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Thread: Kinship, acquired and inherited status, and population structure at the Early Bronze

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    Kinship, acquired and inherited status, and population structure at the Early Bronze

    Kinship, acquired and inherited status, and population structure at the Early Bronze Age Mokrin necropolis in northern Serbia.
    Aleksandra Zegarac, Laura Winkelbach, Jens Bloecher, Yoan Diekmann, Marija Kreckovic Gavrilovic, Marko Porcic, Biljana Stojkovic, Lidija Milasinovic, Mona Schreiber, Daniel Wegmann, Krishna R Veeramah, Sofija Stefanovic, Joachim Burger
    doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.18.101337
    This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review [what does this mean?].
    AbstractInfo/HistoryMetrics Preview PDF
    Abstract
    Twenty-four ancient genomes with an average sequencing coverage of 0.85 were produced from the Mokrin necropolis, an Early Bronze Age (2,100-1,800 BC) Maros culture site in Serbia, to provide unambiguous identification of biological sex, population structure, and genetic kinship between individuals. Of the 24 investigated individuals, 15 were involved in kinship relationships of varying degrees, including 3 parent-offspring relationships. All observed parent-offspring pairs were mother and son. In addition to the absence of biological daughters, we observed a number of young women and girls with no biological relatives in our sample. These observations, together with the high mitochondrial diversity in our sample, are consistent with the practice of female exogamy in the population served by Mokrin. However, moderate-to-high Y-chromosomal diversity suggests a degree of male mobility greater than that expected under strict patrilocality. Individual status differences at Mokrin, as indicated by grave goods, support the inference that females could inherit status, but could not transmit status to all their sons. The case of a son whose grave good richness outstrips that of his biological mother suggests that sons had the possibility to acquire status during their lifetimes. The Mokrin sample resembles a genetically unstructured population, suggesting that the social hierarchies of the community were not accompanied by strict marriage barriers.

    ( r1b , I2 , j2b , bt)



    mt haplogr. Y haplogr.
    122E XY 6-9 1.09 U5a2b1a I2a1b

    122S XX 35-50 0.78 H32 *

    161 XX 9-11 1.20 H80 *

    163 XY 45-55 1.21 U4a2 J2b

    181 XX >18 0.62 U4a2 *

    186 XX 8-11 0.33 H1aj *

    211 XY 50-55 0.79 U5a2b1a I2a1b

    220 XY 15-25 0.64 T2b11 R1b1a2a2c1

    223 XX 7-10 0.39 U3a1 *

    224 XX 25-40 0.77 T2b *

    225 XY 25-35 0.82 J1b1a1 R1b1a2a2c1

    228 XX 35-50 0.95 J1c *

    237 XX 15-20 0.89 T2b *

    243 XY 20-35 1.12 H BT

    246 XX 45-50 0.98 H80 *

    247 XX 10-12 0.90 H1 *

    257 A XX 40-60 0.60 H *

    257 B XY inf.I 0.61 K1a4 R1b1a2a2c1a1

    260 XY 15-18 0.92 J1c I2a2a1a2a2

    282 XY 15-20 1.41 H2b BT

    287 XX 20-35 0.81 U5b2a2c *

    288 XX 60+ 0.81 HV0e *

    295 XY 15-20 0.82 H80 I2a1a

    302 XX 20-35 0.89 J1c *

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    Kinship, acquired and inherited status, and population structure at the Early Bronze Age Mokrin necropolis in northern Serbia.
    Aleksandra Zegarac, Laura Winkelbach, Jens Bloecher, Yoan Diekmann, Marija Kreckovic Gavrilovic, Marko Porcic, Biljana Stojkovic, Lidija Milasinovic, Mona Schreiber, Daniel Wegmann, Krishna R Veeramah, Sofija Stefanovic, Joachim Burger
    doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.18.101337
    This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review [what does this mean?].
    AbstractInfo/HistoryMetrics Preview PDF
    Abstract
    Twenty-four ancient genomes with an average sequencing coverage of 0.85 were produced from the Mokrin necropolis, an Early Bronze Age (2,100-1,800 BC) Maros culture site in Serbia, to provide unambiguous identification of biological sex, population structure, and genetic kinship between individuals. Of the 24 investigated individuals, 15 were involved in kinship relationships of varying degrees, including 3 parent-offspring relationships. All observed parent-offspring pairs were mother and son. In addition to the absence of biological daughters, we observed a number of young women and girls with no biological relatives in our sample. These observations, together with the high mitochondrial diversity in our sample, are consistent with the practice of female exogamy in the population served by Mokrin. However, moderate-to-high Y-chromosomal diversity suggests a degree of male mobility greater than that expected under strict patrilocality. Individual status differences at Mokrin, as indicated by grave goods, support the inference that females could inherit status, but could not transmit status to all their sons. The case of a son whose grave good richness outstrips that of his biological mother suggests that sons had the possibility to acquire status during their lifetimes. The Mokrin sample resembles a genetically unstructured population, suggesting that the social hierarchies of the community were not accompanied by strict marriage barriers.
    ( r1b , I2 , j2b , bt)
    mt haplogr. Y haplogr.
    122E XY 6-9 1.09 U5a2b1a I2a1b
    122S XX 35-50 0.78 H32 *
    161 XX 9-11 1.20 H80 *
    163 XY 45-55 1.21 U4a2 J2b
    181 XX >18 0.62 U4a2 *
    186 XX 8-11 0.33 H1aj *
    211 XY 50-55 0.79 U5a2b1a I2a1b
    220 XY 15-25 0.64 T2b11 R1b1a2a2c1
    223 XX 7-10 0.39 U3a1 *
    224 XX 25-40 0.77 T2b *
    225 XY 25-35 0.82 J1b1a1 R1b1a2a2c1
    228 XX 35-50 0.95 J1c *
    237 XX 15-20 0.89 T2b *
    243 XY 20-35 1.12 H BT
    246 XX 45-50 0.98 H80 *
    247 XX 10-12 0.90 H1 *
    257 A XX 40-60 0.60 H *
    257 B XY inf.I 0.61 K1a4 R1b1a2a2c1a1
    260 XY 15-18 0.92 J1c I2a2a1a2a2
    282 XY 15-20 1.41 H2b BT
    287 XX 20-35 0.81 U5b2a2c *
    288 XX 60+ 0.81 HV0e *
    295 XY 15-20 0.82 H80 I2a1a
    302 XX 20-35 0.89 J1c *
    Interesting. Only one J2b, but lots of I2a1. If J2b was brought by the steppe people I would have expected more. Certainly, it didn't take the Slavs to bring the I2a1. There's one I2a2 as well, probably local.

    Lots of mtDna U5, vast majority probably from the steppe.

    WHG 8%
    "Aegean Neolithic" 55%
    Steppe 37%

    Anyone know off hand the steppe percentage in today's Serbs? It won't be exact because for precision you would need to be using the same reference samples, but it might be interesting.

    Of course, the steppe number could have gone down with the "resurgence" of EEF ancestry that always seems to have happened, and then gone back up again with the Slavic migrations. Or, the Slavic migrations didn't have quite as large an impact as we thought.


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    Nine females were not related to anyone, and scattered throughout the burial ground. I wonder if they were still practising the Indo-European "bride kidnapping", a la "Rapine of the Sabines".
    As far as pigmentation is concerned:
    SLC24A5 1 (So, already fixed)
    SLC42A5 71% (Not very high compared to modern European populations, although as they point out, it's at 82% in Spain.
    HERC2 45% (Similar to modern day Tuscans.)

    It seems they didn't see the latest Mathiesen paper on depigmentation. If he's right there are other snps which are more important than SLC45A2.

    I haven't gotten to the supplement, but I think the HERC2 derived number must include a lot of heterozygous samples. That's how it works in Italy too. The northern half of the country has higher Herc 2 than one would think looking the people's eyes.

    Basically, I guess they looked like Tuscans and Spaniards.

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    Has anyone found the Supplement?

    Just saw that 4 of the samples had no WHG at all.

    That would hint that perhaps, as I said, there was very little WHG in the Balkans before the arrival of the steppe people.

    There's no question that it was a very minor player.

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    R1b1a2a2c1

    which one is this? what SNPs characterise this subclade?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Has anyone found the Supplement?
    Just saw that 4 of the samples had no WHG at all.
    That would hint that perhaps, as I said, there was very little WHG in the Balkans before the arrival of the steppe people.
    There's no question that it was a very minor player.
    European genetic variation, clustering in the midst of modern northern, eastern, and southern
    Europeans (Fig. S5).
    We estimated individual admixture proportions under the assumption that the composition of
    a European Bronze Age population can be sufficiently modeled with three components:
    western hunter gatherers, Aegean Neolithic farmers, and eastern European steppe-like
    populations. We observed no significant variation in the eastern European steppe-like
    component between individuals (Fig. S6, Table S6). Pooling individuals, admixture proportions
    are estimated to be around 8% (± 1.2% standard error (SE)) western hunter gatherers, 55% (±
    2.5% SE) Aegean Neolithic farmers, and 37% (± 2.3% SE) Eastern European steppe-like
    population (Fig. S7). Quantification of shared drift to other temporally and geographically close
    ancient individuals via outgroup f3 statistics did not reveal any particularly close affinities (Fig.
    S8), reflecting the genetic homogenization of Europe during the Bronze Age.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    R1b1a2a2c1
    which one is this? what SNPs characterise this subclade?
    Z2105+ from looking at some tables

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    the areas and time period covers the Vatin culture

    https://www.academia.edu/2250330/WEL..._CENTURY_AFTER

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vatin_culture

    the area is also part of later proto-Triballi Thracian people
    Fathers mtdna ...... T2b17
    Grandfather mtdna ... T1a1e
    Sons mtdna ...... K1a4p
    Mothers line ..... R1b-S8172
    Grandmother paternal side ... I1-CTS6397
    Wife paternal line ..... R1a-Z282

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    Quote Originally Posted by torzio View Post
    the areas and time period covers the Vatin culture
    This is not the Vatin culture. Vatin culture is MBA, this is late EBA. This is Maros culture, Vatin culture succeeded the Maros culture in many/most areas. There were already two samples of Maros culture before RISE373, RISE374 without the Y-DNA.

    Vatin culture practiced cremation mostly.

    It does look like some J-L283 is likely there. Might be a good candidate to pinpoint its origins, as Maros was also derived of some earlier cultures.

    No E-V13, so this tells me V13 is not tied to Pannonian areal at all. But I believe it is connected to Glina III-Schneckenberg, at least the E-CTS1273. Maros had some trade relations with them. There are no Romanian aDNA BA finds atm at all.

    Also it seems R-CTS7556 was found!!

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    The j2b sample according to the paper is "buried with grave goods indicative of higher social status". This J2b (almost definitely l283), taken in conjuction with the three R1b's the same as those of albanians, is consistent with having come from the steppe together.

    No one says all I2a1 was brought by slavs, its the specific clades of cts10228 that south slavs have major founder effects in that came with the slavic migrations.

    For example the two main ones i2a-s17250 & I2a-z17855. Those branches were not part of paleobalkan ethnicities like illyrians, thracian.

    Lbk had i2a1, that is not controversial.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Interesting. Only one J2b, but lots of I2a1. If J2b was brought by the steppe people I would have expected more. Certainly, it didn't take the Slavs to bring the I2a1. There's one I2a2 as well, probably local.

    Lots of mtDna U5, vast majority probably from the steppe.

    WHG 8%
    "Aegean Neolithic" 55%
    Steppe 37%

    Anyone know off hand the steppe percentage in today's Serbs? It won't be exact because for precision you would need to be using the same reference samples, but it might be interesting.

    Of course, the steppe number could have gone down with the "resurgence" of EEF ancestry that always seems to have happened, and then gone back up again with the Slavic migrations. Or, the Slavic migrations didn't have quite as large an impact as we thought.
    Is it the Slavic subclade?

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    Quote Originally Posted by ihype02 View Post
    Is it the Slavic subclade?
    The samples are only labelled as I2a1b, so I2a-M423 since the classifications are based on older nomenclature. I think that if we look at the current data, it's very unlikely that these samples are related to the Slavic clusters of CTS10228.

    It's possible that they are M423>L161, possibly related to L161>Y13331 which has been found in a number of Bulgarians.

    The other I2a1 sample is I-M26, wouldn't surprise me if there's a relation with the M26 found in the samples from the Baden Culture of Hungary.
    Ydna: J-ZS241

    mtDNA: T1a1l

    Maternal Ydna: E-V13>CTS5856*

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kelmendasi View Post
    The samples are only labelled as I2a1b, so I2a-M423 since the classifications are based on older nomenclature. I think that if we look at the current data, it's very unlikely that these samples are related to the Slavic clusters of CTS10228.

    It's possible that they are M423>L161, possibly related to L161>Y13331 which has been found in a number of Bulgarians.

    The other I2a1 sample is I-M26, wouldn't surprise me if there's a relation with the M26 found in the samples from the Baden Culture of Hungary.
    Bulgarians have 35% to 40% I2a-Slavic and slavic R1a. Early Slavs were 2/3 to 3/4 of I2a and R1a but not entirely.
    Will we get to see them in the autosomal PCA? :)

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    The 24 samples tested are from the Periam-Pecica/Mureş culture, which covered northern Serbia, southeastern Hungary and western Romania. It is contemporary with the late Bell Beaker phenomenon and the Unetice culture.

    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Interesting. Only one J2b, but lots of I2a1. If J2b was brought by the steppe people I would have expected more. Certainly, it didn't take the Slavs to bring the I2a1. There's one I2a2 as well, probably local.
    The paper says that most of the tested males are related, so the fact that there are lots of I2a1 does not necessarily reflect a high percentage of I2a1 in the region - just in that family. Likewise the J2b and I2a2 are outsiders to that local clan.

    I2a1 and I2a2 were found throughout Mesolithic Europe and survived in many Neolithic cultures too. Yet, none of the Mesolithic and Neolithic samples belong to the Slavic I2a1b-CTS10228. So it is undeniable that a more recent migration in the Late Antiquity diffused I2a1b-CTS10228 around central, SE and eastern Europe. I very much doubt that the origin of that migration was in the Balkans. The source was probably more around Belarus.

    Lots of mtDna U5, vast majority probably from the steppe.
    Not so sure. The U5 from the Yamna and subsequent Steppe cultures + in Corded Ware is typically U5a1. Here the samples are U5a2b and U5b2a, which have been found in Epipaleolithic France, Mesolithic Sweden and Neolithic Germany, but not in the Steppe.

    Likewise, the U4 in Yamna and Corded Ware is U4a1, but in LBA Serbia we see U4a2, which is more central-northern European in origin.
    There are a few Steppe mt-haplogroups though, such as H2b and J1b1a.

    WHG 8%
    "Aegean Neolithic" 55%
    Steppe 37%
    There is far more Steppe aDNA than uniparental haplogroups suggest.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Aspurg View Post
    This is not the Vatin culture. Vatin culture is MBA, this is late EBA. This is Maros culture, Vatin culture succeeded the Maros culture in many/most areas. There were already two samples of Maros culture before RISE373, RISE374 without the Y-DNA.

    Vatin culture practiced cremation mostly.

    It does look like some J-L283 is likely there. Might be a good candidate to pinpoint its origins, as Maros was also derived of some earlier cultures.

    That J2b-L283 might be there in the late EBA in the Maros culture is quite interesting.

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    Assuming the J2b sample is, in fact, J2b L283, when will we know/determine which sub-branch of L283 it might have belonged to?

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    pribislav anlaysed some of the calls from this paper i guess bam files are out ( it is very hard for me to see farther as i am not a member of anthrogenica)



    MOK12; 2100-1800 BC; Mokrin necropolis, Kikinda, Banat; Serbia; Maros_EBA; I2a1b-M423>Y3104>L161>pre-Y13336

    MOK12 also has one derived SNP at downstream level Y13331, but given that it's a G>A transition covered with only one read, and that it has two ancestral SNPs at level Y13336, I'm more inclined to assign it to pre-Y13336.




    MOK19A; 2100-1800 BC; Mokrin necropolis, Kikinda, Banat; Serbia, Maros_EBA; R1b-Z2103>Z2106>Z2108>Y14415>Y14420* (xY14512)





    MOK18A; 2100-1800 BC; Mokrin necropolis, Kikinda, Banat; Serbia, Maros_EBA; I2a1b-M423>Y3104>L161>pre-Y13336

    Y13336 level: Y13337+ C>T (1T); Y13603+ C>T (2T); Y13580+ G>A (1A); Y13605+ T>A (1A); Y167728- G>C (1G); Y167370- T>C (1T)




    MOK28A; 2100-1800 BC; Mokrin necropolis, Kikinda, Banat; Serbia, Maros_EBA; I2a2a1a2a2-M223>CTS616>Y3670>L1229>S18331




    MOK15. 2100-1800 BC. Mokrin necropolis. Serbia, Maros_EBA is: J2b-L283>Z600>Z615*: https://yfull.com/tree/J-Z615/

    Some important Derived SNPs: Z590 (1A), Z600 (1A), Z2509/CTS3681 (1T), Z615 (1C)
    Ancestral SNP: Z584- Z2505- Z628-
    No call: Z585, Z8418, Y27530





    MOK22; 2100-1800 BC; Mokrin necropolis, Kikinda, Banat; Serbia; Maros_EBA; R1b1a2a2c1-Z2103>Z2106>Z2108 (xZ2110)


    Z2108 level: Z2109/CTS1843+ T>C (1C)

    Z2108>Z2110 level: Z2110/CTS7822- A>T (1A); S17864- T>G (2T)

    Z2108>Y14415 level: *no calls*

    Z2108>Y14415>Y14420 level: *no calls*

    Z2108>KMS67 level: *no calls*




    MOK24A; 2100-1800 BC; Mokrin necropolis, Kikinda, Banat; Serbia; Maros_EBA; R1b1a2a2c1-Z2103>Z2106>Z2108>Z2110>CTS7556? (xCTS1450)


    Z2110 level: S17864+ T>G (1G)

    Z2110>CTS7556 level: CTS7556+ C>T (1T); Y18960- C>T (2C)

    Z2110>CTS7556>CTS1450 level: CTS1450- T>G (1T); Y5591/V3089- A>G (1A); Y5593- T>G (2T)





    MOK29A and MOK32; 2100-1800 BC; Mokrin necropolis, Kikinda, Banat; Serbia; Maros_EBA; I2a1a-S21825>Y4213>pre-M838?



    p.s
    i got the last one
    Sample MOK27 is R1b-M269>Z2103>Z2108>CTS7556+, and possibly R-CTS7556*

    Last edited by kingjohn; 06-09-20 at 20:26.

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Thanks for the post. It was very useful.

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    This was very useful.

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    Thanks for the post.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post


    Thanks for another interesting paper kingjohn. Keep bringing them on. Besides, cool that they've detected J2b in BA Serbia. However, still, no E-V13 found. It's becoming a running gag.

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    From the study concerning admixture.


    "When projected onto a PCA of European populations, all Mokrin samples fallwithin modern European genetic variation, clustering in the midst ofmodern northern, eastern, and southern Europeans (SupplementaryFigure S3).

    We estimated individual admixture proportions under the assumption that the composition of a European Bronze Age population can be sufficiently well modeled with three components: Iron Gates hunter-gatherers, Aegean Neolithic farmers, and eastern European steppe-like populations. ... Pooling individuals, admixture proportions are estimated to be around 12.5% Iron Gates hunter gatherers, 53.7% Aegean Neolithic farmers, and 33.8% Eastern European steppe-like population."
    BA Serbians had a similar skin complexion as modern Spaniards.Ola'. And the frequency of blue eyes among BA Serbians is similar to the frequency of blue eyes found in Tuscany.

    Phenotypic markers

    We estimated frequencies of a set of markers related to ***mentation phenotypes in the Mokrin sample by calculating individual genotype likelihoods using a Bayesian approach implemented in ATLAS53. The frequency of the derived allele at rs16891982*G (SLC45A2) was 0.7098 (CI 0.5365–0.8476; N = 15) and at rs1426654*A (SLC24A5) 1 (CI 0.8899–1; N = 15); both are associated with skin de***mentation in Europeans54. Comparable frequencies can be found in modern day populations in Spain (SLC45A2: 0.8178, SLC24A5: 1). The frequency of the derived G allele at rs12913832 in the HERC2 gene, which is strongly associated with iris de***mentation, was estimated to be 0.4498 (CI 0.2946–0.6127; N = 20), similar to modern day populations in Tuscany (0.4206; CI 0.4206 – 0.4415).


  25. #25
    Regular Member kingjohn's Avatar
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    Y-DNA haplogroup
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    Quote Originally Posted by real expert View Post
    Thanks for another interesting paper kingjohn. Keep bringing them on. Besides, cool that they've detected J2b in BA Serbia. However, still, no E-V13 found. It's becoming a running gag.

    the running will end soon
    if the bulgarian leak was correct
    than we should expect some e-v13 in iron age bulgaria

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