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Thread: 89th meeting of American. assoc. phys. anthropol. abstracts

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    89th meeting of American. assoc. phys. anthropol. abstracts

    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...002/ajpa.24023

    Investigating population genomic continuity between the fifth and sixth century

    The fourth through sixth centuries CE in Europe are commonly known as the Migration Period. Historical texts document that a group known as the Lombards, had settled in Pannonia (present-day western Hungary and surrounding regions) in the early sixth century, abandoned Pannonia in 568 CE and invaded Italy, ruling much of Italy for the next two centuries. We analyzed paleogenomic data from cemeteries associated with their migration and the communities that preceded them to test if and to what extent the population of Pannonia in the sixth century showed a change (possibly due to the arrival of the Lombards) and whether the migration/invasion into Italy may have occurred. We generated genomic data from 40 individuals from fifth century (pre-Lombard era) cemeteries from Hungary (Balatonszemes and Hács) and Italy (Bardonecchia and Lavazza). We analyzed these data alongside previously generated data from nearby sixth/seventh century (Lombard-era) cemeteries from Szólád (Hungary) and Collegno (Italy). We found that individuals from Bardonecchia and Lavazza predominantly had ancestry associated with contemporary southern Europeans, consistent with their geography. However, many of the individuals from Collegno possessed almost exclusively ancestry associated with contemporary northern Europeans, supporting the proposed Lombard migration into Italy during the sixth century. In contrast, we found that individuals from Balatonszemes and Hács possessed both northern and southern ancestry, as previously observed for Szólád. We analyzed the sharing of rare variants using medium (5-14x) coverage whole genomes to test whether this was representative of population continuity or migration between the fifth and sixth centuries.

    New perspectives on Nubian ancestry: Paleogenomic investigation of the ancient Middle Nile Region

    ABAGAIL M. BREIDENSTEIN 1, JUDITH NEUKAMM 1,2, CHIARA BARBIERI 3, GIADA FERRARI 4, AGATA T. GONDEK-WYROZEMSKA 5, MOHAMED SAAD ABDALLAH 6,7, MAHMOUD SULIMAN BASHIR 7, MURTADA BUSHARA 7, ROBERT J. STARK 8, JOANNA CIESIELSKA 9, ARTUR OB__USKI 9, BASTIAAN STAR 4, HISHAM YOUSIF HASSAN 10, FRANK RÜHLI 1, VERENA SCHUENEMANN 1 and ABIGAIL W. BIGHAM 11

    1Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, University of Zurich, 2Institute for Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics, University of Tubingen, 3Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, 4Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, 5Norweigen College of Fishery Science, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries, & Economies, University of Tromsø‚ The Artic University of Norway, 6Bolheim Bioarchaeology Laboratory, Khartoum, 7National Committee for Antiquities and Museums, Khartoum, 8Department of Anthropology, McMaster University, 9Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw, 10Banoon ART & Cytogenetics Centre, Bahrain Defense Force Hospital, 11Department of Anthropology, University of California Los Angeles

    The kingdoms of Nubia, located in the Nile River Valley of modern-day northern Sudan, served as an important corridor of migration for millennia.
    Since little is known of the ancient genetic landscape, there is a lack of understanding of population movements from Nubian times through the Arab expansion. Here, we created a time-transect of genetic diversity in this region, using whole mitochondrial genome analysis of ancient DNA of samples obtained from several Middle Nile archaeological sites spanning nearly two thousand years, from the Meroitic period (ca. 350 BCE) to before the Arab expansion (ca. 1450 CE). We trialed 40 individuals, extracting DNA using newly developed methods, including petrosal bone extraction, non-heat sample processing, enzymatic pretreatments, and DNA capture techniques, optimized for samples with very poor DNA preservation. We retrieved whole mitogenomes (MT) for six individuals: two with African ancestry and four with Eurasian ancestry.
    The ancient Nubians showed most genetic afinity with modern East Africans, Middle Easterners, and Egyptians. These results indicate that Nubians had a strong African component with evidence of gene flow from Eurasia dating back to at least Meroitic through Christian times. Although these individuals encompass varying archaeological contexts and span over two thousand years, these initial results hint at the complexity of the region’s genetic makeup and begin to reconstruct the impact of migrations from outside Africa.
    Lastly, our work represents the first successful retrieval of full MT sequence data from Middle Nile inhabitants, further demonstrating the viability of paleogenomic work in northeast Africa.





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    The Aquatic Neolithic: isotope, aDNA, radiocarbon, and osteological data analysis reveal asynchronous behavior in early prehistoric human societies of Ukraine

    CHELSEA BUDD 1, INNA POTEKHINA 2, CHRISTOPHE SNOECK 3 and MALCOLM LILLIE 1

    1 Department of Historical, Philosophical and Religious Studies, Umea University, 2 Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Analytical, Environmental & Geo-Chemistry (AMGC), Vrije Universiteit Brussel


    In Europe the characterization of the Neolithic period is traditionally dominated by the advent of agro-pastoralism. Neolithic populations in the Dnieper Valley region of south-central Ukraine are notably divergent from this trend. From the Epi-Palaeolithic-Neolithic periods (ca. 10,000 - 6000 cal BC), evidence for the adoption of agro-pastoral technologies is absent from archaeological assemblages. It is not until the Eneolithic period (ca. 4500 cal BC) that we observe the beginnings of a transition to farming in the Dnieper region. One hypothesis suggests that spikes in aridity propagated a hunting crisis in Mesolithic populations, which prompted a delay in the transition and the reshaped of Mesolithic subsistence practices to focus on freshwater aquatic resources to supplement terrestrial herbivores such as boar and deer.
    This research presents 300+ human and faunal samples (including 80 unpublished results), using multi-disciplinary techniques such as DNA analysis and various isotope applications, alongside osteological analysis, to provide holistic individual life histories. The results show long-term continuation of fishing practices from the Epi-Palaeolithic to Neolithic periods - no distinct shift from hunting to fishing practices took place. DNA results show the predominance of indigenous hunter-gatherers, with limited genetic inclusions from proximal Anatolian farming populations. Thus, despite the availability of plentiful dietary resources and the westward influence of extra-local farming populations, the prehistoric communities of the Dnieper region remained resistant to change and resilient in terms of their subsistence strategies, with freshwater resources providing a ‘buffer’ against any perceived impacts from climate variability.

    Bio-molecular characterization of Ancient Romans: a powerful tool for the biological dissection of the widest city of Ancient World

    FLAVIO DE ANGELIS 1, CRISTINA MARTÂNEZLABARGA 1, ANDREA BATTISTINI 2, STEFANIA DI GIANNANTONIO 2, WALTER PANTANO 2, SARA VARANO 1, VIRGINIA VELTRE 1, FEDERICA ZAVARONI 2, PAOLA CATALANO 2, TULLIA DI CORCIA 1, MARCO ROMBONI 1, STEFANIA ZINGALE 1 and OLGA RICKARDS 1

    1 Centre of Molecular Anthropology for Ancient DNA Studies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 2 Anthropology service, Soprintendenza Speciale Archeologia Belle Arti e Paesaggio di Roma, Rome, Italy


    Imperial Rome was by far one of the largest city in Antiquity and despite the plentiful cultural records, the biological profiles of Imperial Age Romans (1st-3rd centuries CE) is still a partially unmatched issue. The outstanding developments in bio-molecular research make the skeletal remains a terrific source of knowledge to reconstruct the biology of the Romans. One of the main topics to be addressed by molecular assessment is the nutritional habits through isotopic analysis: the data pertaining more than 300 people buried in the Suburbium are consistent with a heterogeneous landscape where each community seems to be featured by private foodstuff exploitation, even though Roman authorities started to step in food supply of the City since the mid-Republican period. As the center of the Empire, Rome appealed to people into its walls to gain better life conditions. Imperial Rome should have had a dense population and at least moderate migration rates that helped to combat the extremely high mortality rates: the oxygen isotopes analysis performed in more than 100 samples seems to confirm this moderate migration rate at least in the commoners, with an average value of 10% newcomers in several necropolises.
    Genomic evaluation of ancient Romans has been mandatory to gain information on population stratification. Whole genome sequencing approach has been performed on 50 samples: the analysis are starting to shed light on people origin and this genomic approach stands for a valuable tool in the differential diagnosis of specific genetic-related disorders some people suffered from in Ancient Rome.



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    Human health and adaptation along Silk Roads - a bioarchaeological investigation of Medieval Uzbek cemeteries

    REBECCA L. KINASTON 1, LADISLAV DAMASEK 2, ROBYN KRAMER 1, JAN KYSELA 2, ANNA AUGUSTINOVÁ 2, MARKETA SMOLKOVA 2 and DANIEL PILAR 2

    1 Anatomy, University of Otago, Otago School of Medical Sciences, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2 Institute for Classical Archaeology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic

    Central Asia was a hub of economic and cultural interaction that flowed along the Silk Roads - vast overland trade networks that linked East Asia, the Middle East and Europe. During the Medieval period (ca. 2nd-16th c. CE) these networks famously facilitated the trade of material items, such as glazed pottery and lapis lazuli, which can be found in the archaeological record. However, little is directly known about the people who lived along the Silk Roads and how this vast interconnected network directly influenced diet, health and day-to-day living.
    This paper presents the results of one of the first comprehensive bioarchaeological investigations focused on Medieval and other cemeteries in southwest Uzbekistan, including a possible double soldier burial that may be associated with the Hellenistic Period in the region (late 4th and 3rd c. BC). Individuals interred in two cemeteries (Bobolangar and Tell Garden) dating to the High Medieval Period (1000-1150 CE) and one later cemetery (Lungi Tepa) display a high prevalence of systemic disease, trauma and a large variation in body size. The aim of this research is to understand how people adapted to the harsh desert environment, procured their food, interacted with surrounding communities and cared for their sick and disabled in the context of the first globalised trade network. The research uses a biocultural approach that incorporates traditional osteological methods, ancient DNA and isotope analyses. These results are interpreted within current theoretical frameworks in Anthropology, including Niche Construction Theory and the Bioarchaeology of Care Model.

    Ancient DNA reveals two paternal Hg C2 lineages in the old nomadic people distributed on the Mongolian Plateau

    JIAWEI LI 1, DAWEI CAI 1, YE ZHANG 2, HONG ZHU 1 and HUI ZHOU 1,2

    1 College of Archaeology, Jilin University, 2 College of Life Science, Jilin University

    Since Xiongnu, a series of nomadic tribes have been active in the eastern part of the Mongolian Plateau. Genetic research on these nomadic people has always attracted considerable attention. The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has provided us with a new technology for use in our research and helped us uncover more genetic information about ancient humans.
    In our research, whole-genome shotgun sequencing and capture sequencing of the non-recombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) were performed on six ancient Hg C2 individuals from six sites distributed on the Mongolian Plateau during different periods. After NRY capture sequencing, three of the six ancient samples were attributed to C2c1b/F845, and the other three ancient samples belonged to C2b1a1b1a/F3830.
    Combined with the results of genome-wide sequencing, we conclude that there were two important paternal lineages, C2b1a1b1a/F3830 and C2c1b/F845, downstream of Hg C2/M217 in the ancient nomadic people distributed on the Mongolian Plateau. The C2b1a1b1a/F3830 lineage, mainly located in the north Mongolian Plateau, made important genetic contributions to modern Mongolic- and Manchu-speaking populations in the Mongolian Plateau. The C2c1b/F845 lineage, which has a relatively southern geographical location, probably originated from the farming population in southern East Asia, made certain genetic contributions to the gene pool of both the north nomadic people and the south farming people in East Asia.


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    Bioarchaeological analysis of Late Neolithic inhumations from a dolmen in Switzerland

    SANDRA LÄSCH 1, INGA SIEBKE 1, ANJA FURTWÄNGLER 2, NOAH STEURI 3, ALBERT HAFNER 3, MARIANNE RAMSTEIN 4 and JOHANNES KRAUSE 2,5

    1 Dept. of Physical Anthropology, Inst. of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Switzerland, 2 Dept. of Archaeo- and Palaeogenetics, Inst. of Archaeological Sciences, University of Tubingen, Germany, 3 Dept. of Prehistoric Archaeology, Inst. of Archaeological Sciences, University of Bern, Switzerland, 4 Archaeological Service, Canton of Bern, Switzerland, 5 MPI, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany

    We investigated inhumations from the Neolithic dolmen of Oberbipp in the context of contemporaneous remains from Switzerland in the framework of an interdisciplinary project. Apart from answering archaeological and physical-anthropological questions, the aim was to shed light on their diet, social stratification, migration, kinship, population genetics and phenotype.
    The analysis of the commingled remains, which date to the Late and Final Neolithic, revealed a MNI of 42 with both sexes and all age classes represented. We analyzed the stable isotopes __13C, __15N, __ 34S as well as ancient DNA. Nitrogen isotope ratios were homogenous for males and females within the dolmen but differed significantly from other contemporaneous sites.
    Therefore, we hypothesize similar diets and thus an equal social status of both sexes. In general, their diet was rich in carbohydrates compared to other sites, which is also reflected by caries intensities. Animal products seem to have been less important than food derived from agriculture, and additionally, all investigated individuals were lactose-intolerant. The results from population genetics show that the Oberbipp individuals possessed ancestry components from two sources: Western Hunter-Gatherers and Neolithic Anatolian Farmers. However, the sulphur isotope ratios, which were compared to regional animal data, suggest some local mobility.
    We detected first-degree kinships only between males while none of the females within the dolmen were related. This, most probably indicates a patrilocal society. Investigations of the phenotype show that they had light skin pigmentation and variable eye colors.

    Genome-wide ancient DNA investigation of Eneolithic individuals from southwestern Russia reveals a genetic contact point between the forest-steppe and steppe populations

    KERTTU MAJANDER 1,2,4, KERKKO NORDQVIST 5, ARKADII KOROLEV 6, ALEXANDER KHOKHLOV 6, ROMAN SMOLYANINOV 7, HENNY PIEZONKA 8, PÄIVI ONKAMO 3, JOHANNES KRAUSE 2,4 and WOLFGANG HAAK 2

    1 Institute of Evolutionary Medicine, University of Zurich, 2 Department for Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 3 Department of Biology, University of Turku, 4 Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Archaeo-and Palaeogenetics, University of Tubingen, 5 Faculty of Arts, University of Helsinki, 6 Department of History, Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, Samara, Russian Federation, 7 Department of Anthropology, Lipetsk State Pedagogical University, Lipetsk, Russian Federation, 8 Institute of Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology, Kiel University


    Recent ancient-DNA studies have described substantial gene flow from Bronze-Age populations of the Eurasian steppe, with likely connections to the spread of Indo-European languages. The origins of these people and their later dispersals to the northwestern end of Eurasian steppe zone remain less understood. In northeastern Europe, the Neolithic and Eneolithic (Chalcolithic) periods witnessed the transition of subsistence strategies from the foraging lifestyle into pastoralism. These changes both caused and encouraged large-scale environmental modifications and substantiated divisions between boreal forests, temperate grasslands, and the intermediate belt of forest-steppe. Whether the genetics and evolution of local languages of human populations reflect these environmental zones, is yet largely to be explored.
    Here we target the population-genetic transition processes through genome-wide next-generation sequencing data of 25 Eneolithic to Bronze-Age individuals from seven archaeological sites in southwestern Russia. We observe a consistent signal of the hunter-gatherer -like ancestries, followed by the earliest occurrences of individuals with Iranian Neolithic-related ancestry (previously described as ‘steppe ancestry’) mixed with these.
    In addition, remnants of the genetic ancestry from early Siberian populations, today mainly prevalent in the Native Americans, are present in the region.
    These results provide novel insight to an integral contact zone between major cultural movements, illuminating the role of the forest-steppe populations in Eurasian prehistory and their early contacts with the Eurasian agro-pastoralists.
    Furthermore, the waves of cultural and genetic input may have heralded language exchange between the early forms or predecessors of Uralic languages, with the Indo-European effects still observed in their modern equivalents.


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    Bronze Age Y. pestis genomes from the Lake Baikal region

    MARIA A. SPYROU 1, HE YU 1, RITA RADZEVICIUTE 1, GUNNAR U. NEUMANN 1, SANDRA PENSKE 1, JANA ZECH 2, PETRUS LEROUX 3, MARINA KARAPETIAN 4, PATRICK ROBERTS 2, ALEXANDRA BUZHILOVA 4, COSIMO POSTH 1, CHOONGWON JEONG 1,5 and JOHANNES KRAUSE 1

    1Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07745, Germany, 2 Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07745, Germany, 3 Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa, 4 Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Moscow State University, Moscow 125009, Russia, 5 School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea

    The Bronze Age in Eurasia was a period of intense human mobility that transformed the genomic landscape of this entire region. In recent years, metagenomic analyses of human remains dating between 5,000 and 3,500 years before present (BP) revealed a number of human-associated pathogens that accompanied and potentially influenced these population movements. One such example is the plague-bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Previous studies have shown that Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (LNBA) Y. pestis genomes formed a putatively extinct phylogenetic lineage that paralleled human mobility across Eurasia. Here, we present the metagenomic screening of Neolithic and Bronze Age remains from the Lake Baikal region in Siberia and show the presence of Y. pestis infections in two individuals.
    Subsequent whole-genome enrichment and comparison against a panel of ancient and modern-day Y. pestis genomes revealed their analogous phylogenetic placement and genomic contents to published LNBA isolates from Europe and Central Asia. Their further analysis alongside newly generated human genome-wide and isotopic data shows high mobility within Siberia during the Bronze Age, through the identification of genomic outliers. Moreover, we present a novel age estimation approach, using molecular dating of bacterial genomes, and show a large offset in the radiocarbon dates of Y. pestis-positive individuals, likely influenced by a regional freshwater reservoir effect. Collectively, our results suggest that Y. pestis spread into the Lake Baikal region within the context of human expansions across the Eurasian steppe during the 5th millennium BP, also affecting individuals whose genomic makeup was not impacted by such migrations.


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    Quote Originally Posted by jose luis View Post
    Bronze Age Y. pestis genomes from the Lake Baikal region

    MARIA A. SPYROU 1, HE YU 1, RITA RADZEVICIUTE 1, GUNNAR U. NEUMANN 1, SANDRA PENSKE 1, JANA ZECH 2, PETRUS LEROUX 3, MARINA KARAPETIAN 4, PATRICK ROBERTS 2, ALEXANDRA BUZHILOVA 4, COSIMO POSTH 1, CHOONGWON JEONG 1,5 and JOHANNES KRAUSE 1

    1Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07745, Germany, 2 Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07745, Germany, 3 Department of Geological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa, 4 Research Institute and Museum of Anthropology, Moscow State University, Moscow 125009, Russia, 5 School of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea

    The Bronze Age in Eurasia was a period of intense human mobility that transformed the genomic landscape of this entire region. In recent years, metagenomic analyses of human remains dating between 5,000 and 3,500 years before present (BP) revealed a number of human-associated pathogens that accompanied and potentially influenced these population movements. One such example is the plague-bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Previous studies have shown that Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (LNBA) Y. pestis genomes formed a putatively extinct phylogenetic lineage that paralleled human mobility across Eurasia. Here, we present the metagenomic screening of Neolithic and Bronze Age remains from the Lake Baikal region in Siberia and show the presence of Y. pestis infections in two individuals.
    Subsequent whole-genome enrichment and comparison against a panel of ancient and modern-day Y. pestis genomes revealed their analogous phylogenetic placement and genomic contents to published LNBA isolates from Europe and Central Asia. Their further analysis alongside newly generated human genome-wide and isotopic data shows high mobility within Siberia during the Bronze Age, through the identification of genomic outliers. Moreover, we present a novel age estimation approach, using molecular dating of bacterial genomes, and show a large offset in the radiocarbon dates of Y. pestis-positive individuals, likely influenced by a regional freshwater reservoir effect. Collectively, our results suggest that Y. pestis spread into the Lake Baikal region within the context of human expansions across the Eurasian steppe during the 5th millennium BP, also affecting individuals whose genomic makeup was not impacted by such migrations.
    Thanks for all of these. I'll be interested to see the full papers when they're published.

    As to this particular paper:

    From what I remember the plague didn't show up in Europe among Late Neolithic populations until quite a bit later, so, no, it didn't start in crowded Late Neolithic settlements. It came from the east as I argued, perhaps with trade, skins etc. That's how the North American Indians died of it years before the actual settlement of European people. It certainly found a good home in those more crowded settlements, however.


    Non si fa il proprio dovere perchè qualcuno ci dica grazie, lo si fa per principio, per se stessi, per la propria dignità. Oriana Fallaci

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    On another thread someone else posted the abstract for the paper on Szolad. I have some issues with it without even reading it. The two additional locations they sampled in Hungary are not very far from Szolad, which was in an area which was a sort of preserved "Roman" enclave still speaking a "Romance" like language, and a little later on was a recaptured by the Byzantines. That could explain why so many of the Szolad samples were Northern and North Central Italian like (I'm at a distance of 3-4 to a number of them, and some were South Italian/Greek Islander like. Or, the whole broader population was more EEF like. I hope they did a comparison of the Szolad samples and these new ones. I also wish they had sampled Hungarian samples from broader afield, but it doesn't seem from the abstract that they did.


    As to Late Neolithic Switzerland, nice to see that "Therefore, we hypothesize similar diets and thus an equal social status of both sexes."

    What a difference from Szolad and Collegno, where even the women of their own ethnicity were so much worse off.

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    Genome-wide ancient DNA investigation of Eneolithic individuals from southwestern Russia reveals a genetic contact point between the forest-steppe and steppe populations


    Recent ancient-DNA studies have described substantial gene flow from Bronze-Age populations of the Eurasian steppe, with likely connections to the spread of Indo-European languages. The origins of these people and their later dispersals to the northwestern end of Eurasian steppe zone remain less understood. In northeastern Europe, the Neolithic and Eneolithic (Chalcolithic) periods witnessed the transition of subsistence strategies from the foraging lifestyle into pastoralism. These changes both caused and encouraged large-scale environmental modifications and substantiated divisions between boreal forests, temperate grasslands, and the intermediate belt of forest-steppe. Whether the genetics and evolution of local languages of human populations reflect these environmental zones, is yet largely to be explored.
    Here we target the population-genetic transition processes through genome-wide next-generation sequencing data of 25 Eneolithic to Bronze-Age individuals from seven archaeological sites in southwestern Russia. We observe a consistent signal of the hunter-gatherer -like ancestries, followed by the earliest occurrences of individuals with Iranian Neolithic-related ancestry (previously described as ‘steppe ancestry’) Iranian Neolithic-related ancestry (previously described as ‘steppe ancestry’) mixed with these. In addition, remnants of the genetic ancestry from early Siberian populations, today mainly prevalent in the Native Americans, are present in the region.
    These results provide novel insight to an integral contact zone between major cultural movements, illuminating the role of the forest-steppe populations in Eurasian prehistory and their early contacts with the Eurasian agro-pastoralists.
    Furthermore, the waves of cultural and genetic input may have heralded language exchange between the early forms or predecessors of Uralic languages, with the Indo-European effects still observed in their modern equivalents.



    This Iranian Neolithic-related ancestry must be the CHG females related DNA found in Yamnaya.

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    Quote Originally Posted by jose luis View Post
    Genome-wide ancient DNA investigation of Eneolithic individuals from southwestern Russia reveals a genetic contact point between the forest-steppe and steppe populations


    Recent ancient-DNA studies have described substantial gene flow from Bronze-Age populations of the Eurasian steppe, with likely connections to the spread of Indo-European languages. The origins of these people and their later dispersals to the northwestern end of Eurasian steppe zone remain less understood. In northeastern Europe, the Neolithic and Eneolithic (Chalcolithic) periods witnessed the transition of subsistence strategies from the foraging lifestyle into pastoralism. These changes both caused and encouraged large-scale environmental modifications and substantiated divisions between boreal forests, temperate grasslands, and the intermediate belt of forest-steppe. Whether the genetics and evolution of local languages of human populations reflect these environmental zones, is yet largely to be explored.
    Here we target the population-genetic transition processes through genome-wide next-generation sequencing data of 25 Eneolithic to Bronze-Age individuals from seven archaeological sites in southwestern Russia. We observe a consistent signal of the hunter-gatherer -like ancestries, followed by the earliest occurrences of individuals with Iranian Neolithic-related ancestry (previously described as ‘steppe ancestry’) Iranian Neolithic-related ancestry (previously described as ‘steppe ancestry’) mixed with these. In addition, remnants of the genetic ancestry from early Siberian populations, today mainly prevalent in the Native Americans, are present in the region.
    These results provide novel insight to an integral contact zone between major cultural movements, illuminating the role of the forest-steppe populations in Eurasian prehistory and their early contacts with the Eurasian agro-pastoralists.
    Furthermore, the waves of cultural and genetic input may have heralded language exchange between the early forms or predecessors of Uralic languages, with the Indo-European effects still observed in their modern equivalents.



    This Iranian Neolithic-related ancestry must be the CHG females related DNA found in Yamnaya.
    When will this paper be published ?
    I am not sure that all of it is from CHG females because there is Y-DNA J1 in Afanasievo and in Khvalynsk.
    My Guess: The Native American,Siberian population is ancestral to the Steppe Maykop, the HGs have to be forest steppe EHGs pre Khvalynsk and Iranian-Neolithic-related are hunter fishers from sites like Kairshak in the Volga Delta mentioned by David Anthony.

    Previously described as "steppe ancestry" is now Iranian Neolithic related ?

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    -Yes, but the Iran_N/CHG combination is used by Laziridis, Reich, and others. CHG, Iran_N/Hotu are considered types of a continuum.
    -Paleosiberian in this space and time is subversive.

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    https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/SAMEA6515933

    Study: PRJEB36529

    Ancient genomes from present-day France unveil 7,000 years of its demographic history.

    Name
    Ancestra

    Submitting Centre
    CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux

    Secondary accession(s)
    ERP119731

    Description

    Genomic studies conducted on ancient individuals across Europe have unraveled how migrations have contributed to its present genetic landscape, but the territory of present-day France has yet to be connected to the broader European picture. We generated a large dataset comprising the complete mitochondrial genomes, Y chromosome markers and genotypes on a number of nuclear loci of interest, obtained through a DNA enrichment approach, of 203 individuals sampled across present-day France over a period spanning 7,000 years, complemented with a partially overlapping dataset of 58 low-coverage genomes. This panel provides, for the first time, a high-resolution transect of the dynamics of maternal and paternal lineages in France as well as of autosomal genotypes. Both parental lineages and genomic data revealed demographic patterns in France for the Neolithic and Bronze Age transition consistent with neighboring regions with a first wave of migration of Anatolian farmers, then varying degrees of admixture with autochthonous hunter-gatherers and a second high gene flow from individuals deriving part of their ancestry from the Pontic Steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Our data have also highlighted the persistence of the Magdalenian heritage in hunter-gatherer populations outside Spain and thus provide arguments for an expansion of these populations at the end of the Paleolithic period, more northerly than what has been described so far. Finally, no major demographic changes were detected during the transition between the Bronze and Iron Ages.



    p.s
    someone in other forum already analysed it ( no idea how maybe the bam files are free access)
    any way i don't want to post the y results of the remains which he anlaysed
    because i learn my lesson from the roman paper not to listen to rumors ........

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/SAMEA6515933

    Study: PRJEB36529

    Ancient genomes from present-day France unveil 7,000 years of its demographic history.

    Name
    Ancestra

    Submitting Centre
    CNRS-Universite de Bordeaux

    Secondary accession(s)
    ERP119731

    Description

    Genomic studies conducted on ancient individuals across Europe have unraveled how migrations have contributed to its present genetic landscape, but the territory of present-day France has yet to be connected to the broader European picture. We generated a large dataset comprising the complete mitochondrial genomes, Y chromosome markers and genotypes on a number of nuclear loci of interest, obtained through a DNA enrichment approach, of 203 individuals sampled across present-day France over a period spanning 7,000 years, complemented with a partially overlapping dataset of 58 low-coverage genomes. This panel provides, for the first time, a high-resolution transect of the dynamics of maternal and paternal lineages in France as well as of autosomal genotypes. Both parental lineages and genomic data revealed demographic patterns in France for the Neolithic and Bronze Age transition consistent with neighboring regions with a first wave of migration of Anatolian farmers, then varying degrees of admixture with autochthonous hunter-gatherers and a second high gene flow from individuals deriving part of their ancestry from the Pontic Steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Our data have also highlighted the persistence of the Magdalenian heritage in hunter-gatherer populations outside Spain and thus provide arguments for an expansion of these populations at the end of the Paleolithic period, more northerly than what has been described so far. Finally, no major demographic changes were detected during the transition between the Bronze and Iron Ages.



    p.s
    someone in other forum already analysed it ( no idea how maybe the bam files are free access)
    any way i don't want to post the y results of the remains which he anlaysed
    because i learn my lesson from the roman paper not to listen to rumors ........
    Were the samples released ahead of the paper, then, or are the samples from an unsubstantiated "leak". Are ALL the samples analyzed?

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    Regular Member kingjohn's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Were the samples released ahead of the paper, then, or are the samples from an unsubstantiated "leak". Are ALL the samples analyzed?
    it must be only some of those 203
    i see 36 individuals it can't be all......
    i will be patience until paper would be out .....

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    Advisor Angela's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    it must be only some of those 203
    i see 36 individuals it can't be all......
    i will be patience until paper would be out .....
    You're right...then forget it for now...any 36 could have been chosen.

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    yes i will forget about it for now
    should be interesting paper though
    regards
    adam

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    Quote Originally Posted by jose luis View Post
    -Yes, but the Iran_N/CHG combination is used by Laziridis, Reich, and others. CHG, Iran_N/Hotu are considered types of a continuum.
    -Paleosiberian in this space and time is subversive.
    Yes, I was aware of that. Sometimes called CHG/Iran,IranNeo-related,CHG. Those Steppe_Maykop guys really are Paloesiberian-like so I think this not a surprise if they found their ancestors. Are there any infos on publication date ?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Thanks for all of these. I'll be interested to see the full papers when they're published.

    As to this particular paper:

    From what I remember the plague didn't show up in Europe among Late Neolithic populations until quite a bit later, so, no, it didn't start in crowded Late Neolithic settlements. It came from the east as I argued, perhaps with trade, skins etc. That's how the North American Indians died of it years before the actual settlement of European people. It certainly found a good home in those more crowded settlements, however.
    the earliest known case is 4,9 ka in a megalithic passage grave in southern Scandinavia, that is LN Europe
    furthermore we know of depopulation of European neolithic settlements since 5,3 ka

    next case is 4,8 ka Afanasivo Altai Mts
    it moved west to east fast with mobile CW herders
    these herders had picked up EEF in the south or the west

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    Quote Originally Posted by Anfänger View Post
    Yes, I was aware of that. Sometimes called CHG/Iran,IranNeo-related,CHG. Those Steppe_Maykop guys really are Paloesiberian-like so I think this not a surprise if they found their ancestors. Are there any infos on publication date ?
    yes, archeologist David Anthony in a chapter of these book https://brill.com/view/title/56151 says:
    A previously unknown genetic population actually was identified in Wang et al. (2019), but it was a peculiar relict-seeming group related to Paleo Siberians and American Indians (Kennewick) that had survived isolated somewhere in the Caspian steppes or perhaps in the North Caucasus Mountains. The Maykop people did admix with this previously isolated Siberian/Kennewick population in graves labeled "Steppe Maykop" in Wang et al. (2019).

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    the earliest known case is 4,9 ka in a megalithic passage grave in southern Scandinavia, that is LN Europe
    furthermore we know of depopulation of European neolithic settlements since 5,3 ka

    next case is 4,8 ka Afanasivo Altai Mts
    it moved west to east fast with mobile CW herders
    these herders had picked up EEF in the south or the west
    I've read the paper. So have we all, and discussed it as well. You've forgotten?
    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...e-plague/page4

    In that discussion, I provided a link to their talk on their own paper where it is proposed that it was brought "from" the steppe to the Neolithic socieites of Europe through sporadic contact, where it spread, decimating the population, and thus, as he says, "paving" the way for the later migrations/invasions, call them what you will.


    So, my interpretation is in line with that of the authors of the data you cite, and yours is not.

    You keep on ignoring the fact that the first documented case of "any" disease is not necessarily where it started spreading.

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    Quote Originally Posted by jose luis View Post
    yes, archeologist David Anthony in a chapter of these book https://brill.com/view/title/56151 says:
    A previously unknown genetic population actually was identified in Wang et al. (2019), but it was a peculiar relict-seeming group related to Paleo Siberians and American Indians (Kennewick) that had survived isolated somewhere in the Caspian steppes or perhaps in the North Caucasus Mountains. The Maykop people did admix with this previously isolated Siberian/Kennewick population in graves labeled "Steppe Maykop" in Wang et al. (2019).

    IMG_4293.jpg



    Yes, I read the whole book, it was very expensive though. I was curious because some wikipedia articles use this book as reference but to me the wikipedia articles like: "WHG(?!?) and EHG clans ruled Yamnaya and they took CHG females" didn't make any sense and when you try to use the sources in wikipedia you don't find anything. See for example the part about genetics in this wikipedia article, most of it is pure fantasy by the author of this article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khvalynsk_culture

    So I bought the book and there is basically zero, nothing, nada where David Anthony says anything like this.

    Back to the unpublished paper, I found an older version of the abstract. Steppe ancestry was formed in the Eneolithic and my guess is that it was located in the Volga Delta(Caspian depression). Interestingly in the new version they changed EHG/Iran mix to Iran Neolithic related:
    https://app.oxfordabstracts.com/even...mission/123334
    Last edited by Anfänger; 25-04-20 at 11:02.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I've read the paper. So have we all, and discussed it as well. You've forgotten?
    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...e-plague/page4
    In that discussion, I provided a link to their talk on their own paper where it is proposed that it was brought "from" the steppe to the Neolithic socieites of Europe through sporadic contact, where it spread, decimating the population, and thus, as he says, "paving" the way for the later migrations/invasions, call them what you will.

    So, my interpretation is in line with that of the authors of the data you cite, and yours is not.
    You keep on ignoring the fact that the first documented case of "any" disease is not necessarily where it started spreading.
    and how does the 4,9 ka Yersenia Pestis in the Gökhem Passage grave fit in that story?

    Kristiansen himself points to the Cucutenis-Trypolye megacities
    and then it would have been spread prior to the arrival of the steppe herders
    some point to the Globular Amphora for that

    no proof has been found yet, allthough in the last Cucuteni-Tripolye study they checked for Yersenia Pestis

    you yourself said his 'predictive modelling' is speculation

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    and how does the 4,9 ka Yersenia Pestis in the Gökhem Passage grave fit in that story?

    Kristiansen himself points to the Cucutenis-Trypolye megacities
    and then it would have been spread prior to the arrival of the steppe herders
    some point to the Globular Amphora for that

    no proof has been found yet, allthough in the last Cucuteni-Tripolye study they checked for Yersenia Pestis

    you yourself said his 'predictive modelling' is speculation
    This is about the paper on which "you" relied. It doesn't lead to your conclusion. He says it came from the steppe through sporadic contact with Neolithic settlements and then spread. Period.

    This makes the third time I've pointed out that you're misinterpreting their conclusions.

    The source then, in the Middle Ages, and later, is where the source of all the Yersenia Pestis has been and is: the rodents of the steppe like the marmosets. That's the reservoir. The reservoir in the U.S. is in the rodents of the desert.

    It's like arguing Covid 19 doesn't have something to do with bats. The rats were the intermediary vector in Europe. In China it may have been the pangolin. It doesn't have anything to do with the ultimate source of the virus.

    Go argue with Kristiansen and the other members of the team if you don't like their conclusion.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I've read the paper. So have we all, and discussed it as well. You've forgotten?
    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...e-plague/page4

    In that discussion, I provided a link to their talk on their own paper where it is proposed that it was brought "from" the steppe to the Neolithic socieites of Europe through sporadic contact, where it spread, decimating the population, and thus, as he says, "paving" the way for the later migrations/invasions, call them what you will.


    So, my interpretation is in line with that of the authors of the data you cite, and yours is not.

    You keep on ignoring the fact that the first documented case of "any" disease is not necessarily where it started spreading.
    Angela, when did these sporadic contacts start? Could they by any chance help to explain the so-called WHG resurgence at the end of Neolithic?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Regio X View Post
    Angela, when did these sporadic contacts start? Could they by any chance help to explain the so-called WHG resurgence at the end of Neolithic?
    Unless we get very lucky and find a very old sample in the interface regions between Neolithic Europe and the steppe it's going to be deduction.

    One way to look at it perhaps is to find the earliest tiny bit of admixture of "steppe" in "Old Europe", or Neolithic Europe. Look at the dates: they're BCE.



    As to WHG, it gets more complicated, yes, and even more speculative? WHG is just EHG without additional dna. It's a spectrum. Anatolian farmers had ancestry related to WHG.

    So, if the immunity came from WHG, or relative immunity, maybe resulting in disease but not death, why did it decimate the Neolithic Europeans?

    As I said, the closest the scientists have come to finding the original vector is in rodents of the steppe. Would that argue WHG didn't have more immunity to it?

    On the other hand, perhaps it was some background variation in European hunter-gatherers. The more ancestry from them the more the chance you inherited some protective alleles.

    Modern testing has shown northern Europeans have more protection from plague, HIV, etc. (It's in the earlier thread I linked.) It doesn't mean they don't get those diseases, just that fewer of them get it and the case might be milder.

    Perhaps it's the same with Covid 19.

    Perhaps what seems to be true of Covid 19 was also true of plague; perhaps more men die than women.

    It might be a factor in the eventual dominance of R1b and R1a.

    It might also explain what happened to the Neolithc G2a2.

    It's all speculation, but the starting point seems pretty sound to me.
    *-

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Unless we get very lucky and find a very old sample in the interface regions between Neolithic Europe and the steppe it's going to be deduction.

    One way to look at it perhaps is to find the earliest tiny bit of admixture of "steppe" in "Old Europe", or Neolithic Europe. Look at the dates: they're BCE.



    As to WHG, it gets more complicated, yes, and even more speculative? WHG is just EHG without additional dna. It's a spectrum. Anatolian farmers had ancestry related to WHG.

    So, if the immunity came from WHG, or relative immunity, maybe resulting in disease but not death, why did it decimate the Neolithic Europeans?

    As I said, the closest the scientists have come to finding the original vector is in rodents of the steppe. Would that argue WHG didn't have more immunity to it?

    On the other hand, perhaps it was some background variation in European hunter-gatherers. The more ancestry from them the more the chance you inherited some protective alleles.

    Modern testing has shown northern Europeans have more protection from plague, HIV, etc. (It's in the earlier thread I linked.) It doesn't mean they don't get those diseases, just that fewer of them get it and the case might be milder.

    Perhaps it's the same with Covid 19.

    Perhaps what seems to be true of Covid 19 was also true of plague; perhaps more men die than women.

    It might be a factor in the eventual dominance of R1b and R1a.

    It might also explain what happened to the Neolithc G2a2.

    It's all speculation, but the starting point seems pretty sound to me.
    *-
    Very good infos and insights. Thanks!

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