24 x 1)

    T x 1 (M184)

    I1 x 1 (M253)

    I2 x 1 (L596)


    Timacum Minus, Slog necropolis - 10 (labeled Serbia_Roman):

    E x 3 (M35 x 1; L618 x 1; L618>V13 x 1)

    J x 3 (M304 x 1; M410 x 1; M241 x 1)

    R1b x 2 (Z2103 x 1; Z2103>CTS1450 x 1)

    G x 1 (CTS342>FGC12126)

    I1 x 1 (Z58>CTS8647)


    Timacum Minus, Kuline necropolis - 5 (labeled Serbia_Early_Middle_Age):

    I2 x 2 (M423 x 2)

    E x 1 (L618)

    J x 1 (M304)

    R1b x 1 (P312>DF99)


    Lepenski Vir - 2:

    E x 1 (M35) - Serbia_Roman

    J x 1 (M102) - Serbia_Medieval


    Mediana - 2 (labeled Serbia_Gepid):

    G x 1 (P287)

    I1 x 1 (Z58>CTS8647)


    Gomolava - 1 (labeled Serbia_Medieval):

    I2 x 1 (M423>L621>CTS4002)


    from pribislav :

    https://anthrogenica.com/showthread....l=1#post695643



    Originally Posted by Aspar
    Are these SNP confirmed or just predicted from STR markers?



    All samples were 1240K sequenced at Reich Lab, so they are SNP confirmed. They obviously haven't paid much attention to Y-haplogroups, so we'll have to wait for paper to be published to check the BAM files for downstream SNPs.



    One more thing, I've only seen samples from Serbia, but this paper should be massive, with hundreds of samples from all across the Roman Empire, so we can expect samples from other Balkan countries as well. I'm pretty sure there will be samples from Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece and Hungary, but I'm hoping there will also be some from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, Montenegro, Albania and Romania.




    p.s
    the e-z830 and e-m123 from
    Viminacium can turn e-m123* or E-L791 like napoleon

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post






    Viminacium - 28 (labeled Serbia_Roman):

    E x 13 (L618 x 6; L618>V13 x 3; Z830 x 1; Z830>M123 x 1; Z1902 x 1; M96 x 1)

    G x 5 (PF3148 x 1; PF3148>L91 x 1; P303 x 1; L497 x 1; L497>Z1815 x 1)

    R1b x 3 (Z2103 x 1; U106 x 1; U152>L2>Z367 x 1)

    R1a x 2 (Z2124>Z2122 x 1; Z2124>Z2123 x 1)

    J x 2 (M304 x 1; L24 x 1)

    T x 1 (M184)

    I1 x 1 (M253)

    I2 x 1 (L596)


    Timacum Minus, Slog necropolis - 10 (labeled Serbia_Roman):

    E x 3 (M35 x 1; L618 x 1; L618>V13 x 1)

    J x 3 (M304 x 1; M410 x 1; M241 x 1)

    R1b x 2 (Z2103 x 1; Z2103>CTS1450 x 1)

    G x 1 (CTS342>FGC12126)

    I1 x 1 (Z58>CTS8647)


    Timacum Minus, Kuline necropolis - 5 (labeled Serbia_Early_Middle_Age):

    I2 x 2 (M423 x 2)

    E x 1 (L618)

    J x 1 (M304)

    R1b x 1 (P312>DF99)


    Lepenski Vir - 2:

    E x 1 (M35) - Serbia_Roman

    J x 1 (M102) - Serbia_Medieval


    Mediana - 2 (labeled Serbia_Gepid):

    G x 1 (P287)

    I1 x 1 (Z58>CTS8647)


    Gomolava - 1 (labeled Serbia_Medieval):

    I2 x 1 (M423>L621>CTS4002)


    from pribislav :

    https://anthrogenica.com/showthread....l=1#post695643



    Originally Posted by Aspar
    Are these SNP confirmed or just predicted from STR markers?



    All samples were 1240K sequenced at Reich Lab, so they are SNP confirmed. They obviously haven't paid much attention to Y-haplogroups, so we'll have to wait for paper to be published to check the BAM files for downstream SNPs.



    One more thing, I've only seen samples from Serbia, but this paper should be massive, with hundreds of samples from all across the Roman Empire, so we can expect samples from other Balkan countries as well. I'm pretty sure there will be samples from Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece and Hungary, but I'm hoping there will also be some from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegowina, Montenegro, Albania and Romania.




    p.s
    the e-z830 and e-m123 from
    Viminacium can turn e-m123* or E-L791 like napoleon
    Wow this is so exciting, thanks for sharing. Any word yet on autosomal results of the Serbia samples, or any other samples? Hopefully we will see the downstream Y DNA clades.

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    You welcome... 😉
    No i don't think anyone know on the autosomal
    Results of the serbian samples
    I also think it would be very cool
    Paper and when the bam file will be out
    Someone would check for downstream clades
    In each haplogroup..🤔
    P.s
    The autosomal picture is important
    For us to know or to make good guess
    On the ethnicity of each remain
    is he local moesian.... ?
    Is he roman soldier from legion... ?
    Is he auxilary soldier..... ?
    🤔

    Roman ruins in serbia ..


    https://davidsbeenhere.com/2016/08/2...-ruins-serbia/
    Last edited by kingjohn; 31-08-20 at 14:57.

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    it would be interesting if the 2 e-m35 samples from timacum minus and lepenski vir ( which are not asign to e-z830 or e-L618 and it's dervied clade E-V13
    will end up in e-L19 or e-m81

    Timacum Minus, Slog necropolis - 10 (labeled Serbia_Roman):

    E x 3 (M35 x 1;
    L618 x 1; L618>V13 x 1)

    J x 3 (M304 x 1; M410 x 1; M241 x 1)

    R1b x 2 (Z2103 x 1; Z2103>CTS1450 x 1)

    G x 1 (CTS342>FGC12126)

    I1 x 1 (Z58>CTS8647)


    Lepenski Vir - 2:

    E x 1 (M35) - Serbia_Roman

    J x 1 (M102) - Serbia_Medieval


    p.s
    as there where north african auxilary units in the roman army

    i now notice that in
    Viminacium
    there is 1 sample of z1902
    E x 13 (L618 x 6; L618>V13 x 3; Z830 x 1; Z830>M123 x 1; Z1902 x 1; M96 x 1)
    z1902 is the common ancestor of e-v12 and e-v65
    https://www.yfull.com/tree/E-Z1902/ fascinating
    wonder if this sample will end in e-v12 or e-v65 after bam files release

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    this is the name of the paper that will be published : ( from where the leak came)

    Olalde Iñigo: Human mobility at the Roman Danubian Limes before and after the fall of the Empireolalde is the same dude who made the great paper : on 8000 years of iberian history
    so i am looking forward to this paper

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    this is the name of the paper that will be published : ( from where the leak came)

    Olalde Iñigo: Human mobility at the Roman Danubian Limes before and after the fall of the Empireolalde is the same dude who made the great paper : on 8000 years of iberian history
    so i am looking forward to this paper
    Coming on June 1 conference

    https://lm.facebook.com/l.php?u=http...JkNZZJwxnzxuXg


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    Quote Originally Posted by blevins13 View Post
    Coming on June 1 conference

    https://lm.facebook.com/l.php?u=http...JkNZZJwxnzxuXg


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    9:00AM-10:30AM. Session 3 ‘Human Evolution’
    1. Olalde Iñigo. Human mobility at the Roman Danubian Limes before and after the fall of the Empire



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    Quote Originally Posted by blevins13 View Post
    Coming on June 1 conference

    https://lm.facebook.com/l.php?u=http...JkNZZJwxnzxuXg


    Sent from my ****** using Eupedia Forum

    thanks blevins for the link
    that is very cool there are many gifts in session 3

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    Sorry for the noob question, but when and where can we read the paper, since it's supposed to be published somewhere today?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Faunus View Post
    Sorry for the noob question, but when and where can we read the paper, since it's supposed to be published somewhere today?
    i think today it is only the date of the presentation of this paper in the conference
    not the actual date this paper will be published

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    Quote Originally Posted by Faunus View Post
    Sorry for the noob question, but when and where can we read the paper, since it's supposed to be published somewhere today?
    Good question. We should have booked a ticket for the conference btw, it was most likely online and we could ask more specific questions to the authors themselves.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    i think today it is only the date of the presentation of this paper in the conference
    not the actual date this paper will be published
    KingJohn: I am not a facebook subscriber. Do you have a link to the conference? Many times the abstracts of the papers will be made available on the conference website.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Palermo Trapani View Post
    KingJohn: I am not a facebook subscriber. Do you have a link to the conference? Many times the abstracts of the papers will be made available on the conference website.

    i am also not ,
    but i promise you this :
    when the paper will be published i will post it here

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    Why is there a DNA study for only Viminacium, but there is yet to be any from The Battle of Teutoburg site in Germany, which could potentially yield an estimated 15,000 - 20,000 Y DNA samples from the mass Roman graves?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Galaxy Overlord View Post
    Why is there a DNA study for only Viminacium, but there is yet to be any from The Battle of Teutoburg site in Germany, which could potentially yield an estimated 15,000 - 20,000 Y DNA samples from the mass Roman graves?
    If i am not wrong
    this paper will also be on other sites
    In serbia from roman period to early mediveal
    Not only viminacium ( like : Timacum Minus, ,Lepenski Vir,Mediana,Gomolava)
    your question is good maybe you
    Should emaill wolfgang haak or other researches from germany
    If they will decide to go for it
    I believe it could happen, and we could see dna from this site in germany
    Last edited by kingjohn; 03-06-21 at 17:33.

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    how much can we wait for that paper .....

    Ancestral origins at the Roman Danubian Limes
    Content:At its peak, the Roman Empire united all Mediterranean shores under the same rule and law. This, together with great improvements in long-distance communications, brought human mobility across the Mediterranean to an unprecedented scale. From all the areas which were under Roman control, the Balkans is a particularly interesting region as it was the midpoint connecting the Western and the Eastern parts of the Empire; and several peoples groups moved through the region during the Great Migration Period, such as Goths, Huns or Slavs. In this project, we have extracted and analyzed aDNA from ancient Roman and post-Roman individuals (n=69) from 3 settlements located in present-day Serbia: most importantly the capital of Moesia Superior Roman province, Viminacium. Genetic and Radiocarbon dating analyses results point to a high degree of cosmopolitism in Viminacium during the early imperial period. We observe two major groups of individuals: one with a local ancestral signature likely deriving from Balkan Bronze and Iron Age populations, and other with Near Eastern ancestral origin, suggesting strong population movements from the Eastern parts of Empire impacting not only Rome, but also other major cities like Viminacium. Moreover, we detect remarkable cases of human mobility across the Saharan and the Mediterranean, such as a young male, whose ancestral origins lie in Eastern Africa. These results highlight how dense samplings at specific sites can provide a detailed view on both individual and large-scale human mobility patterns.
    Authors
    Pablo Carrion, Iñigo Olalde, Nadin Rohland, Miodrag Grbić, Nataša Miladinović-Radmilović, Željko Tomanović, Dušan Keckarević, Ilija Mikić, Carles Lalueza-Fox, David Reich

    p.s
    the east african male who ended in the danubian limes that they are talking about
    is in my opinion could be the 1 case of e-z830 in viminacium
    there is a branch of e-z830 , called e- v1515
    that is found in the horn of africa , and arabia
    with extension to south africa by a version called e-m293

    https://www.yfull.com/tree/E-CTS10880/



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    1 members found this post helpful.
    after long long waiting it is here :

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...08.30.458211v1

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    after long long waiting it is here :

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...08.30.458211v1
    Thanks. Now, I've to find time to read acutely.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    after long long waiting it is here :

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...08.30.458211v1

    Albanians remain similar to the local early empire individuals.
    And Greeks their extension.

    Image1630429547.197504.jpg



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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    after long long waiting it is here :

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...08.30.458211v1
    Thanks for the link.


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    "The Roman Empire expanded through the Mediterranean shores and brought human mobility and cosmopolitanism across this inland sea to an unprecedented scale. However, if this was also common at the Empire frontiers remains undetermined. The Balkans and Danube River were of strategic importance for the Romans acting as an East-West connection and as a defense line against “barbarian” tribes. We generated genome-wide data from 70 ancient individuals from present-day Serbia dated to the first millennium CE; including Viminacium, capital of Moesia Superior province. Our analyses reveal large scale-movements from Anatolia during Imperial rule, similar to the pattern observed in Rome, and cases of individual mobility from as far as East Africa. Between ~250-500 CE, we detect gene-flow from Central/Northern Europe harboring admixtures of Iron Age steppe groups. Tenth-century CE individuals harbored NorthEastern European-related ancestry likely associated to Slavic-speakers, which contributed >20% of the ancestry of today's Balkan people.

    "A key feature of the data is two parallel genetic clines running along PC1 (Fig. 1). We call the first the “Balkan Iron Age cline”, with southern Balkan populations such as Bronze Age and Iron Age Aegean groups on the right extreme closer to Near Eastern populations (larger values in PC1), northern populations such as Slovenian Iron Age groups on the left extreme closer to Central European populations (smaller values in PC1), and a Bulgarian Iron Age individual and Bronze Age and Iron Age Croatian groups taking intermediate positions but closer to the southern and northern extremes, respectively. This Iron Age cline is mirrored by the “presentday Balkan cline”, which is shifted towards the upper-left of the plot (lower values in PC1 and higher values in PC2) with respect to the Iron Age cline but maintains the same geographical pattern of southern Balkan populations such as the Greeks on the right, and northern Balkan populations such as Croatians on the left. This suggests that present-day populations are not direct descendants without admixture of Iron Age groups from the same region, and that similar demographic shaped Balkan populations from North to South over the past 2,000 years."

    "Consistent with this, we model the ancestry of this Balkans Iron Age Clusteras predominantly deriving from Iron Age (IA) groups from nearby areas in the Balkans, with 67% Aegean Bronze Age-related ancestry and the remainder Slovenia Iron Age-related ancestry (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.1). A local origin is supported by a high frequency of Ychromosome lineage E-V13, which has been hypothesized to have experienced a Bronze-to-Iron Age expansion in the Balkans and is found in its highest frequencies in the present-day Balkans 17. We interpret this cluster as the descendants of local Balkan Iron Age populations living at Viminacium, where they represented an abundant ancestry group during the Early Imperial and later periods (~47% of sampled individuals from the 1-550 CE).

    "The other major cluster (44% of the samples from Viminacium between 1-250 CE) is represented by individuals who projected towards ancient and present-day Eastern Mediterranean groups in PCA (Figure 1A), close to ancient individuals from Rome during Imperial times 3. Their ancestry can be modelled as deriving deeply from Chalcolithic Western Anatolian groups (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.2), and we refer to this cluster as the Near Eastern-related cluster. The same signal of arrivals individuals with Anatolian/Near Eastern ancestral origins is also evident in Rome during the same period 3, consistent with largescale gene-flow originating from the major eastern urban centers of the Empire (such as Constantinople, Antioch, Smyrna and Alexandria). These results suggest that immigration from the east was a common feature across urban centers in the Roman Empire, including in border areas and large cities/military outposts such as Viminacium. Individuals with Eastern Mediterranean ancestry could have high social status: 3 out of the 4 individuals buried in two sarcophagi (each containing a male-female pair) with exceptionally rich grave goods at the Rit necropolis in Viminacium belonged to the Near Eastern-related cluster, while the remaining one belonged to the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster. This kind of burial was common in the Eastern Roman settlements for aristocratic members of society 20. Individuals from this cluster were also more likely to be inhumated in a wooden coffin rather than freely buried, which could also be an indication of higher social prestige."
    Three individuals from ~1-250 CE did not fit into the two major clusters. Two males from Viminacium could be modelled using Iron Age individuals from Northwest Europe as their only source (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.5), pointing to a Northwestern European origin also supported by the R1b-U106 paternal lineage, which was not been detected in the Balkans in earlier periods but was found at high frequencies in Germanic-speaking areas, both in ancient and present-day individuals. The most remarkable outlier is male I15499, excavated at Pirivoj necropolis in Viminacium, who projects outside West Eurasian genetic diversity (Figure S7). When we incorporated African populations onto the PCA (Figure S8), he projected within the variation of present-day East African populations and close to early Christians from Northern Sudan from 500-800 CE 21 who provide a good fit for his ancestry in qpAdm (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.4). An Eastern African ancestral origin agrees with his uniparental markers mtDNA L2a1j and Y-chromosome E1b-V32, both common in East Africa today 17,22. Archeological examination of I15499’s grave found an oil lamp depicting an eagle, the symbol of Roman legion (Figure S2C). Although lamps are a common finding in Viminacium graves 23, not many depict military iconography. We hypothesize that this male was a Roman legionary or auxiliary stationed at Viminacium. We cannot determine if he was a Roman citizen, although auxiliary military service for a prolonged period of time resulted in citizenship. Historical evidence also points to African recruits being tapped to reinforce the Roman Danubian limes 24."

    "At Slog, we found one directly radiocarbon dated individual with a clear Near Eastern ancestral origin, likely from the Northern Levant (Figure 1B Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.3), as well as directly radiocarbon dated individuals belonging to the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster. This confirms that the two major ancestry clusters from 1-250 CE period co-existed at least three centuries in the Danubian limes. The legacy of Balkans Iron Age groups persists in admixed form in later groups including present-day Balkan populations (see below), whereas the Near Eastern-related ancestral legacy eventually ebbed in favor of Northern/Eastern European-related ancestry, similar to the patterns observed in the city of Rome itself 3."

    "
    These findings support the hypothesis that such individuals were part of a cosmopolitan group comprising a large proportion of individuals in Imperial towns and cities who over time were demographically overwhelmed by populations in the countryside or by faster reproductive rates of rural or populations without as much Near Eastern influence."

    "The legacy of Balkans Iron Age groups persists in admixed form in later groups including present-day Balkan populations (see below), whereas the Near Eastern-related ancestral legacy eventually ebbed in favor of Northern/Eastern European-related ancestry, similar to the patterns observed in the city of Rome itself 3. These findings support the hypothesis that such individuals were part of a cosmopolitan group comprising a large proportion of individuals in Imperial towns and cities who over time were demographically overwhelmed by populations in the countryside or by faster reproductive rates of rural or populations without as much Near Eastern influence.

    "We found highly similar ancestry trajectories across time in Rome and Viminacium, with a strong Anatolian/Near Eastern influence during the Imperial period that resulted in a large portion of the analyzed individuals in both cities having Near Eastern ancestry, followed by a resurgence of local ancestry after the Empire’s decline 3. These results highlight how mobility from the Easternmost areas of the Empire was a common feature of large cities and towns from the capital city of Rome to the Danubian limes, but that demographically these populations were a veneer without long-lasting influences, suggesting either that they were greatly outnumbered by local rural populations, or that their reproductive rates were much lower than that of local rural populations, consistent with evidence that cities and towns in the Roman empire did not successfully reproduce themselves demographically and instead constantly had to be repopulated through immigration 29. In the Imperial period, genetic data suggest that a large proportion of this immigration derived from the Eastern Mediterranean highlighting the centrality of this region in the period of intense human connectivity during Imperial Rome. Conversely, the decline in the geographic scale and number of people involved in transMediterranean movements following the Empire’s decline is reflected in the fact that in later periods, Eastern Mediterranean influence largely disappeared in both the city of Rome and in the large towns of the Balkans."

    (Finally, someone got it!)

    We also observe new ancestry during this period at Mediana, Slog necropolis at Timacum Minus and Viminacium (mostly at Pecine and Vise Grobalja necropoli), as early as the 4thcentury CE. A cluster of 10 individuals from these necropoli is shifted in PCA from the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster toward Central/Northern European ancient and present-day populations (Figure 1B). This group which we refer to as Central/Northern European cluster, could be modeled as deriving from two main sources: ~38% related to the local Balkans Iron Age substratum (we use the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster as a proxy for this type of ancestry) and 50% Central/Northern European ancestry (we use as a proxy individuals from a roughly contemporaneous Langobard-associated cemetery in Hungary 25). To obtain a fitting model, a significant proportion of ancestry (~14%) related to contemporaneous nomadic steppe groups (proxied in our analysis by Late Sarmatians from the Eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe 26) is also needed (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.6). This is even more evident in two individuals from the Pecine necropolis in Viminacium (referred to as Steppe cluster), who could be modelled as deriving ~43% of ancestry from the Balkans Iron Age-related cluster and 57% ancestry from Late Sarmatian-related Steppe groups (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.7). Ychromosome lineages also provide evidence for gene-flow, as 5 of 7 males in the Central/Northern European and Steppe cluster belonged to two lineages not found in the Balkans earlier: haplogroup I1 with a strong Northern European distribution and haplogroup R1a-Z645, common in the Steppe during the Iron Age and early 1st millennium CE 26–28. The Roman Empire had a prolonged history of contact with Germanic tribes, whose homelands were in Northern Europe between the Rhine and Vistula rivers. During the Great Migration period groups that coalesced as the Goths moved southwards, and settled at the Black Sea north coast prior to their entry in the Roman Empire 6. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that such tribes interacted with Steppe-related nomadic populations reaching the Eastern European plateau, and incorporated their ancestry into their gene pool before moving into the Balkans. However, the occurrence and manner of this interaction needs to be clarified with a more thorough sampling of this region and time period.

    "The remaining five individuals clustered in the West-Eurasian PCA (Figure 1C) on top of the “present-day Balkan genetic cline”, close to present-day Serbianspeaking individuals that we newly genotyped for this study, but this apparent similarity is a projection artifact as their ancestry could not be fitted using the same qpAdm models (Supplementary section 12.8). To understand this, we performed a PCA using present-day Germanic- and Slavic-speaking populations (Supplementary section 9; Figure S9) that we expected would be sensitive to more recent drift separating Central, Northern and Eastern European populations. The Kuline individuals are more shifted towards present-day Slavicspeaking populations as compared to individuals in the Central/Northern European cluster, agreeing with the presence of Y-chromosome lineage I2-L621 in Kuline, which is common in present-day Slavic-speaking groups and absent in earlier periods. In light of these results, we modeled the ancestry of the Kuline individuals as a mixture of 56% deriving from the local Balkan Iron Age substratum and 44% deriving from Northeastern European Iron Age groups, and obtained a good statistical fit (Figure 2; Supplementary section 12.8). Our results point to a strong demographic impact of Eastern European groups in the Balkans during the Medieval period, likely associated to the arrival of Slavic-speaking populations. Yet, our results rule out a complete demographic replacement, as we observe a significant portion of local Iron Age Balkan ancestry in Kuline individuals. Interestingly, we found sex bias when modeling the X chromosome of the individuals of this necropolis (Supplementary section 12.8). Perhaps the immigrant groups were constituted by a higher number of women, who therefore impacted more greatly in the demographics of the post-Roman Balkans. However, these findings have only been observed in the Kuline individuals with North-European related ancestry (n=5), we suggest more data will be needed to obtain more evidence Slavic sex bias in the Balkans. To explore whether this Northeastern European ancestry signal persisted in present-day Balkan and Aegean populations, we attempted to model present day groups by using the same qpAdmmodel used for the Kuline individuals (Supplementary section 13). Present-day Serbs, Croats and the rest of central/northern Balkan populations yielded a similar ancestral composition as the Kuline individuals, with approximately 50% Northeastern European-related ancestry admixed with ancestry related to Iron Age native Balkan population (Figure 3), implying substantial population continuity in the region over the last 1,000 years. This ancestry signal significantly decreases in more southern groups, but it is still presents in populations from mainland Greece (~30%) and even the Aegean islands (7-20%)."


    Non si fa il proprio dovere perchè qualcuno ci dica grazie, lo si fa per principio, per se stessi, per la propria dignità. Oriana Fallaci

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