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Thread: The Genomic Formation of Human Populations in East Asia

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    The Genomic Formation of Human Populations in East Asia

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...03.25.004606v1


    Abstract
    The deep population history of East Asia remains poorly understood due to a lack of ancient DNA data and sparse sampling of present-day people. We report genome-wide data from 191 individuals from Mongolia, northern China, Taiwan, the Amur River Basin and Japan dating to 6000 BCE - 1000 CE, many from contexts never previously analyzed with ancient DNA. We also report 383 present-day individuals from 46 groups mostly from the Tibetan Plateau and southern China. We document how 6000-3600 BCE people of Mongolia and the Amur River Basin were from populations that expanded over Northeast Asia, likely dispersing the ancestors of Mongolic and Tungusic languages. In a time transect of 89 Mongolians, we reveal how Yamnaya steppe pastoralist spread from the west by 3300-2900 BCE in association with the Afanasievo culture, although we also document a boy buried in an Afanasievo barrow with ancestry entirely from local Mongolian hunter-gatherers, representing a unique case of someone of entirely non-Yamnaya ancestry interred in this way. The second spread of Yamnaya-derived ancestry came via groups that harbored about a third of their ancestry from European farmers, which nearly completely displaced unmixed Yamnaya-related lineages in Mongolia in the second millennium BCE, but did not replace Afanasievo lineages in western China where Afanasievo ancestry persisted, plausibly acting as the source of the early-splitting Tocharian branch of Indo-European languages. Analyzing 20 Yellow River Basin farmers dating to ~3000 BCE, we document a population that was a plausible vector for the spread of Sino-Tibetan languages both to the Tibetan Plateau and to the central plain where they mixed with southern agriculturalists to form the ancestors of Han Chinese. We show that the individuals in a time transect of 52 ancient Taiwan individuals spanning at least 1400 BCE to 600 CE were consistent with being nearly direct descendants of Yangtze Valley first farmers who likely spread Austronesian, Tai-Kadai and Austroasiatic languages across Southeast and South Asia and mixing with the people they encountered, contributing to a four-fold reduction of genetic differentiation during the emergence of complex societies. We finally report data from Jomon hunter-gatherers from Japan who harbored one of the earliest splitting branches of East Eurasian variation, and show an affinity among Jomon, Amur River Basin, ancient Taiwan, and Austronesian-speakers, as expected for ancestry if they all had contributions from a Late Pleistocene coastal route migration to East Asia.

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    This looks very interesting, with 191 samples total, though many are low quality.

    130 pass quality assessment:
    7 Jomon from Japan - 6 from near Tokyo, ~2000-1500 BC, and 1 from Hokkaido, ~3500-3200 BC.
    65 Neolithic to Iron Age samples from various sites in Mongolia (including Afanasievo, Chemurchek, and Slab Grave)
    20 from Primorsky Krai (extreme southeast Russia) - mostly Neolithic 5700-3600 BC, plus 1 Iron Age and 2 Early Medieval (Mohe)
    1 recent historical sample from Sakhalin (Ainu?)
    37 from Taiwan - 1 from about 1300 BC, the rest from ~AD 150-850.

    There are also 20 samples from Shaanxi, Central China, ~3400-2800 BC -
    all shotgun sequenced and of questionable quality, but still good enough to get some results.



    part 1:

    I129731388-1134 calBCE (3020±25 BP, UCIAMS-226529, PSUG-5432)Bulgan, Khutag undur sum, Marzyn Khutul tomb 1MongoliaQ1a2a1c D4j

    I129581619-1458 calBCE (3265±30 BP, UCIAMS-226527, PSUG-5430) [use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS-date of 1187-516 calBCE (2685±110 BP, Le-7213)]Khovd, Bulgan sum, Khukh uzuur, barrow 2 Mongolian/a (female)G2a1

    I62213000-2500 BCEBayankhongor aimag, Erdenetsogt sum, Shatar chuluu kurgan 2Mongolia J1 [email protected]

    I62223316-2918 calBCE (4415±31 BP, OxA-36222)Bayankhongor aimag, Erdenetsogt sum, Shatar chuluu kurgan 2Mongolia R1b1a1a2a1aR

    I139572858-2505 calBCE (4095±25 BP, PSUAMS-6942) [use instead of less precise but consistent non-AMS-date of 3011-2480 calBCE (4180±100 BP, Le-7219)]Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kurgak govi barrow 1, infant burial in main grave Mongolia C2b1a1 G2a+152

    I131803013-2876 calBCE (4290±35 BP, PSUAMS-6944) [we used this direct AMS date on the same petrous bone analyzed for DNA instead of a previous and marginally non-overalpping AMS date of 2866-2577 calBCE (4114±29 BP, OxA-36230) on a different skeletal element supposed to be from the same individual, or a non-AMS date of 2572-2151 calBCE (3900±70 BP, Le-7212) also a different skeletal element supposed to be from the same individual]Bayan-Ulgii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kumdii govi barrow, burial 2 Mongolian/a (female)A+152+16362

    I129772913-2777 calBCE (4250±25 BP, UCIAMS-226551, PSUG-5466) [use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS date of 2471-1781 calBCE (3725±115 BP, Le-7220)]Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kulala Ula barrow 1, secondary burialMongolia C2b1a1 D4b1

    I63612618-2487 calBCE (4034±16 BP, GrM-12938) [use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS date of 2471-2044 calBCE (3825±70 BP, Le-7215)]Bayan-Ulgii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kurgak govi barrow 2 secondary burialMongolian/a (female)A+152+16362

    I129782570-2476 calBCE [Rcombine of 2567-2468 calBCE (3983±17 BP, GrM-12984) and 2833-2487 calBCE (4050±25 BP, UCIAMS-226530, PSUG-5433); use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS dates of 2461-2152 calBCE (3838±40 BP, Le-6932, Le-6933, Le-6939 R_Combine)]Khovd, Bulgan sum, Yagshiin hodoo barrow 1, bone find BMongolia R1b1a1a2a2 C4+152

    I129572571-2464 calBCE (3980±25 BP, UCIAMS-226526, PSUG-5429)Khovd, Bulgan sum, Yagshiin khodoo, Barrow 3Mongolia R1b1a1a2a2 T1a1

    I6369752-416 calBCE (2455±20 BP, PSUAMS-3114)Khentii, Murun sum, Bus khairkhan Tomb 2 Mongolian/a (female)B5b

    I63531002-909 calBCE [Rcombine of 1002-846 calBCE (2780±25 BP, PSUAMS-2946), 1072-903 calBCE (2826±30 BP, OxA-36456)]Uvurkhangai, Khujirt sum, Shunkhlai Uul, Tomb 9Mongolia Q1a1a1 G2b2

    I129691119-980 calBCE (2875±20 BP, UCIAMS-226545, PSUG-5460)Khentii, Delgerkhaan sum, Khanan 3Mongolia Q1a1a1 [email protected]

    I131781042-916 calBCE (2825±20 BP, UCIAMS-226531, PSUG-5434)Khentii, Bayan-Adraga sum, Shuusyn boom Tomb 6Mongolian/a (female)R

    I139581023-912 calBCE (2820±20 BP, UCIAMS-226558, PSUG-5473)Tuv aimag, Altanbulag sum, Erdenekhairkhan uulyn ar, Tomb 3 Mongolian/a (<50000 SNPs)H2a

    I7032976-838 calBCE (2765±20 BP, PSUAMS-4004)Khentii, Batshireet sum, Tugsiin uvdug Tomb 1Mongolian/a (female)C4a2a1

    I12971976-838 calBCE (2765±20 BP, UCIAMS-226547, PSUG-5462)Dornod aimag, Gurvanzagal sum, Khadan khuv Tomb 1Mongolian/a (female)D4j7

    I13963968-833 calBCE (2750±20 BP, PSUAMS-6943)Khentii, Delgerkhaan sum, Rashaant tolgoi, tomb 6Mongolian/a (female) C5b1b

    I6368791-569 calBCE [Rcombine of 784-544 calBCE (2510±20 BP, PSUAMS-3907) and 800-571 calBCE (2550±20 BP, PSUAMS-4252)]Khentii, Delgerkhaan sum, Khanan Tomb 1aMongolian/a (female)L3

    I6349895-801 calBCE (2675±20 BP, PSUAMS-7398)Sükhbaatar aimag, Dariganga sum, Baaran-KhavtsalMongolia Q1a1a1 D4m2

    I63521071-925 calBCE (2845±20 BP, PSUAMS-7276)Uvurkhangai, Khujirt sum, Shunkhlai Uul, Grave #1Mongolia Q1a1a F1b1b

    I6365814-783 calBCE (2610±20 BP, PSUAMS-7282)Khuvsgul aimag, Burentogtoh sum, Uushigiin uvur, slab grave 1Mongolia N1c1aD4o1

    I63591100-400 BCE [range based on other dates from the same cultural context and genetic cluster]Khuvsgul aimag, Alag-Erdene sum, Erhel nuur, Ulaan tolgoi Mongolia Q1a2a1c C5c

    I63571100-400 BCE [This range is based on other dates from the same cultural context and genetic cluster. We ignore the direct date of 1277-1383 calCE (680±15 BP, PSUAMS-7278) ]Tuv aimag, Altabulag sum, Tariat Brigad Tomb 5Mongolian/a (female)D4b2

    I63641023-912 calBCE (2820±20 BP, PSUAMS-7281)Khovd, Bulgan sum, Uliastain dood denj I, kurgan 4Mongolian/a (female)M9a1a1c1

    I13504487-391 calBCE (2360±20 BP, UCIAMS-226556, PSUG-5471)Khuvsgul aimag, Ulaan-Uul sumMongolia Q1a2a W

    I6230349-97 calBCE (2140±20 BP, PSUAMS-7396)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #47, Burial 2Mongolia Q1a2a1c1 U2e1h

    I7029354-114 calBCE (2155±20 BP, PSUAMS-3877)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 53, burial 2Mongolia Q1a2a1c1 U4a1

    I7026356-177 calBCE (2180±15 BP, PSUAMS-4503)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #41, Burial 6Mongolian/a (<50000 SNPs)C4a1a+195

    I6231358-174 calBCE (2180±20 BP, PSUAMS-7397)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #47, Burial 3Mongolia Q1a2a1c1 F1b1b

    I6226360-184 calBCE (2190±25 BP, PSUAMS-7270)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #35, Burial 2Mongolian/a (female)H91

    I6224361-203 calBCE (2210±20 BP, PSUAMS-7268)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #33, Burial 3Mongolia R1a1a1b T2b34

    I6233361-203 calBCE (2210±20 BP, PSUAMS-7272)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery, Grave #49, Burial 1Mongolia R1a1a1b2 [email protected]

    I7023365-204 calBCE (2215±20 BP, PSUAMS-4001)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #31, Burial 6 Mongolian/a (female)H

    I7028381-208 calBCE (2235±20 BP, PSUAMS-4597)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 46, burial 1Mongolian/a (female)H2a2a

    I6232387-209 calBCE (2245±20 BP, PSUAMS-7271)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #48, Burial 6Mongolia Q1a2a1c1 U4b1a1a1

    I7030391-209 calBCE (2250±20 BP, PSUAMS-3722)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 56 Mongolia R1a1a1b D4b1a2a1

    I7022391-209 calBCE (2250±20 BP, PSUAMS-4000)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #11, Burial 7Mongolia Q1a1b1 C4a1a+195

    I7024391-209 calBCE (2250±20 BP, PSUAMS-4002)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #36, Burial 2Mongolia R1a1a1b2 R1b1

    I7027399-235 calBCE (2275±20 BP, PSUAMS-4003) Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #45, Burial 2Mongolia R1a1a1b T1a1

    I6223400-200 BCEUvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 1 burial 5Mongolian/a (<50000 SNPs)..

    I6225400-200 BCE Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #33, Burial 5MongoliaR1a1T2 b34

    I6356400-200 BCE [This range is based on other dates from the same cultural context and genetic cluster. We ignore the direct date of 1386-1217 calBCE (3030±20 BP, PSUAMS-7277) Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery, Grave #58, Burial 2Mongolia Q1a2a C4a1a3

    I12970400-235 calBCE (2280±20 BP, UCIAMS-226546, PSUG-5461)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 48 burial 7Mongolia Q1a2a1c1 A8a

    I12956405-364 calBCE (2305±20 BP, UCIAMS-226544, PSUG-5459)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave 48 burial 4Mongolian/a (<50000 SNPs)n/a (<2x)

    I13965397-233 calBCE (2270±20 BP, UCIAMS-226560, PSUG-5475)Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Tsengel sum, Biluut 2 barrow 4 Mongolian/a (female)G2a1

    I6263358-181 calBCE (2185±20 BP, PSUAMS-7273)Bayan Ulgii aimag, Tsengel sum, Tsagaan-Uul, KhuvsgolMongolian/a (female)H5a1

    I62283-120 calCE (1950±20 BP, PSUAMS-7395)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery Grave #44 Mongolia C2b1a1b1 D4j12

    I14194971-834 calBCE (2755±20 BP, UCIAMS-226562, PSUG-5476)Sükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Ulaanzukh, Tomb 32Mongolian/a (female)C4a1

    I13175383-535 calCE (1625±20 BP, UCIAMS-226554, PSUG-5469)Khovd, Bulgan sum, Uliastai deed denj II kurgan 1 burial 1 (secondary)MongoliaR1b1c D4b1a2a

    I131741500-1423 calBCE (3185±20 BP, UCIAMS-226564, PSUG-5483) [use instead of less precise but consistent non-AMS date of 1493-1091 calBCE (3050±70 BP, Le-6638)]Khovd, Munkhkhairkhan sum, Khukh tolgoi barrow 9 Mongolia Q1a2a1c U5a2

    I139591441-1306 calBCE (3125±20 BP, UCIAMS-226559, PSUG-5474) [use instead of less precise but consistent non-AMS date of 1972-1306 calBCE (3340±130 BP, Le-6637)]Khovd, Munkhkhairkhan sum, Ulaan tolgoi, barrow 3Mongolian/a (female)n/a (<2x)

    I129721447-1309 calBCE (3130±20 BP, UCIAMS-226553, PSUG-5468)Sükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Adgiin gol Tomb 21Mongolia Q1a1 D4i

    I140371420-1296 calBCE (3095±20 BP, UCIAMS-226561, PSUG-5475)Sükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Bulgiin ekh, Tomb 47 Mongolia Q1a1a M11b

    I139641500-800 BCESükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Ulaanzukh, Tomb 17Mongolian/a (female)C4a1a+195

    I129601437-1304 calBCE (3120±20 BP, UCIAMS-226528, PSUG-5431)Uvurkhangai, Khujirt sum, Shunkhlai Uul, Tomb 2Mongolia Q1a1 C4a1a+195

    I125061438-1299 calBCE (3115±25 BP, PSUAMS-6933) [use instead of previous date of 1608-1416 calBCE (3215±40 BP, OxA-36459) not from the same skeletal element]Sükhbaatar aimag, Tuvshinshiree sum, Ulaanzukh, Tomb 42 Mongolian/a (<50000 SNPs)n/a (<2x)

    I129761437-1304 calBCE (3120±20 BP, UCIAMS-226550, PSUG-5465) [use instead of less precise but consistent non-AMS date of 1396-845 calBCE (2910±110 BP, Le-7226)]Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Ulaankhus sum, Kulala Ula barrow 2 MongoliaN1 U2e2a1a2

    I70331209-1038 calBCE (2920±20 BP, PSUAMS-4005)Uvs aimag, Ulaangom sum, Chandman Uul, Ulaangom cemetery kurgan 59Mongolia R1a1a1b R

    I63631214-1058 calBCE [Rcombine of 1210-1047 calBCE (2925±20 BP, PSUAMS-7280) and 1277-1057 calBCE (2967±31 BP, OxA-X-2737-54); do not use the less precise but consistent non-AMS date of 1208-841 calBCE (2840±70 BP, Le-7979)]Khovd, Bulgan sum, Khudzrtyn gol II, barrow 1, burial 4 (main burial)Mongolia R1a1a1b2a2b U2e1

    I63511003-854 calBCE (2785±20 BP, PSUAMS-7275)Uvs aimag, Khyargas sum, Urgun shireg, Tomb 3Mongolian/a (female)C4b1

    I135051119-980 calBCE (2875±20 BP, UCIAMS-226557, PSUG-5472)Bayankhongor aimag, Erdentsogt sumMongolia Q1a1a1A+152+16362

    I70391209-1038 calBCE (2920±20 BP, PSUAMS-4006)Khovd, Duut sum, Khoit Tsenkheriin gol 1988 barrow 3Mongolia Q1a2a1c D4j

    I137681210-1047 calBCE (2925±20 BP, PSUAMS-7115)Bayankhongor aimag, Ulziit sum, Muunit uulMongolia N D4j1

    I129751226-1056 calBCE (2950±20 BP, UCIAMS-226549, PSUG-5464)Khuvsgul aimag, Khankh sum, Khavtsal II Tomb 1 (Khirgisuur) Mongolia C2b1a U5a1a2a
    I137671374-1131 calBCE (3005±20 BP, UCIAMS-226534, PSUG-5437)Bayankhongor aimag, Ulziit sum, Khar Sair amMongolia Q1a2a1c R1b1

    I137661381-1131 calBCE (3010±25 BP, UCIAMS-226533, PSUG-5436)Bayankhongor aimag, Erdentsogt sumMongolia Q1a2a1c C5b1b

    I62621396-1231 calBCE (3050±20 BP, PSUAMS-3111)Bayankhongor aimag, Khar Sairiin Am, KhirigsuurMongolian/a (female)A8a1

    I62641397-1236 calBCE (3055±20 BP, PSUAMS-3112)Bayankhongor aimag, Khar Sairiin Am, KhirigsuurMongolian/a (female)A8a1

    I63471411-1284 calBCE (3080±20 BP, PSUAMS-3113)Uvs aimag, Züünkhangai sum, Savaa KharMongolian/a (female)K2a5

    I63621015-911 calBCE (2815±20 BP, PSUAMS-2955)Khovd, Bulgan sum, Khudzhirtyn gol I, kurgan 2Mongolian/a (female)D4b1

    I63671258-1088 calBCE (2955±20 BP, PSUAMS-7284) [use instead of less precise but agreeing date of 1260-1040 calBCE (2820±30 BP, Beta-306037)]Bayan-Ulgii aimag, Tsengel sum, Biluut 2, barrow 3Mongolia O2a2b1a1a C4a1

    I129551948-1777 calBCE (3545±20 BP, UCIAMS-226543, PSUG-5458)Zavkhan, Bayantes sum, Khukh Khushoony bom, Barrow 3Mongolia N1c1a D4i

    I63481746-1630 calBCE (3395±25 BP, PSUAMS-7274)Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Haruulyn Gozgor tomb 1-113Mongolia Q1a2a1c HV12b1

    I131731879-1694 calBCE (3460±20 BP, UCIAMS-226552, PSUG-5467) [use instead of less precise and inconsistent non-AMS date of 1609-1232 calBCE (3150±70 BP, Le-6936)]Khovd, Munkhkhairkhan sum, Ulan goviin uzuur barrow 2Mongolia N H15b1

    I13176890-982 calCE (1115±20 BP, UCIAMS-226555, PSUG-5470)Khovd, Bulgan sum, Hudzhirtyn gol II, kurgan 1 burial 3 (secondary)Mongolia R1b1c D4i

    I129741225-1285 calCE (750±20 BP, UCIAMS-226548, PSUG-5463)Khentii, Murun sum, Bus khairkhan Tomb 3 Mongolian/a (female)C4a1a+195

    I139611282-1388 calCE (660±15 BP, PSUAMS-7114)Dornod aimag, Gurvanzagal sum Tsagaan chuluut kurgan 1Mongolian/a (female)A+152+16362

    I70215211-5000 calBCE (6145±35 BP, PSUAMS-3931)Dornod aimag, Bulgan sum, Norovlin Uul burialMongolia C2b1a1 D4h4

    I70314458-4364 calBCE (5590±20 BP, PSUAMS-4598)Dornod aimag, Bayantumen sum, Kherlengiin baruun ereg (Kerulen River right bank), Grave 2 (1968 y.)Mongolian/a (<50000 SNPs)C5b1

    I63585974-5747 calBCE (6965±35 BP, PSUAMS-7279)Dornod aimag, Bayantumen sum, Kherlen River South bank nearby Choibalsan town Mongolian/a (female)[email protected]

    I136985700-5000 BCEBulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Egiin-gol river valley, Marzyn Khutul, tomb 1-055-1, sceleton 2Mongolia C2b1a1 [email protected]

    I137015721-5614 calBCE (6739±40 BP, AA-107617)Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Egiin-gol river valley, Kharuulyn gozgor, tomb 1-116Mongolian/a (female)C4a1a3

    I131795607-5477 calBCE (6565±30 BP, UCIAMS-226532, PSUG-5435)Bulgan, Khutag undur sum, Kharuulyn gozgor, tomb 1-116Mongolian/a (female)C4a1a3

    I140005575-5474 calBCE (6571±47 BP, COL3897.1.1)Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Egiin-gol river valley, Kharuulyn gozgor, tomb 1-117-1, sceleton 3Mongolian/a (female)D4j

    I116965632-5531 calBCE (6655±30 BP, UCIAMS-226523, PSUG-5426)Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Marzyn khutul, Tomb 1-055-1, sceleton 1Mongolia C2b1a1 D4j

    I116985632-5515 calBCE (6645±35 BP, UCIAMS-226525, PSUG-5428)Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Marzyn khutul, Tomb 1-055-1, sceleton 2Mongolia C2b1a1 D4b1c

    I116975617-5491 calBCE (6610±30 BP, UCIAMS-226524, PSUG-5427)Bulgan, Khutag-Undur sum, Marzyn khutul, Tomb 1-055-1, sceleton 4MongoliaC2b1a1 D4j8

    I63661410-1261 calBCE (3065±25 BP, PSUAMS-7283)Bayan-Ulgiii aimag, Tsengel sum, Biluut 2 barrow 2Mongolian/a (female)J2b1a2a

    I1208450-750 CEPrimorsky Krai, Chernyatino 5, Mohe-Bohai GraveyardRussian/a (<50000 SNPs)H2

    I148193750-3600 BCE [layer date based on mothering children with I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)C5a

    I143085400-3600 BCEPrimorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russia C2a1a2(xC2a1a2a) D4o2a

    I33563696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russia C2a1a3(xC2a1a3a)C5b1

    I33545371-5219 calBCE (6325±35 BP, PSUAMS-2070)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)D4

    I11965213-5008 calBCE (6155±35 BP, Poz-83476)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)C5b1

    I12065213-4834 calBCE (6080±70 BP, TERRA-b06129705)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)R

    I11985034-4806 calBCE (6030±40 BP, Poz-83478)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)D4l2

    I11934981-4795 calBCE (5995±35 BP, Poz-83474)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russia C2a1a3 C5


    I33554981-4787 calBCE (5985±35 BP, PSUAMS-2114)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russia C2a1a(xC2a1a1,C2a1a2,C2a1a3) C5a

    I11974956-4729 calBCE (5970±40 BP, Poz-83477)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)C5a

    I11944792-4604 calBCE (5840±35 BP, Poz-83475)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)C5a

    I11904721-4335 calBCE (5860±100 BP, TERRA-06129717)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)D4e5

    I11924932-4608 calBCE (5890±60 BP, TERRA-b06129733)Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2RussiaC2a1(xC2a1a1a,C2a1a2a) B4d1'2'3

    I143075400-3600 BCEPrimorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)D4o2a

    I147723750-3600 BCE [layer date based on being daughter of I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)C5a

    I147743750-3600 BCE [layer date based on being daughter of I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (female)C5a

    I147733750-3600 BCE [layer date based on being son of I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russian/a (<50000 SNPs)C5a

    I147713750-3600 BCE [layer date based on being son of I3356 at 3696-3638 calBCE (4875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2160)]Primorsky Krai, Boisman-2Russia C2a(xC2a1a1,C2a1a2a) C5a

    I12091039-1224 calCE (880±35 BP, Poz-83439)Roshino-4, Primorsky KraiRussia O2 D4a1e
    Last edited by kingjohn; 29-03-20 at 20:00.

  3. #3
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    part 2:


    AH1-172904-2862 calBCE (4230±25 BP, XA-15378)Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female) ..

    18R212633400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (exome capture)n/a (exome capture)

    S913400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    S1183400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    S943400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    18R212623400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    18R212643400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    S1233400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    18R212663400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    18R212683400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    S963400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    S1223400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)n/a (exome capture)

    S1203400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (exome capture)n/a (exome capture)

    S973400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (exome capture)n/a (exome capture)

    18R212653400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (exome capture)n/a (exome capture)

    18R212673400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (exome capture)n/a (exome capture)

    S953400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (exome capture)n/a (exome capture)

    AH1-73348-3090 calBCE (4490±30 BP, XA-15382)Wuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (female)
    ..
    S1213400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (exome capture)n/a (exome capture)

    S1193400-2800 BCEWuzhuangguoliang, Shaanxi, ChinaChinan/a (exome capture)
    n/a (exome capture)

    I13882 2000-1500 BCE Rokutsu Shell MoundJapann/a (female)N9b

    I13883 2000-1500 BCE Rokutsu Shell MoundJapan D1b1d1a N9b2a ( jomon )

    I13884 2000-1500 BCE Rokutsu Shell MoundJapann/a (female) N9b

    I13885 2000-1500 BCE Rokutsu Shell MoundJapann/a (female) N9b

    I13886 2000-1500 BCE Rokutsu Shell MoundJapan D1b1d1 N9b1 (jomon )

    I13887 2000-1500 BCE Rokutsu Shell MoundJapan D1b1d1 N9b1 ( jomon)

    I6341 3500-3200 BCE FunadomariJapan D N9b1 ( Hokkaido jomon )
    Last edited by kingjohn; 29-03-20 at 20:03.

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    part 3 (last one)

    I1209 1039-1224 calCE (880±35 BP, Poz-83439) Roshino-4, Primorsky Krai Russia O2 D4a1e

    I3358 1050-1220 calCE (875±20 BP, PSUAMS-2115) Roshino-4, Primorsky Krai Russia n/a (female) D4a1

    I15926 1800-1950 CE Nevelsk 2 Russia D1a2b(xD1a2b1) N9b1 ( a recent sample from Sakhalin probably an ainu person )


    I1202 996-830 calBCE (2760±35 BP, Poz-83438) Pospelovo 1, Primorsky Krai Russia N1a(xN1a1,N1a2) C5b

    I13721 250-650 CE Green Island, Gongguan site Taiwan n/a (female) Y2a1

    I13722 250-650 CE Green Island, Gongguan site Taiwan n/a (<50000 SNPs) Y2a1

    I3618 1402-1262 calBCE (3060±20 BP, PSUAMS-2268) Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O2a2b2a2 R

    I8071 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) R

    I13695 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (<50000 SNPs) F4b

    I8076 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (<50000 SNPs) R30

    I8080 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O1a1a1a F3b1a+16093

    I8075 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) E2b

    I3611 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) E1a1a1

    I3616 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) B4b1a2

    I3615 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) R

    I3620 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) R

    I3617 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) F4b1

    I3621 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) R9c1b2

    I15159 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) F4b1

    I3614 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O2a2b2a R

    I3612 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O2a2b2a2 E1a1a1

    I3613 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O1a1a1a1 R

    I3619 395-536 calCE (1610±25 BP, PSUAMS-2075) Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) F3b1a+16093

    I14925 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) M7b1a2a1

    I14934 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O1a1a1a1 E2a

    I14933 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O1a2 F3b1a

    I14931 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O2a2 E1a1a1

    I8072 510-870 CE Yilan, HanBen Taiwan O1a E1a1a

    I14929 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O2a2b B4a1a

    I8074 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) F3b1a+16093

    I8081 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O1a1a1a F3b1a2

    I15158 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O1a2 B4b1a2f

    I13692 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) M7c1c3

    I3728 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) F3b1a+16093

    I3736 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O1a1a1a1 F4b1

    I3732 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) F1a3a

    I3735 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) E1a

    I3727 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) D6a2

    I14937 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) B4a1a

    I3734 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O2a2a1a2 E1a

    I3731 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O1a1a1a1a1 F3b1

    I3733 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O1a1a1a1 F3b1

    I8078 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan O2a2b2 E1a1

    I15156 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (<50000 SNPs) D6a2

    I13697 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (<50000 SNPs) R

    I15164 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) E2a

    I15160 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (<50000 SNPs) F4b1

    I15162 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (<50000 SNPs) E1a1a

    I15166 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) E1a1a

    I8079 150-465 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) F3b1

    I14930 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) E1a1a1

    I14928 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) B5a2a1+16129

    I14926 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) F4b1

    I13694 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) B4a1a

    I14927 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (female) M7b1a2a1

    I13696 510-870 CE Yilan, Hanben Taiwan n/a (<50000 SNPs) n/a (<2x)
    Last edited by kingjohn; 29-03-20 at 20:03.

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    "We estimate that Jomon individuals derived 45% of their ancestry from a deep basal lineage on the Onge side. These results are consistent with the scenario a Late Pleistocene coastal route of human migration linking Southeast Asia, the Japanese Archipelago and the Russian Far East".
    This Late Pleistocene migration of Onge related people do may originate in the lowland populations of the sundaland, fleeing the cataclysmic floods that swallowed up most of it at 14 Kya. The two great floods of sundaland that followed at 11.5Kya and 8Kya must also have been demographically somewhat "seismic".

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    Quote Originally Posted by jose luis View Post
    "We estimate that Jomon individuals derived 45% of their ancestry from a deep basal lineage on the Onge side. These results are consistent with the scenario a Late Pleistocene coastal route of human migration linking Southeast Asia, the Japanese Archipelago and the Russian Far East".
    This Late Pleistocene migration of Onge related people do may originate in the lowland populations of the sundaland, fleeing the cataclysmic floods that swallowed up most of it at 14 Kya. The two great floods of sundaland that followed at 11.5Kya and 8Kya must also have been demographically somewhat "seismic".
    these populations - Onge and Yomon - have haplogroup D
    I believe these people came from Sundaland much earlier
    they were not fleeing from rising sealevels, they were fleeing because the were replaced by the forefathers of Papua's, Australian Aboriginees and Negrito's - haplgroups K2 and C1b
    those populations diverged ca 37 ka
    the Yomon were in Japan already 17 ka

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    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87)]Razib Khan on this paper:

    https://www.razib.com/wordpress/

    [COLOR=rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.87)]wikipedia about the jomon:

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jōmon_people
    [/COLOR]
    [/COLOR]

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    Razib Khan on this paper:


    https://www.razib.com/wordpress/



    wikipedia about the jomon:


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jōmon_people


    Sorry, I can't make the links work on eupedia.

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
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    H5a1 mtdna in Mongolia???? Hmm

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