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Thread: The genomic history of the Aegean palatial civilizations.

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    Dodecad 12B Results using Coordinates provided by Jovialis (post #74). Thanks!

    Distance to: PalermoTrapani_Combined
    12.54885254 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    18.88964531 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    19.05640050 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    19.10203131 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    19.92690894 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    21.20724169 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01

    Distance to: PalermoTrapani_Combined
    6.61365856 48.80% EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08 + 51.20% MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    7.17470557 50.00% EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03 + 50.00% MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    7.61542091 36.20% EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03 + 63.80% MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    7.64395475 46.80% EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01 + 53.20% MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    7.96815841 34.60% EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08 + 65.40% MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    8.45175344 50.20% EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15 + 49.80% MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    8.53790847 35.40% EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15 + 64.60% MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    8.57130992 32.00% EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01 + 68.00% MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    17.62225333 48.00% EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03 + 52.00% EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    18.59310626 31.80% EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08 + 68.20% EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    18.85868150 10.00% EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01 + 90.00% EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    19.08641558 11.80% EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08 + 88.20% EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03

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    The genomic history of the Aegean palatial civilizations (Clemente et al. 2021)

    Published yesterday:

    "The Cycladic, the Minoan, and the Helladic (Mycenaean) cultures define the Bronze Age (BA) of Greece. Urbanism, complex social structures, craft and agricultural specialization, and the earliest forms of writing characterize this iconic period. We sequenced six Early to Middle BA whole genomes, along with 11 mitochondrial genomes, sampled from the three BA cultures of the Aegean Sea. The Early BA (EBA) genomes are homogeneous and derive most of their ancestry from Neolithic Aegeans, contrary to earlier hypotheses that the Neolithic-EBA cultural transition was due to massive population turnover. EBA Aegeans were shaped by relatively small-scale migration from East of the Aegean, as evidenced by the Caucasus-related ancestry also detected in Anatolians. In contrast, Middle BA (MBA) individuals of northern Greece differ from EBA populations in showing ∼50% Pontic-Caspian Steppe-related ancestry, dated at ca. 2,600-2,000 BCE. Such gene flow events during the MBA contributed toward shaping present-day Greek genomes."

    www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(21)00370-6

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    So if I interpreted this correctly? This supports the current consensus that during the BA, IE populations moved north of the Black Sea into the Balkans contributing to modern populations?
    “Man cannot live without a permanent trust in something indestructible in himself, and at the same time that indestructible something as well as his trust in it may remain permanently concealed from him.”

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    https://www.yfull.com/tree/E-FGC7391/

    https://yfull.com/mtree/H3ap/

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jovialis View Post
    Fascinating,



    So early Helladic cultures were mostly Anatolian_N/CHG-IN, while Northern Greeks later in the middle bronze age were 50% steppe?
    It would seem so, but that is very far north. As I've said previously in this thread, as they moved south the steppe percentage became lower and lower.

    As I also speculated upthread (and provided data for the changes between the EBA and MBA in Greece), the coming of the steppe heavy "proto-Greeks", far from bringing civilization, almost completely destroyed EBA Greece, bringing poverty and decline, probably disease too; settlements abandoned, poor grave goods etc.

    It's been the same story everywhere.

    Other than the domesticated horse, their language, their "sky" gods, and a hugely militaristic and aggressive bent to society, they brought nothing of value except the domesticated horse.

    The authors are naïve if they think there has been 90% survival since the Log samples. Even if the Slavs didn't have the impact people have speculated (which I always tended to doubt), they must have had some, even if the overall similarity in terms of very ancient samples is the same as LOG samples. You have to have samples in every period, so you can see the proximate populations involved.


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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    It would seem so, but that is very far north. As I've said previously in this thread, as they moved south the steppe percentage became lower and lower.

    As I also speculated upthread (and provided data for the changes between the EBA and MBA in Greece), the coming of the steppe heavy "proto-Greeks", far from bringing civilization, almost completely destroyed EBA Greece, bringing poverty and decline, probably disease too; settlements abandoned, poor grave goods etc.

    It's been the same story everywhere.

    Other than the domesticated horse, their language, their "sky" gods, and a hugely militaristic and aggressive bent to society, they brought nothing of value except the domesticated horse.

    The authors are naïve if they think there has been 90% survival since the Log samples. Even if the Slavs didn't have the impact people have speculated (which I always tended to doubt), they must have had some, even if the overall similarity in terms of very ancient samples is the same as LOG samples. You have to have samples in every period, so you can see the proximate populations involved.
    My results: EBA very distant, MBA better but not great; I guess I have too much steppe.
    Distance to: Angela
    10.83918355 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    14.29946852 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    22.86250861 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    27.98950875 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    28.18854555 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    28.25157164 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01

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    i have horrible distance to all of them :

    Distance to: adam
    15.83015793 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    20.76650669 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    20.85608305 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    22.77068510 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    24.32685964 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01
    24.46153102 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    It would seem so, but that is very far north. As I've said previously in this thread, as they moved south the steppe percentage became lower and lower.

    As I also speculated upthread (and provided data for the changes between the EBA and MBA in Greece), the coming of the steppe heavy "proto-Greeks", far from bringing civilization, almost completely destroyed EBA Greece, bringing poverty and decline, probably disease too; settlements abandoned, poor grave goods etc.

    It's been the same story everywhere.

    Other than the domesticated horse, their language, their "sky" gods, and a hugely militaristic and aggressive bent to society, they brought nothing of value except the domesticated horse.

    The authors are naïve if they think there has been 90% survival since the Log samples. Even if the Slavs didn't have the impact people have speculated (which I always tended to doubt), they must have had some, even if the overall similarity in terms of very ancient samples is the same as LOG samples. You have to have samples in every period, so you can see the proximate populations involved.
    The EBA Helladics look fairly close to the LBA Mycenaeans too, autosomally.

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    Distance to: Jovialis
    10.17582920 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    15.21679993 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    21.91432865 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    23.10205402 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    23.73475721 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    24.68769937 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01

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    Distance to: I9041_Bronze_Age_Mycenaean_Galatas_Apatheia_Pelopo nnese
    10.43492693 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    12.06881519 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    12.07672555 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01
    12.23097707 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    17.61742603 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    25.89092505 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04


    Distance to: I9033_Bronze_Age_Mycenaean_Peristeria_Tryfilia_Pel oponnese
    10.88073067 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    16.40191147 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01
    16.44074512 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    16.95989092 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    17.21235022 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    24.17193000 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04


    Distance to: I9010_Bronze_Age_Mycenaean_Galatas_Apatheia_Pelopo nnese
    8.35844483 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    12.78122842 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    13.50211835 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01
    15.44432906 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    18.71543748 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    27.25182012 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04


    Distance to: I9006_Bronze_Age_Mycenaean_Agia_Kyriaki_Salamis
    6.99439776 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    8.32957982 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01
    9.51363758 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    12.59342289 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    23.57097580 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    31.43262954 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04

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    Distance to: MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    4.90509939 Albanian
    5.99123526 Albanian_Kosovo
    6.24177058 Italian_Romagna
    6.32433396 Greek_Thessaly
    6.52834589 Greek_Thrace
    6.66853807 Italian_Lazio
    6.97383682 Greek_Thessaloniki
    7.02855632 Italian_Marche
    7.43986559 Macedonian_South
    7.97242748 Italian_Tuscany
    8.10203678 Macedonian_Vardar
    8.23196210 Greek_Peloponnese
    8.45814992 Greek_Athens
    8.56168792 Greek_Central
    8.96979375 Italian_Emilia
    8.97196745 Bulgarian_Thrace
    9.02161848 Macedonian_East
    9.24909185 Italian_Liguria
    9.62003638 Macedonian_Northeast&Skopje
    10.03277629 Macedonian_Polog
    10.09873259 Turk_Makedonya
    10.18243095 Italian_Veneto
    10.81044402 Italian_Abruzzo
    10.83489732 Greek_Macedonia
    10.85424341 French_Corsica



    Distance to: MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    5.64006206 Macedonian_Vardar
    6.12159293 Macedonian_Polog
    6.41073319 Italian_Friuli_VG
    6.41352477 Macedonian_East
    6.83537124 Macedonian_South
    7.15973463 Italian_Veneto
    7.30935018 Albanian_Kosovo
    7.69858429 Macedonian_Northeast&Skopje
    8.10115424 Greek_Macedonia
    8.11762280 Moldovan_Gagauz
    8.40295186 Romanian
    8.56334631 Bulgarian_West
    8.63729124 Moldovan_South
    8.64762973 Italian_Piedmont
    8.65971131 Bulgarian_Central
    8.70143092 Bulgarian_East
    9.33067522 Greek_Thessaly
    9.34067985 Montenegrin
    9.47814328 Pomak_Bulgaria
    9.49851041 Italian_Trentino
    9.58237444 Italian_Emilia
    9.70237600 Turk_Makedonya
    9.92730578 Greek_Thrace
    9.98512394 Bulgarian_Thrace
    10.00701754 Italian_Liguria

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    Attachment 12670I’m close to that sample from northern Greece

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    Attachment 12671
    This makes sense .. I mean, Logkas sample is like The Albania but little close to Sardinia

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    I think yes

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    Quote Originally Posted by Archetype0ne View Post
    So if I interpreted this correctly? This supports the current consensus that during the BA, IE populations moved north of the Black Sea into the Balkans contributing to modern populations?
    However, it also shows that the early Bronze Age Helladics in the south, had very little steppe.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jovialis View Post
    Distance to: I9041_Bronze_Age_Mycenaean_Galatas_Apatheia_Pelopo nnese
    10.43492693 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    12.06881519 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    12.07672555 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01
    12.23097707 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    17.61742603 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    25.89092505 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04


    Distance to: I9033_Bronze_Age_Mycenaean_Peristeria_Tryfilia_Pel oponnese
    10.88073067 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    16.40191147 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01
    16.44074512 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    16.95989092 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    17.21235022 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    24.17193000 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04


    Distance to: I9010_Bronze_Age_Mycenaean_Galatas_Apatheia_Pelopo nnese
    8.35844483 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    12.78122842 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    13.50211835 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01
    15.44432906 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    18.71543748 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    27.25182012 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04


    Distance to: I9006_Bronze_Age_Mycenaean_Agia_Kyriaki_Salamis
    6.99439776 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou03
    8.32957982 EBA_Cyclade_Koufanisi:Kou01
    9.51363758 EBA_Minoan_Petras:Pta08
    12.59342289 EBA_Helladic_Manika:Mik15
    23.57097580 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    31.43262954 MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    It's good that it's finally settled that " Despite their distinct cultures, the EBA Helladic, Cycladic, and Minoan genomes resemble one another in all analyses."

    Once again, the archaeologists got it right:

    "
    ADMIXTURE results indicate that the EBA Aegean population consists mostly of an ancestry component shared with Neolithic Aegeans (accounting for >65%), whereas most of the remaining ancestry can be assigned to Iran Neolithic/Caucasus HG-related populations (17%–27%) (Figure 3). These results were replicated with qpWave/qpAdm (STAR Methods) using Dataset I (Tables 3 and S3). When considering early Neolithic populations and HG populations as potential sources, EBA individuals were in general found to be consistent with the majority of their ancestry deriving from populations related to Anatolia_N (∼69%–84%) (Table 3). This suggests that the people behind the Neolithic to BA transition largely had ancestors from the preceding Aegean farmers, in line with archaeological theories for the EBA transformation (Dickinson, 2016; Renfrew, 1972; Tsountas and Manatt, 1897)"

    So, all the achievements of the Early Bronze Age owed NOTHING to the steppe, as I've said innumerable times.

    Interesting that in f3 the EBA Greeks are closest to Sardinians, and then, variably, Basque/North Italian and Pais Vasco before, variably, Albanians and Greeks, and in one case Romanians.

    Also interesting that Basques are closer to Anatolian Bronze Age than the North Italians.

    Log 4 and Log2 are quite different, as we can see from our own results, with Log 4 being closest to Scots and Lithuanians, and Log 2 being closest to Basques and Pais Vasco. Clearly that admixture probably didn't last too long.

    Of course, they didn't include all the regional Italian samples.

    Table 3 seems to indicate that Log 2 is about 39% MLBA steppe and 61% Kou 1, or 44% Europe LNBA plus the rest Kou 1.

    Log 4 is more steppe heavy, up to 56%.

    Their Mycenean figures are 21% and 36% Log 4. (Don't know why it was Log 4 types which made it to the Peloponnese. ) So, using their analysis, that would be 56% of 21 or 56% of 36, or 11.8 and 20%, which is generally in line with what Lazaridis found.

    I'm disappointed that they seem to think because modern Greeks in a PCA land closer to Log 2 and Log 4 that there's been continuity since that time. They should know better.

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    There was one Ukrainian-like sample from Bulgaria (I think) during those times. I don't think those 2 samples are good represantives of northern Greece let alone the southern parts during the peak of the Mycenaean civilisation. They must be the unmixed proto-Greeks or the less mixed ones.
    Northern Greece was pretty much like the Iron Age Thracian during the time of Alexander IMO.
    There was even a Slavic Bulgarian-like sample in Early Medieval Central Europe but I wont take them very seriously either.
    Last edited by ihype02; 01-05-21 at 11:22.

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    I have merged the two threads based on the same study.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    Distance to: MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log02
    4.90509939 Albanian
    5.99123526 Albanian_Kosovo
    6.24177058 Italian_Romagna
    6.32433396 Greek_Thessaly
    6.52834589 Greek_Thrace
    6.66853807 Italian_Lazio
    6.97383682 Greek_Thessaloniki
    7.02855632 Italian_Marche
    7.43986559 Macedonian_South
    7.97242748 Italian_Tuscany
    8.10203678 Macedonian_Vardar
    8.23196210 Greek_Peloponnese
    8.45814992 Greek_Athens
    8.56168792 Greek_Central
    8.96979375 Italian_Emilia
    8.97196745 Bulgarian_Thrace
    9.02161848 Macedonian_East
    9.24909185 Italian_Liguria
    9.62003638 Macedonian_Northeast&Skopje
    10.03277629 Macedonian_Polog
    10.09873259 Turk_Makedonya
    10.18243095 Italian_Veneto
    10.81044402 Italian_Abruzzo
    10.83489732 Greek_Macedonia
    10.85424341 French_Corsica



    Distance to: MBA_Helladic_Logkas:Log04
    5.64006206 Macedonian_Vardar
    6.12159293 Macedonian_Polog
    6.41073319 Italian_Friuli_VG
    6.41352477 Macedonian_East
    6.83537124 Macedonian_South
    7.15973463 Italian_Veneto
    7.30935018 Albanian_Kosovo
    7.69858429 Macedonian_Northeast&Skopje
    8.10115424 Greek_Macedonia
    8.11762280 Moldovan_Gagauz
    8.40295186 Romanian
    8.56334631 Bulgarian_West
    8.63729124 Moldovan_South
    8.64762973 Italian_Piedmont
    8.65971131 Bulgarian_Central
    8.70143092 Bulgarian_East
    9.33067522 Greek_Thessaly
    9.34067985 Montenegrin
    9.47814328 Pomak_Bulgaria
    9.49851041 Italian_Trentino
    9.58237444 Italian_Emilia
    9.70237600 Turk_Makedonya
    9.92730578 Greek_Thrace
    9.98512394 Bulgarian_Thrace
    10.00701754 Italian_Liguria
    Very, very interesting KingJohn. Thanks for providing that. Where was this sample from?

    This early population seems to hint that Albanians and Greeks, and it seems Paeonians (If I understood this right, based on those Skopje samples) are related going as far back as MBA. Despite what some propagandists on this forum claim to be Middle Age mixing due to barbarious North Albanians into the South (cough* Parapolitikos cough*).

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    Quote Originally Posted by Archetype0ne View Post
    Very, very interesting KingJohn. Thanks for providing that. Where was this sample from?

    This early population seems to hint that Albanians and Greeks, and it seems Paeonians (If I understood this right, based on those Skopje samples) are related going as far back as MBA. Despite what some propagandists on this forum claim to be Middle Age mixing due to barbarious North Albanians into the South (cough* Parapolitikos cough*).

    from the paper:
    one EBA Helladic individual from the site of Manika on the island of Euboea (Mik15), one EBA Minoan from the site of Kephala Petras (the burial rock shelter) on the island of Crete (Pta08), two EBA Cycladic individuals from the island of Koufonisi (Kou01 and Kou03), and two MBA individuals from the site of Elati-Logkas in northern Greece (Log02 and Log04) (Figures 1A and S1)


    yes it is interesting and pretty cool

    and show significant continuity
    ( take in considiration that this distance are according to dodecad k12b calculator (dienekes calculator)

  22. #97
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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    from the paper:
    one EBA Helladic individual from the site of Manika on the island of Euboea (Mik15), one EBA Minoan from the site of Kephala Petras (the burial rock shelter) on the island of Crete (Pta08), two EBA Cycladic individuals from the island of Koufonisi (Kou01 and Kou03), and two MBA individuals from the site of Elati-Logkas in northern Greece (Log02 and Log04) (Figures 1A and S1)


    yes it is interesting and pretty cool

    and show significant continuity
    ( take in considiration that this distance are according to dodecad k12b calculator (dienekes calculator)
    Thanks a lot John.

    Here is mine according to vahaduo, using k13.






    Not awfully close. But given 4k years distance still surprising how close.

    I suspect if I add the L283 from Maros or Dalmatia to the mix, with a two way calculation, that could be incredibly revealing.

    Do we happen to have the autosomal data for those?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    It's good that it's finally settled that " Despite their distinct cultures, the EBA Helladic, Cycladic, and Minoan genomes resemble one another in all analyses."............................


    So, all the achievements of the Early Bronze Age owed NOTHING to the steppe, as I've said innumerable times.

    Interesting that in f3 the EBA Greeks are closest to Sardinians, and then, variably, Basque/North Italian and Pais Vasco before, variably, Albanians and Greeks, and in one case Romanians.

    Also interesting that Basques are closer to Anatolian Bronze Age than the North Italians.

    Log 4 and Log2 are quite different, as we can see from our own results, with Log 4 being closest to Scots and Lithuanians, and Log 2 being closest to Basques and Pais Vasco. Clearly that admixture probably didn't last too long.

    Of course, they didn't include all the regional Italian samples.

    Table 3 seems to indicate that Log 2 is about 39% MLBA steppe and 61% Kou 1, or 44% Europe LNBA plus the rest Kou 1.

    Log 4 is more steppe heavy, up to 56%.

    Their Mycenean figures are 21% and 36% Log 4. (Don't know why it was Log 4 types which made it to the Peloponnese. ) So, using their analysis, that would be 56% of 21 or 56% of 36, or 11.8 and 20%, which is generally in line with what Lazaridis found.

    I'm disappointed that they seem to think because modern Greeks in a PCA land closer to Log 2 and Log 4 that there's been continuity since that time. They should know better.
    Hi, Angela, can you please explain why the 3 tested Aeagans in that paper were predicted as most likely dark despite carrying both de***mentation genes SLC24A5 and SLC45A2? And what does “dark-skinned mean here- light brown/beige, olive complexion or reddish/ chestnut brown? As far as I can remember the Minoans and Mycenaeans from the Lazardis study were predicted as moderately light-skinned.

    Phenotypic insights: ***mentation and lactose intolerance


    Using genotype data, we predicted that Pta08, Kou01, and Log02 most likely had brown eyes, dark brown to black hair, and dark skin (Table S1; STAR Methods). These predictions match the visual representations of male individuals from BA wall paintings of Minoan Crete for hair and eye color. The eye and hair color predictions were similar to those from later periods of the Aegean BA (Lazaridis et al., 2017). Although the overall prediction for all three individuals was of dark skin, they also all carried alleles strongly associated with lighter skin color (rs1426654 in the gene SLC24A5, and rs16891982 in SLC45A2) (Mathieson et al., 2015). The latter is in line with observations that skin de***mentation has been segregating since the Neolithic in southern Europe (Hofmanová et al., 2016
    ; Mathieson et al., 2015).

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    Yes, you are right. I read it yesterday and I remained astonished. Dark skinned? Puzzling...

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    Quote Originally Posted by Gabriele Pashaj View Post
    Yes, you are right. I read it yesterday and I remained astonished. Dark skinned? Puzzling...

    Who introduced the steppe ancestry in Greece? so far they have not found even R1b-Z2103, or it was female mediated?. It certainly does not appear to have been R1b-L51 or any of its subclades. In both Greece (Mycenaean) and Anatolia (Hittites) the IE speakers are J2, not R1b. I suppose at some point they will find R1b-Z2103 coming from Serbia.

    There is an African Mit L3d1/b1- Manika, Euboea island-MIK04 approx 2,800 BC, maybe they have considered that sample (dark skinned).

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