Here is a short summary of the Myers-Briggs Personality Types from Wikipedia:

I would describe the 4 main dimensions a bit differently to quickly assess someone's personality.

- Introverts (I) need time on their own to recharge their batteries. They value privacy and enjoy solitary activities like reading, watching TV, and walking in the woods. Extroverts seek the company of others all the time and may feel lonely and miserable when left on their own device for too long (as with the Covid-19 social distancing). Whereas Introverts get tired easily when there are too many people around, Extroverts get energised by being with others.

- Intuitive (N) types care about big ideas and ideals. They care about how the world works, about science and philosophy. They like debating, campaigning, fighting for their ideals and their convictions... Sensing (S) types are more down-to-earth and practical. Instead about getting into lofty debates, they care first and foremost about the more tangible things in life, be it material goods, money, arts, sex, partying... Intuitive types might look down on Sensing types as shallow or lacking convictions and ideals. Sensing types might think of Intuitives as living with their heads in the clouds and not living enough in the moment.

- Thinking (T) types care about the truth and being right in an argument, even if that means alienating others. Feeling (F) types prioritise preserving the other side's feelings. Thinkers are rational and logical. Feelers are more empathetic and more attuned to emotions.

- Judging (J) types are organised, orderly, punctual, and tending toward more neuroticism. Perceiving (P) types are more easy going, happy-go-lucky, flexible and spontaneous. Judging types have a clear plan of action. Perceiving types go with the flow and let inspiration guide them.

MBTI and cultural psychology

I have studied cultural differences for half of my life. Learning about what makes people think and behave differently in each culture was one of my main motivation for learning foreign languages and living in other countries. I have also read over 30 books on culture shock and cultural psychology. If national cultures were individuals, here is what in my opinion their MBTI would be.

(You will find a detailed description of each of the 16 personality types here).

- Finland : ISTJ (the Logistician)

- Poland : ISTP (the Virtuoso)

- Netherlands : ESTJ (the Executive) or ISTJ (the Logistician) => borderline introvert-extrovert.

- Switzerland : ISTJ (the Logistician)

- Germany : INTJ (the Architect) or ISTJ (the Logistician) => borderline N and S, the Germans can be very practical-minded and yet also quite idealistic and philosophical. Their practical approach to science (merger or N and S) is what made them great industrialists.

- England : ISFJ (the Defender) or INFJ (the Advocate) => also borderline N and S, the English excel at finance, commerce and administration (all S traits), but are also known for their activism (e.g. animal rights) and their contributions to science and philosophy (N traits).

- USA : ESTJ (the Executive)

- France : ENTP (the Debater)

- Italy : ENFP (the Campaigner)

- Spain : ESFP (the Entertainer) or ESTP (the Entrepreneur)

- Japan : ESFJ (the Consul) => The Japanese may appear shy or reserved, but in my experience that is mainly when dealing with foreigners (especially if they have to speak English). Within Japan they are extremely sociable and gregarious, and indeed, as part of a collectivist culture, they cannot imagine their life outside of the group. Japanese people can't lived isolated and don't spend much time at home. That makes them super-extroverts, like other East Asians. All East Asian cultures are Sensing and Judging types. The Japanese differ a lot from the Chinese in being particularly Feeling types, caring a lot about other people's feelings, being extremely polite and caring, and avoiding confrontation.

- China : ESTJ (the Executive)

Note how Germanic and East Asian cultures are J (Judging) types, meaning more organised and punctual, while Romance/Latin cultures are more P types - more easy going and flexible.

The introverted cultures are mainly those of northern Europe.