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Thread: Genomic History of Neolithic to Bronze Age Anatolia, N.Levant & S. Caucasus

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    Genomic History of Neolithic to Bronze Age Anatolia, N.Levant & S. Caucasus

    Here, we report genome-wide data analyses from 110 ancient Near Eastern individuals spanning the Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age, a period characterized by intense interregional interactions for the Near East. We find that 6 th millennium BCE populations of North/Central Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus shared mixed ancestry on a genetic cline that formed during the Neolithic between Western Anatolia and regions in today’s Southern Caucasus/Zagros. During the Late Chalcolithic and/or the Early Bronze Age, more than half of the Northern Levantine gene pool was replaced, while in the rest of Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus, we document genetic continuity with only transient gene flow. Additionally, we reveal a genetically distinct individual within the Late Bronze Age Northern Levant. Overall, our study uncovers multiple scales of population dynamics through time, from extensive admixture during the Neolithic period to long-distance mobility within the globalized societies of the Late Bronze Age.

    https://www.cell.com/cell/pdf/S0092-...AZNATQR4-uDoSM

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    Very interesting, I would like to check out the BAM files once I can.

    So in the late-Bronze Age, a new distinct un-sampled ancestral component was introduced into the Northern Levant, from possibly Mesopotamia. I guess that extra component is what differentiates Levantines from the prior Anatolian-Caucasian ancestral cline that goes back to 6500 BC.
    There can be no covenants between men and lions

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    Here, we report genome-wide data analyses from 110 ancient Near Eastern individuals spanning the Late Neolithic to Late Bronze Age, a period characterized by intense interregional interactions for the Near East. We find that 6 th millennium BCE populations of North/Central Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus shared mixed ancestry on a genetic cline that formed during the Neolithic between Western Anatolia and regions in today’s Southern Caucasus/Zagros. During the Late Chalcolithic and/or the Early Bronze Age, more than half of the Northern Levantine gene pool was replaced, while in the rest of Anatolia and the Southern Caucasus, we document genetic continuity with only transient gene flow. Additionally, we reveal a genetically distinct individual within the Late Bronze Age Northern Levant. Overall, our study uncovers multiple scales of population dynamics through time, from extensive admixture during the Neolithic period to long-distance mobility within the globalized societies of the Late Bronze Age.
    https://www.cell.com/cell/pdf/S0092-...AZNATQR4-uDoSM
    Many thanks for linking this paper. Definitely one I am going to read.

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    bummer that there is no access
    to the supplemental .....

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    bummer that there is no access
    to the supplemental .....
    Neither here: https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...92867420305092

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jovialis View Post


    Very interesting, I would like to check out the BAM files once I can.

    So in the late-Bronze Age, a new distinct un-sampled ancestral component was introduced into the Northern Levant, from possibly Mesopotamia. I guess that extra component is what differentiates Levantines from the prior Anatolian-Caucasian ancestral cline that goes back to 6500 BC.
    I'm finding the map a little difficult to understand. The ultimate source of that movement to the Levant seems to be Iran, so I immediately thought Iran Neo. I'm not sure of the dates, however. If you look at when the arrow "arrives" in the Levant, it's very, very early, fourth millennium at least. It may have been mediated by Mesopotamia indeed, but they haven't determined their genetic make up.

    The Anatolia centered one is clear and known: Anatolian Neolithic went both west and east; west into Europe and east into the Southern Caucasus.

    Maybe the paper explains it more clearly.


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    Quote Originally Posted by Regio X View Post
    correct
    there are 3 options :
    access via your institutional email
    access via your institutional login
    purchase PDF 31.50$

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    correct
    there are 3 options :
    access via your institutional email
    access via your institutional login
    purchase PDF 31.50$
    I couldn't find the BAM files on ENA either.

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    fwiw I got this
    Attachment 12112


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    6500 BC wasn't that the period of Tepecik-Ciftlik?
    It is also the time Anatolian farmers arrived in Barcin/Mentese.
    Apart from G2a2a and C1a2, some T, J and H2 had joined.

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    I'm surprised by all the G2a2 in more recent periods. Lots of J1 in the earlier periods. Where's all the J2a?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I'm finding the map a little difficult to understand. The ultimate source of that movement to the Levant seems to be Iran, so I immediately thought Iran Neo. I'm not sure of the dates, however. If you look at when the arrow "arrives" in the Levant, it's very, very early, fourth millennium at least. It may have been mediated by Mesopotamia indeed, but they haven't determined their genetic make up.

    The Anatolia centered one is clear and known: Anatolian Neolithic went both west and east; west into Europe and east into the Southern Caucasus.

    Maybe the paper explains it more clearly.
    If it arrived in the northern Levant (Northern Syria) 4th to 5th millennium, some of it might have gotten into certain stages of the Neolithic advance.

    "Levant" shows up in Mycenaean on all the calculators we've been using, yes? Anybody have that graphic handy where European Jews are on the PCA along with Mycenaeans and Italians, Greeks etc. and the calculator results showing that?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I'm surprised by all the G2a2 in more recent periods. Lots of J1 in the earlier periods. Where's all the J2a?
    Angela/Others: I went through the excel spreadsheet and quickly surveyed the Y-DNA Haplogroups. As I have noted in other threads, more of something I have just started getting into so I am going to give a "readers digest summary" as posters in this thread are much more in tune with Y-DNA Haps and related sub-clades. Anway, of I think the 94 samples, these are the Y-Haplogroups, without any consideration for periods.

    J2 =12
    G/G1 = 9
    J1 = 8
    H2 = 4
    T1 =2
    E1b1b =2
    CT=1
    R1b = 1
    L2 =1

    If there something else anyone needs, let me know and assuming not violating any board protocol, I will post what I can as clear as possible.

    Regards, PT
    Last edited by Palermo Trapani; 28-05-20 at 22:10. Reason: L2 was missing in OP

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    I wonder if one of those G's is the Ashkenazi G clade, or Sephardi for that matter.

    Context is going to be important here. Were they all found in definitely "local", Canaanite graves?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I wonder if one of those G's is the Ashkenazi G clade, or Sephardi for that matter.

    Context is going to be important here. Were they all found in definitely "local", Canaanite graves?
    I apologize but there are actually 11 G Y-DNA Haplogroups. My eyes are not what they use to be. I don't know if this will help but

    G=1
    G1=1
    G2a2b1a=3
    G2a2b1=3
    G2a=1
    G2a2=1
    G2ab1=1

    Got a zoom meeting with a colleague to go to but if there is anything else that you need that I can add clarification, please let me know

    Buona Serrata, PT

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    2 members found this post helpful.
    ALA001 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA002 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA004 J2a1a1a2b2a1b~ PF4843/Z2324
    ALA008 H2 P96
    ALA011 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847
    ALA014 J2b1 M205
    ALA015 T1a1a CTS11451
    ALA018 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA026 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA035 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA084 L2 L595
    ALA095 J2b2~ CTS6812/Z2454
    ALX002 G1 M342
    ART001 J2a1a1a2b2a1 PF5132
    ART004 G M201/PF2957
    ART011 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847
    ART014 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285
    ART015 E1b1b1b2a1a1~ CTS4483/L795
    ART017 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847
    ART018 J1a2b1~ Z1842
    ART019 J2a1a1a2b2a1 PF5132
    ART020 J2a1a F4326/L27/PF5111/S396
    ART022 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847
    ART023 J2a1a F4326/L27/PF5111/S396
    ART024 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285
    ART027 J2a1a1a2b1b M319
    ART032 H2 P96
    ART038 R1b1a2 V1636
    ART042 H2 P96
    CBT005 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285
    CBT013 G2a2b1a FGC5089/Y2729
    CBT014 G2a2b1a FGC5089/Y2729
    CBT015 G2a2b1a FGC5089/Y2729
    ETM001 J1a2a1a2 P58/Page8/PF4698
    ETM005 J1a2a1a2 P58/Page8/PF4698
    ETM010 E1b1b1b2a1a1~ CTS4483/L795
    ETM012 J1a2a1a2d2b~ CTS5266/PF4870/Z2321
    ETM018 G2a P287/PF3140
    ETM026 T1a1 L162/Page21
    IKI024 J2a1 PF4610
    IKI037 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285
    KRD001 H2 P96
    KRD002 G2a2 CTS4367/L1259/M3308/PF2970
    KRD003 J1a2a~ AM01306/CTS1797/PF4689/Z2356
    KRD005 CT -NA- low coverage
    TIT021 J2b M12

    P.s
    Thats from the other forum i guess someone there has access or he paid the 31.50$😉
    And the
    2 e1b1b1 belong to E- m34-m84 (like armenia bronze age rize423)👍
    Last edited by kingjohn; 29-05-20 at 00:08.

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    2 members found this post helpful.
    Kingjohn: Not sure if Mtdna was posted in the other forum your were referring to but here are the Mtdna Haplogroups if anyone is interested.

    Individual ID Haplogroup
    ALA001 X2
    ALA002 N1a3a2
    ALA004 X2e2a
    ALA008 H6a1b
    ALA009 J1c3
    ALA011 X2d
    ALA013 H47
    ALA014 H14b
    ALA015 K1a
    ALA016 I2
    ALA017 U1a1d
    ALA018 HV1b3b
    ALA019 H2a3
    ALA020 H6a
    ALA023 N1b1a
    ALA024 U3b
    ALA025 H
    ALA026 T1a
    ALA028 K1a17
    ALA029 T2
    ALA030 H5a1j
    ALA034 H13a2b2
    ALA035 H20a
    ALA037 W3b
    ALA038 J1b3b1
    ALA039 K1a+150
    ALA095 HV
    ALX002 K1a12a1a
    ART001 H14b3
    ART004 H
    ART005 J1c
    ART009 K1a28
    ART010 U8b1a1
    ART011 T2c1
    ART012 N1a1a1a
    ART014 [email protected]
    ART015 U1a1d
    ART017 T2c1+146
    ART018 H14a+146
    ART019 K1a3
    ART020 J1c16
    ART022 J1c
    ART023 U3b1
    ART024 [email protected]
    ART026 K1a8b
    ART027 T1
    ART032 N1b1a2
    ART038 K1a17a
    ART039 I5a
    ART042 T1b
    CBT001 T2b
    CBT002 K1a3
    CBT004 HV1
    CBT005 K1a
    CBT010 K1a
    CBT011 K1a
    CBT013 HV1
    CBT014 H5
    CBT015 U3a2
    CBT016 K1a3
    CBT017 K1a3
    CBT018 X2
    ETM006 U3b3
    ETM010 J1b1b1
    ETM012 T2c1+146
    ETM014 U3b2a1
    ETM016 U8b1a2b
    ETM018 J1b1b1
    ETM023 H14a
    ETM026 K1a4
    IKI002 J1c16
    IKI009 J2a1
    IKI016 I5
    IKI024 U1b1
    IKI034 K1a17
    IKI036 J2b1c
    IKI038 X1'2'3
    MTT001 U7
    POT002 H13a2b

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    I'm finding the map a little difficult to understand. The ultimate source of that movement to the Levant seems to be Iran, so I immediately thought Iran Neo. I'm not sure of the dates, however. If you look at when the arrow "arrives" in the Levant, it's very, very early, fourth millennium at least. It may have been mediated by Mesopotamia indeed, but they haven't determined their genetic make up.

    The Anatolia centered one is clear and known: Anatolian Neolithic went both west and east; west into Europe and east into the Southern Caucasus.

    Maybe the paper explains it more clearly.
    taking the other new paper about southern levant into consideration which found Caucasus/Zagros like ancestry in the bronze age it's probably Caucasus/Zagros iran ChL like here too.
    https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S...674(20)30487-6
    Last edited by Ailchu; 29-05-20 at 03:47.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    ALA001 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA002 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA004 J2a1a1a2b2a1b~ PF4843/Z2324
    ALA008 H2 P96
    ALA011 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847
    ALA014 J2b1 M205
    ALA015 T1a1a CTS11451
    ALA018 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA026 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA035 J1a2a1a2d2b2b2~ CTS11741/PF4847
    ALA084 L2 L595
    ALA095 J2b2~ CTS6812/Z2454
    ALX002 G1 M342
    ART001 J2a1a1a2b2a1 PF5132
    ART004 G M201/PF2957
    ART011 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847
    ART014 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285
    ART015 E1b1b1b2a1a1~ CTS4483/L795
    ART017 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847
    ART018 J1a2b1~ Z1842
    ART019 J2a1a1a2b2a1 PF5132
    ART020 J2a1a F4326/L27/PF5111/S396
    ART022 J2a1a1a2b2a PF5126/Z1847
    ART023 J2a1a F4326/L27/PF5111/S396
    ART024 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285
    ART027 J2a1a1a2b1b M319
    ART032 H2 P96
    ART038 R1b1a2 V1636
    ART042 H2 P96
    CBT005 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285
    CBT013 G2a2b1a FGC5089/Y2729
    CBT014 G2a2b1a FGC5089/Y2729
    CBT015 G2a2b1a FGC5089/Y2729
    ETM001 J1a2a1a2 P58/Page8/PF4698
    ETM005 J1a2a1a2 P58/Page8/PF4698
    ETM010 E1b1b1b2a1a1~ CTS4483/L795
    ETM012 J1a2a1a2d2b~ CTS5266/PF4870/Z2321
    ETM018 G2a P287/PF3140
    ETM026 T1a1 L162/Page21
    IKI024 J2a1 PF4610
    IKI037 G2a2b1 M406/PF3285
    KRD001 H2 P96
    KRD002 G2a2 CTS4367/L1259/M3308/PF2970
    KRD003 J1a2a~ AM01306/CTS1797/PF4689/Z2356
    KRD005 CT -NA- low coverage
    TIT021 J2b M12
    P.s
    Thats from the other forum i guess someone there has access or he paid the 31.50$������
    And the
    2 e1b1b1 belong to E- m34-m84 (like armenia bronze age rize423)������
    Thanks.

    Do you know how much G2a2 is in the area today? I know that in the Levant as a whole it's not very frequent, is it?

    Do you think they support the contention of the authors of a change in the Iron Age?

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    I should have read the abstract and highlights more carefully.


    • Gene pools of Anatolia and Caucasus were biologically connected ∼6500 BCE
    • Gene flow from neighboring populations in Northern Levant during 3 rd millennium BCE
    • One individual of likely Central Asian origin in 2 nd millennium BCE Northern Levant

      I guess that Northern Mesopotamia was the best guess for a proximate source.

      This is the Early Dynastic period in Mesopotamia. Uruk was just before it. They had city states, had developed writing, had bronze tools and weapons and ultimately most of Mesopotamia was unified under Sargon to create the Akkadian Empire. We know a lot about the Sumerian cities of Uruk, Ur etc. but not so much about northern Mesopoatamia.

      I wonder if Ebla has something to do with this?

      "Ebla (Sumerian: 𒌈𒆷eb₂-la,[1]Arabic: إبلا‎, modern: تل مرديخ, Tell Mardikh) was one of the earliest kingdoms in Syria. Its remains constitute a tell located about 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Aleppo near the village of Mardikh. Ebla was an important center throughout the 3rd millennium BC and in the first half of the 2nd millennium BC. Its discovery proved the Levant was a center of ancient, centralized civilization equal to Egypt and Mesopotamia and ruled out the view that the latter two were the only important centers in the Near East during the Early Bronze Age. The first Eblaite kingdom has been described as the first recorded world power.
      Starting as a small settlement in the Early Bronze Age (c. 3500 BC), Ebla developed into a trading empire and later into an expansionist power that imposed its hegemony over much of northern and eastern Syria. Ebla was destroyed during the 23rd century BC; it was then rebuilt and was mentioned in the records of the Third Dynasty of Ur. The second Ebla was a continuation of the first, ruled by a new royal dynasty. It was destroyed at the end of the 3rd millennium BC, which paved the way for the Amorite tribes to settle in the city, forming the third Ebla. The third kingdom also flourished as a trade center; it became a subject and an ally of Yamhad (modern-day Aleppo) until its final destruction by the Hittite king Mursili I in c. 1600 BC."

      "The kingdom had its own language, Eblaite, and the political organization of Ebla had features different from the Sumerian model. Women enjoyed a special status, and the queen had major influence in the state and religious affairs. The pantheon of gods was mainly north Semitic and included deities exclusive to Ebla. The city was excavated starting in 1964 and became famous for the Ebla tablets, an archive of about 20,000 cuneiform tablets found there, dated to around 2350 BC.[note 1] Written in both Sumerian and Eblaite and using the cuneiform, the archive has allowed a better understanding of the Sumerian language and provided important information over the political organization and social customs of the mid-3rd millennium BC's Levant."

      "Ebla was first settled around 3500 BC;

      [4][5] its growth was supported by many satellite agricultural settlements.[4] The city benefited from its role as an entrepôt of growing international trade, which probably began with an increased demand for wool in Sumer.[4] Archaeologists designate this early habitation period "Mardikh I"; it ended around 3000 BC.[6] Mardikh I is followed by the first and second kingdoms era between about 3000 and 2000 BC, designated "Mardikh II".[7]I. J. Gelb consider Ebla as part of the Kish civilization, which was a cultural entity of East Semitic-speaking populations that stretched from the center of Mesopotamia to the western Levant.[8]"

    Maybe that answers some of my questions. So, were these people from perhaps central Mesopotamia there already by 3500 BC or did they arrive later to set up the "kingdoms" in 3,000 BC, or quite a bit later in 2300 BC when the archaeology indicates that the palace in Ebla was destroyed, and much of the acropolis? That was at the hands of Mari, a city on the western bank of the Euphrates.




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    Wow it's really great they got samples from BA Ebla. That must be as close as we're likely to get from the earliest Semitic speakers, particularly East Semites.

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    2 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    ART038 R1b1a2 V1636
    This one is really interesting. Where and when is it from? R1b-V1636 was found IIRC in Chalcolithic Armenia as well as in the Chalcolithic Southern Pontic-Caspian Steppe (Progress/Vonyuchka), and some have already speculated it might have something to do with the early split of Anatolian IE from the rest of the IE family.

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    In this video (https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...92867420305092) one of the researchers involved in this new paper, Eirini Skourtanioti, explains that the big changes in the Northern Levant are likely to have come from an unsampled population in Northern Mesopotamia. I find that particularly exciting to know, because I have long thought that the most likely source of the Proto-Semitic expansion was not the Levant, let alone the southern Levant, but Northern Mesopotamia, on the crossroads between the Levant, Anatolia, Caucasus and Zagros. I had reached this conclusion in this thread some time ago:

    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...-in-the-Levant

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Ygorcs View Post
    In this video (https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...92867420305092) one of the researchers involved in this new paper, Eirini Skourtanioti, explains that the big changes in the Northern Levant are likely to have come from an unsampled population in Northern Mesopotamia. I find that particularly exciting to know, because I have long thought that the most likely source of the Proto-Semitic expansion was not the Levant, let alone the southern Levant, but Northern Mesopotamia, on the crossroads between the Levant, Anatolia, Caucasus and Zagros. I had reached this conclusion in this thread some time ago:

    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...-in-the-Levant
    How do u explain with that, Afro-Asiatic language family origin?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ygorcs View Post
    This one is really interesting. Where and when is it from? R1b-V1636 was found IIRC in Chalcolithic Armenia as well as in the Chalcolithic Southern Pontic-Caspian Steppe (Progress/Vonyuchka), and some have already speculated it might have something to do with the early split of Anatolian IE from the rest of the IE family.
    Arslantepe site in moden day south turkey

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