The influential Randolph family of Virginia belongs to R1b-P312>Z39300 (aka PH2278) based on the results from the Randolph/Randall/Randle/Randol Surname Group (Albemarle County group). The family contributed numerous politicians, statesmen and military officers in the course of U.S. history.

The most prominent carrier of the Randolph name was perhaps Peyton Randolph who served as the the first President of the Continental Congress during the American Revolution.

Edmund Randolph was the seventh Governor of Virginia, the second Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General during George Washington's presidency.

George W. Randolph, a Confederate general who served for eight months in 1862 as the Confederate States Secretary of War during the American Civil War.

Maternal descendants of the Randolph family include:

- Thomas Jefferson, 3rd president of the USA

- John Marshall, fourth Chief Justice of the United States and the longest-serving chief justice to this day. He is widely regarded as one of the most influential justices to ever sit on the Supreme Court.

- Robert E. Lee, commander of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.