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Thread: The Eastern Steppe- A 6000 year old genetic history

  1. #1
    Advisor Angela's Avatar
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    The Eastern Steppe- A 6000 year old genetic history

    See:
    https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S...674(20)31321-0


    "Highlights


    • Genome-wide analysis of 214 ancient individuals from Mongolia and the Baikal region
    • Three genetically distinct dairy pastoralist groups in Late Bronze Age Mongolia
    • Xiongnu nomadic empire formed through mixing of distinct local and distant groups
    • No selection on the lactase persistence alleles despite 5,000 years of dairy culture


    Summary

    The Eastern Eurasian Steppe was home to historic empires of nomadic pastoralists, including the Xiongnu and the Mongols. However, little is known about the region’s population history. Here, we reveal its dynamic genetic history by analyzing new genome-wide data for 214 ancient individuals spanning 6,000 years. We identify a pastoralist expansion into Mongolia ca. 3000 BCE, and by the Late Bronze Age, Mongolian populations were biogeographically structured into three distinct groups, all practicing dairy pastoralism regardless of ancestry. The Xiongnu emerged from the mixing of these populations and those from surrounding regions. By comparison, the Mongols exhibit much higher eastern Eurasian ancestry, resembling present-day Mongolic-speaking populations. Our results illuminate the complex interplay between genetic, sociopolitical, and cultural changes on the Eastern Steppe.

    Graphical Abstract

    "


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    Satyavrata Maciamo's Avatar
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    4 members found this post helpful.
    Very interesting. The genetic landscape of Mongolia changed more often and more radically from the Copper Age to the Iron Age than anywhere in western Eurasia.

    Here is the Y-DNA and mtDNA summary from the paper.



    What struck me at first is that Y-haplogroup J1a was present from the Copper Age to the Early Medieval period (and probably still today). There are only 5 pre-EBA samples and we can see that G2a was already there too by the MLBA, so I would think that J1a and G2a came together, probably arriving with domesticated animals from the Middle East during the Neolithic period. R1b came from the eastward expansion of Proto-Indo-Europeans through the Botai culture in the Altai (that was already confirmed before). Haplogroup N presumably expanded from northern China to Mongolia and Siberia during the Neolithic. Q1a would be the Mesolithic Siberia hunter-gatherers already living in the region.

    From the Early Iron Age we see the arrival and R1a and Q1b, surely from Central Asia (Kazakhstan).

    In the Late Iron Age, the Xiongnu/Huns emerged as a mix of the Bronze Age Mongolian population with two sets of newcomers:

    1) Chinese and/or Manchus bring haplogroups O2a and C2b.

    2) Middle Eastern E1b1b and J2a who almost certainly came along more R1a(-Z93) and Q1b with Scythian-related tribes.

    By the Late Medieval period, after the Mongols conquered China under Kubilai Khan, we see a sharp rise in the percentage of Manchu and Chinese haplogroups. If C2b was the lineage of Genghis Khan, as was previously suggested, then that may also explain the doubling of that haplogroup's frequency from 15 to 30% from the Iron Age and Early Medieval to the Late Medieval period.


    On the maternal side, it looks like the original North Chinese farmers (Y-DNA N) who settled in Mongolia only carried haplogroups A, C and F. The other main East Asian maternal haplogroups (B, D, F and G) only appear from the MLBA, after they mixed with the Q1a tribes.

    The Manchus and Han Chinese seem to have added C5, M1, Z1, Z4 and considerably more B. If we subtract the western Eurasian haplogroups, the proportion of D4 and G also increased in the late Iron Age (Xiongnu).

    The merger between China and Mongolia under the Yuan dynasty increased the percentage of East Asian maternal lineages from about 65% to 85%. We see a further appearance of new lineages like M7, M8, M9.
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    Regular Member kingjohn's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    Very interesting. The genetic landscape of Mongolia changed more often and more radically from the Copper Age to the Iron Age than anywhere in western Eurasia.

    Here is the Y-DNA and mtDNA summary from the paper.



    What struck me at first is that Y-haplogroup J1a was present from the Copper Age to the Early Medieval period (and probably still today). There are only 5 pre-EBA samples and we can see that G2a was already there too by the MLBA, so I would think that J1a and G2a came together, probably arriving with domesticated animals from the Middle East during the Neolithic period. R1b came from the eastward expansion of Proto-Indo-Europeans through the Botai culture in the Altai (that was already confirmed before). Haplogroup N presumably expanded from northern China to Mongolia and Siberia during the Neolithic. Q1a would be the Mesolithic Siberia hunter-gatherers already living in the region.

    From the Early Iron Age we see the arrival and R1a and Q1b, surely from Central Asia (Kazakhstan).

    In the Late Iron Age, the Xiongnu/Huns emerged as a mix of the Bronze Age Mongolian population with two sets of newcomers:

    1) Chinese and/or Manchus bring haplogroups O2a and C2b.

    2) Middle Eastern E1b1b and J2a who almost certainly came along more R1a(-Z93) and Q1b with Scythian-related tribes.

    By the Late Medieval period, after the Mongols conquered China under Kubilai Khan, we see a sharp rise in the percentage of Manchu and Chinese haplogroups. If C2b was the lineage of Genghis Khan, as was previously suggested, then that may also explain the doubling of that haplogroup's frequency from 15 to 30% from the Iron Age and Early Medieval to the Late Medieval period.


    On the maternal side, it looks like the original North Chinese farmers (Y-DNA N) who settled in Mongolia only carried haplogroups A, C and F. The other main East Asian maternal haplogroups (B, D, F and G) only appear from the MLBA, after they mixed with the Q1a tribes.

    The Manchus and Han Chinese seem to have added C5, M1, Z1, Z4 and considerably more B. If we subtract the western Eurasian haplogroups, the proportion of D4 and G also increased in the late Iron Age (Xiongnu).

    The merger between China and Mongolia under the Yuan dynasty increased the percentage of East Asian maternal lineages from about 65% to 85%. We see a further appearance of new lineages like M7, M8, M9.

    thanks maciamo
    agree with you completely about scythian related tribes who might broght those linages ( j2 and e-v22) to mongolia
    also in the late medieval mongolia we start to see
    y haplogroup D
    what are your thought or explanation for that ?
    https://www.yfull.com/tree/E-FGC7391/

    https://yfull.com/mtree/H3ap/

  4. #4
    Baron
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    3000bc



    5 samples from nomadic pastoralists on the Steppe, who made wagons and went 1000's of km in every direction with Yersinia pestis ? Not really enough samples to make any conclusions unless you want to compare apples with oranges.
    Perhaps a new component for Yamnaya-Afanasievo to parse from the Iranian and Middle Eastern regions?

    It will be interesting to see how much ancient Crown Caucasian(distinct ancient Caucasus cluster) in Yamnaya/Afansievo.
    @5min distinct new ancient Caucasian cluster as old or older than Natufians?
    H. event.


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