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Thread: 200 years of Greek Revolt, Freedom or Death'

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    200 years of Greek Revolt, Freedom or Death'

    No matter the revolts are plenty, for some 40 for others more than 90,
    It is Established the 25 March 1821 as 'mark' date.

    so this year is the 200 years Jubilee.


    ΟΘΕΝ ΑΙΔΩΣ OY EINAI
    ΑΤΗ ΛΑΜΒΑΝΕΙΝ ΑΥΤΟΙΣ
    ΥΒΡΙΣ ΓΕΝΝΑΤΑΙ
    ΝΕΜΕΣΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΙΣΗ ΑΚΟΛΟΥΘΟΥΣΙ ΔΕ

    When there is no shame
    Divine blindness conquers them
    Hybris (abuse, opprombium) is born
    Nemesis and punishment follows.

    Εχε υπομονη Ηρωα
    Η τιμωρια δεν αργει.

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    ΖΗΤΩ Η ΕΛΕΥΘΕΡΙΑ

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    16 FEB 1821


    Kisnovio Bessarabia, today Chicinau Moldavia Romania

    the dice has fallen,
    Al. Ypsilantis gathers the 'Sacred Band' a corpse of mainly 500 Greek students in rest Europe.
    the desicion is made, first revolt in Romania, second revolt in Peloponese.

    few days later, we will cross the riverand start the revolt war.

    The decision is taken, and until 25 MAR all the Balkans must know and gather in certain places to revolt.

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    You did not mention the Ukraine as part of Bessarabia is in the Ukraine. And Chisinau is in the Republic of Moldova, not Romania. Why do you want it? Moldovia is one of the poorest parts of Europe, and the government is quite inept. Romania is a better option.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ozzie View Post
    You did not mention the Ukraine as part of Bessarabia is in the Ukraine. And Chisinau is in the Republic of Moldova, not Romania. Why do you want it? Moldovia is one of the poorest parts of Europe, and the government is quite inept. Romania is a better option.
    that era was MoldoWallachia semi-autonomous regions.

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    The SYNTHESIS of the revolters,

    To understand the systatics of the revolters and the new Greek nation (Better Neo-Greeks)
    we must go back to 1rst Colonisation and the Hellenistic world after Alexander the Great,
    At Hellenistic eras and world, we have enough assimilation, and 'blood mix' so the the term Greek or better Hellen is expanded even to Sogdiane Bactria and West of Indos river,
    even Chinese chronicles speak baout them at the story of 'Heavenly horses'

    The Roman empire
    most of this world slowly passed under Roman occupation, even Alexandreia Pergamos Trapezon etc
    Roman overpass Parthia,
    It is not for this thread how this was done,
    But even under Roman occupation the Hellenistic world did not 'vanish'
    the dream of Alexander the Great, one empire, free merchandise, arts, city construction etc,
    was 'walked' by his diadochoi but as they were divided, only in the limited areas of their states,
    Romans seems to achive the ultimate levels of Alexander's dream.
    Even in this empire the term Greek or Hellen-as still exist, and is strong, and Greek language is considered as 'Lingua franca of science and arts,
    while Latin seems to be the primary language of law codexes, rulers army etc,
    no matter Free Greeks are rare, as also Greek nobility, etc etc,
    the way of life did not change much.

    The christianity
    The turn of Greek or Hellenas to Romios as national identity (Roman nationality)
    At the begining of Roman empire, the Roman citizenship was a close priviledge inherited from parents,
    later expanded to most Italian peninsulla, could bought by money,
    and at end was given to everybody who inhabit the empire.
    Yet this was not the reason that Greeks lost their identity and adopt the Roman citizenship as nationality,
    The reason was Christianity, and the persecutions against them by Christians,
    the term Greek or Hellen become synonym of Pagan,
    and should be executed the one who claimed it.
    the term Romios (Roman) replace all nationalities, unified Western Europeans and Italians with Hellenistic world, to give the new nationality.
    and the biggest helper to this was the church, no matter west Europe, Italy, or Hellenistic world (Greece and Balakans, minor Asia, Egypt and Cyreneice, Syrria, Crimaia etc)
    even Ottomans recogn the Greeks as, Rumluk, Rum, etc
    Notice that even at 1720 AD we have a mission against Greek Religion at ancient Sparta by Michel Fourmont

    The East Roman empire.

    The division of Roman to East and West, created the linguistic families in ex-Roman empire lands,
    at west of Adriatic sea, state and church monopolize the Latin language,
    also by Diocletianus and rest emperrors codexes, North and North west Balkans Legions should speak Latin (creation of Romanian and Aromanian languages).
    while the rest East empire should speak Greek and the local languages,
    for that helped a lot Christian church. Rome's Pope Latin, Alexandreia's Pope Greek, Antiocheia's Patriarch Greek, (later become Arabic), and the Nova Roma Patriarch Greek.
    so the Hellenic and Hellenistic nationality is lost, becomes Roman, but language is kept, (Greek and Latin)
    generally that cituation tends to what is called and known Byzantines, though the term is not correct.

    Other nationalities enter East Roman empire, like Slavs, BalGurs, Turkic, Turkish, Persians, Arabs, etc etc,
    making mix of populations, devastations etc, etc,


    The regain of Greek nationality,

    The regain of Greek nationality, and the drop of Romios never happened,
    but changed meaning
    even today a Greek may say Romios or Romiosyne, and mean the same with Neo-Greek or Neo-Hellenism.
    that Change happened after 4rth Crusade and Latinocracy after 1204 AD.
    the old nobility that create the 4 states and their followers are thought to used first the term Romios and Romiosyne, with different meaning, Neo-Greek.
    a. Despotate of Epiros
    b. empire of Nicea
    c.empire of Trebizond
    d later despotate of Mistras (and Constantinopolis).

    after 4rth crusade, the only winners were the Turks, and the Venicians.

    The fall of Constantinopolis and the raise of Venice and Ottomans

    No matter the efforts of the above despotate and empires, after 4rth crusade Constantinopolis was doomed to fall,
    as also the rest of whole East Roman empire.
    Nicea stayed alone and dogmatic, Mistras turn to West and try unite with Catholics, Trebizond turn to Georgia and Russia etc etc
    That is the new identity of Romios which later drive to Neo-Greek and new Greek state.
    divided among them, seeking for help from outside, become easy to be conquered by Ottomans and occupied by Venicians.


    The pre-Revolution identity,

    The 'Roman nation' got a new identity, but false principals,
    Great warriors, great personalities, great scientists, all work for others, and not for their nation,
    over 123 revolts had happened against Ottomans, but all for shake of Venice, Russia, France, etc etc,
    and they ended with an agreement, for the shake of other powers,
    Boys were born to become either Yenicaries for Ottoman army forces, either Merccainairies for West European or Russia.
    The right hand of Suleiman the magnificent was an Islamicised Greek from Epirus, Vezir Imbrahim Pargali, who was sold as kid to Ottomans,
    many Palaiologos family, become eternaal marcenairies at Italian cities, no matter the last emperror who had only the title is burried at Vermouda islands.
    Great scientists and scholars moved all Europe, from Moskva to London etc,
    many were forced and show anexation to the Devsime, Blood taxation,
    from each family 1 male boy should be given to become muslim and Ottoman,
    or a girl to work at the harems, even the days of Ahmed 3rd, whos mother was a Greek.

    Last edited by Yetos; 22-03-21 at 03:05.

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    the 124rth Revolution was the one who succeed.

    the identity of 'loser Romios' start from the fall of Constantinopolis 1453, or by fall of Trebizond by others at 1463.
    while te resist against Ottomans or others, like Venicians( Pax Kallergi), no matter existed was doomed,
    mercenairies, fortune hunters, foreign agents run all over balkans,
    and resist existed also in ex- East Roman empire's other nationalities, like Kastriotis in Albania, Vlad Tepes the impaler at Romania, Montenegro, Ragusa, Serbia etc etc.

    around 1750-55, the first succeeded revolt of Neo-Greeks for Neo-Greeks, but not for liberty

    N Kasomoulis, a historian and warrior of Greek revolt at 1821 places the first succeded revolt, around 1750-1755,
    a coalition of Greeks and Vlachs, from Olympos and upper (west) Makedonia, and Epirus, Aromanians of Moschopolis.
    he is giving the surnames and the families who participated,
    the revolt was mainly for taxes, and the rights of Armatoloi, and the tolls of roads for merchants,
    many names that Kasomoulis mention still exist at Mt Olymp, Pieria, Thessaly, and upper Makedonia, Kozane and Grebena
    that revolt is also the reason that later Ali Pasha took advantage to become a 'strong man', and the destruction of Moschopolis,
    which later driven to the war of Olympos ntaifa vs Ali pasha, also described by Kasomoulis
    it is considered succeded by him, cause the revolters took the privilidge to pay taxes tottaly different than others, including harash,
    as also the right to guard caravans, road passes, and get to tolls, and also to use unknown or mountains passages and roads.


    Klephtes and Armatoloi, Pirates and Captains, Officers and palikaria etc.

    the bone structure of revolutionary army was Klephtes or Armatoloi,
    and at sea was ntaifades, pirates and captains (kapetanioi) sometimes also mentioned as karabatoi at south Greece.
    Klephtes and armatoloi was the same thing, they knew short roads, passages etc, outside the Ottoman empire main roads,
    their responsibility had area limits, and they were allowed to have guns.
    if you contact them and pay the toll, they acompany you and guard your merchandise, even work for you, and they surely drive you safety, and faster, a kind of Jendarmerie
    if you try to pass with out warning, or pay, they become Klephtes= Thieves, bandits.

    simmilar was at sea. except the Orlov's revolt era.

    some of them also fought as mercenairies,
    they could fight together at one war, and enemies at another,
    Ypsilantis for example fought for Russia, Kolokotronis fought for British

    the head always the title kapetanios, and the warriors palikaria, and low officers had title proto-palikaro.
    Last edited by Yetos; 22-03-21 at 04:11.

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    The Greeks abroad. the Diaspora.

    before the Greek revolt Greeks existed all over Europe,
    mainly merchant communities, or scientific ones,
    they are mentioned everywhere,
    I could mention and count for hours,
    but I will stay to some very well known,
    Vienna
    Dumbas family, aromanian from Upper Makedonia, his mother was from Moschopolis forced to leave by Turk-Albanian raids.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolaus_Dumba

    Emmanuel Pappas
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmanouel_Pappas

    Novisad Serbia
    my village had trading post there

    Trieste or Tergest, (Italy, ex Austro-Hungary)
    the richest community of Greeks abroad, due to the port.
    area where Manto Maurogeno (Morossini descentands) was born,
    City where Greeks where more numeral than locals,
    you can see it on streets, and building names, like Oikonomou-Ekonomu, Galatsis etc,

    Livorno Italy,
    central of economical and traading post of Greeks,
    baron Tositsas,
    Orlandos family

    Marsseile,
    blogs like Hipodrome where once exclusive habited by Greeks

    Romania
    Bucurest, Iasion, and the semi indipendent states Walachia and Moldavia.
    Romania had so meny Greeks, that Ypsilantis decide to start revolt from there,
    making a combo with the political status of these states.

    Budapest Hungary,

    Alexandreia Egypt
    the biggest community of Greek diaspora.
    a community so healthy and so big, that all Greeks who visit it where amazed,
    and a Greek community that produced many scientists and scholars,

    London,
    Mainly ship owners and merchants,

    Crimea,
    a healthy community, that not even Communism manage to destroy,
    alive and strong till Today. Homeland of Philiki etaireia,
    Katsonis build nis palace there, later at his palace, took place the Yalta agreements.

    Georgia-Abhazia
    Sevastoupolis or Sokhum,


    etc etc etc

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    The dreamer and spiritual enlightment of Regas Belestinles

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rigas_Feraios

    Ρηγας
    is considered the primary dreamer, scholar, and spiritual father of the revolution,
    he publish a lot for turning the revolution a massive movement against the high gate (Sultans)
    in his poem Θουριος (Anc Greek Θουρος) 'rush to war'
    calls all nationalities from Bosna to Arabia, and from Malta to Black sea,
    to Haleppo and Misirlides
    , (Syrria) advice them to revolt, and make Bey one of their own people.
    To Egypt wishes not to see anymore a ship carrying harassment,

    Regas worked to French consulate at Bucurest, and was very impressed by French Revolution,
    in fact many readers of Regas have the feeling that he was more a revolutioner like French revolutionarists,
    rather an ethnic poet for liberty and freedom of one nation,

    The nations or ethnic Groups Regas call direct, or paraphrased.

    Boulgarians,
    Arbanites
    Armenians
    Romioi (Romans-Greeks)
    Arabs

    areas
    Roumeli
    Souliotes
    Maniates
    Monte Negro
    Olympos mt
    Agrafa mt
    Makedonia
    Sava and Dounave brothers (Serbia)
    Mavrothallasinoi (Black sea) Trebizond and Crimean Greeks
    Lazoi (Lazica-Lazistan) among Pontos and Georgia.
    Crete, Nydra and Islands.
    Malta
    Σμαηλι, Μπραιλα, Κυλι, Μπεντερι Χωτινι (Braila, Bendery, etc) cities at Moldova, Moldavia, Bessarabia etc etc (Romania)
    Aleppo (Syria)
    Misirgiou (misirlides) the coasts of East Mediterrenean around Syrria, Lebanon Turkey,
    Egypt,

    The diplomatic change of Austria, after the French Revolt changed, and the 'Wanted' Regas
    Every revolution in Balkans was dangerous for the 3 neighbour powers, Austria, Ottomans, Russia,
    after French revolution, they realize that every revolt at Balkans would be tottaly disaster for empires, cause they would lose their frequent,loyal mercenairies.
    The decline of Venice, and the entrance of Russia to Mediterrenean, as also the Tergest/Trieste port,
    Occupied Greeks have multiple times power than Venice that era.


    The death of Regas
    So The change of Austrian diplomatic status bring Regas to a dangerous position, He is now wanted in Austrian empire, as also he is wanted at Moldo-Wallachian semi autonomous municipals.
    in his effort to leave he is betrayed (as always) by another Greek called Economou. (Οικονομου).
    He was transfer to Belingrad Serbia, in order to send him to High Gates (Sultan),
    while imprisoned, his friend Pesvantoglou planned a resque, and a possible attack at the tower,
    the guards of tower struggle him, with other 5 rebels from Makedonia, and throw the bodies to the river,
    they were afraid to move-transport him to Con/polis.


    his Thourios (anthem) with English subtitles,





    The reputation of Regas to old Balkan republics and Central Europe was big,
    At Belingrad until WW1 was the only not Serbian whos ame was given to a main street.
    At Wienn his house is today a museum dedicated to him.











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    The Orlov's revolt and the Ali pasha Tepelenle state-struggle.

    The Orlov's revolt.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orlov_revolt


    As I said before and above, the decline of Venice brought another empire to Mediterrenean, The Russian,
    the biggest change from Venice, was that Russia was fresh, and not old as Venice, and also homodoxoi' (almost same religion, Orthodox),
    So the 'raya' (enslaved) people, expected more, and had more hope on Help of Russia to Freedom, than from West, especially old Italian republics,
    more than 3 centuries, all revolts and wars, ended with an agreement, among Ottoman and Italian republics, and no place was offcially Free.

    The Orlov's revolt was a disaster,
    many promises, but little help. After the treaty of Kutsuk Kaynarca, May gods show pitty to revolters.
    Saved by Ottoman admiral Hasan Cezayirli, for the reason 'Who will pay the harassment if we kill all Greeks'
    At the end of revolt the south Greece is at the mercy of newcomers, the Turk-Albanians,
    For 9 years Turk-Albanians raid the land, and sell the population to Africa slavemarkets,
    Even Spetses island, a where a strong and wealthy community of Arbanites exist, did not escape the greed of Turk-Albanian mercenairies.


    The Ali Pasha of Tepelene,

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ali_Pasha_of_Ioannina

    Ali Pasha was born in Tepelena from a family which originated at Konya minor Asia, a Dervish grand father for some, bandits from Kutahya to others,
    He grand father fought to the siege of Corfu, so they gain titles over Albanians, especially the Lab tribe,
    his role in History is stil debated,
    it was a school for war tactics for Greeks and Arbanites, and Turk-Albanians also.
    in my area, the mythic battles and dirty politics about that era, and the local klephtes of Olympos and Pieria mt are still spoken,
    Last edited by Yetos; 25-03-21 at 20:21.

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    Very important thread but be prepared for the storm of Albanians coming

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    Φιλλικη εταιρεια. Society of Friends

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filiki_Eteria

    Filliki etairia was founded at Odessa, Crimea, Black sea,
    the real purpose was to bring Regas principals of revolution back and on top
    and prepair the the substracum fo a massive revolt all over Ottoman empire,
    founded by
    Skoyfas from Arta
    Xanthos from Patmos island
    Tsakalov from Ioannina.

    the first woman was from Smyrna the Kyriake Naute (Nafti)

    The last revolt was at 1792-1794 of Olympos Ntaifa and Nikotsaras against Ali Pasa Tepelenli,
    Nikotsaras was also friend of thegreat pirate and admiral Katsonis, the only man who enter Ekaterini the Great of Russia chumbers uninvited.
    and he fought at the Serbian revolt of 1804.

    Nikotsaras revolt, had proven that a massive revolt is so much possible, but also so much impossible
    but allow connection of other balkan nationalities to enter to Filliki etaireia,
    like Karadorde family from Serbia, Vladimiresku from Romania etc etc.
    Georgakis Olympios had a Serbian wife, which was connected with Karadjordjevic dynasty of Serbia.
    also Soutzos, Prince of Moldavia was a member also.

    Filiki etaireia had a secret system of recognising members simillar to the Freemasons.

    the truth is that was 2 Societies,
    The Filiki etaireia, and the Etaireia toy Phoenikos (Society of Phoenix)
    the second was closed and risricted more to military actions.

    Filliki expanded much, even to Paris, the Greek speaking hotel at Paris was a center of the Society.

    The role of Filiki etaireia is not much known, due to the mystical and secret character was build,
    But mainly worked at 2 Dogmas

    Dogma 1.
    supported a massive revolt against Ottomans, Romans (Greeks) Serbs, Montenegrins, Romanians.
    History has shown that many revolts was supressed, by same nation oponents,
    at Ali Pasha case, and the ones who read history they knew that he was the only lion at Ioannina lake because he found the way to exterminate strong Klephtes family by arranging wars against other families,
    (I must admit, no matter enemy to my lands, he was 2 times clever and tricky than a fox.)
    Later the Morea old Man Kolokotronis , had denied invitation to fight as mercenairy at Croatian occupation of France,
    the reason was he was tired of believing promises for help liberate Greece, and also at this battles, there where Greeks on both sides, fight as enemies for money.

    Dogma 2.
    Freedom or Death.
    dogma 2 has connection with dogma 1.
    since adopts 2 moto,
    a, I forgive the one who fear and did not revolt, but I will not forgive the one who kneel to a foreign, and stood against me.
    b. There is no hope from Foreign powers to establish a free state, and if we do not revolt, soon we will be dead as nation,
    so Fight till Death, No Surrender.

    Indeed the Orlov's revolt and huge massacres for 9 years, an extermination by others for others
    as also Ali Pasha case and the continue struggles-battles of Families, a clear inner extermination.
    has proven that
    1 This revolt might be the last revolt
    2 If the revolt did not Succeed then it would be better to be dead.

    flag of Filiki
    you can see the written Freedom or Death


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    2 members found this post helpful.
    THE MILITARY ACTIONS AND FEW PORTRAIT OF PERSONALTIES


    The SACRED BAND The Greek revolt in MoldoWalachia

    Ypsilantis

    Ypsilantis was probably the leader of Filliki etaireia that time, truth is nobody knows, but he must given the leadership, probably to Capodistrias, and the took the inner branch, the society of Phoenix, (etaireia toy Phoinikos)
    and start his revolt at Moldowallachian semiautonomous states,
    this was his strategeion (head quarters) at Cicinau Moldova.


    He decided to revolt at Moldowallchian states for the bellow reasons,

    1. MoldoWallachia was among Russia and Austria, he expected or promised help by Char Alexander of Russia, and alternative he could comunicate with Austria.
    Austria the last decade was hostile, changing a policy that hold over a century, afraid of French revolt expand at her own lands, but was inhabited by tenths of thousands of Greeks.

    2. MoldoWallachia is closer to Serbia than Greece, and Novisad had a strong Greek community which might help,
    Also many Serbian families were members of Filiki etaireia, and that could bring a strong cooperation, turning the revolt to multinational.
    He also expected a revolt to start Montenegro, (Maurobounio)

    3. Tudor Vladimirescu was a Romanian, and could start a massive revolution at Romania, which with the Greek revolt, and a Serbian revolt would surely succeed against declining Ottomans.

    4. Alexandros Soutsos the Prince of Moldavia was a member of Filliki etaireia, and a supporter of revolution.

    5. Even if the Greek revolt at MoldoWallachia failed, and Serbs and Romanians did not revolt, he surely would gain the attention of Ottomans, who in fear of Austria or Russia help to revolters, they should brought big army to fight,
    that would make revolt in Greece much easier.

    for those who know about strategy, it was a brilliant strategic move, the best opening move on a war came chess field,

    Why the revolt failed then?

    1. Char Alexander turn his back to revolt, mainly adviced so by Austrians, cause after French revolt, and Napoleon, all revolts were dangerous for monarchies

    2. Tudor Vladimirescu turn his mind,
    the Death of Soutzos at JAN 1821, one month before the revolution, left Vladimirescu the most strong in Romania.
    at 15 Jan 1821, he makes his own revolt, he even take Bucurest with his Panduras ( his army) but he contacts the Sultan Mahmud 2nd that he is loyal to him, Hoping that he would become a prince, by the Sultan.
    he turn against any kind of old Romanian nobility, Voyar (voier) and the Phanariotai politician and diplomats, and he declared his shelf a Domn, (Prince, Lord) Domnitor.
    He left Bucurest undefended an Ottomans take it back without a shoot, and most strange he brought his camp infront of Ipsilantis, in order to stop him, which was the Ottomans will.
    Vladimirescu was left alone, only 15 men of Ipsilantis enter his camp, with Georgakis Olympios, and take him prisoner, and no one stop them
    his Hypaspist (vice chair, second in command) Dimitrie Macedonski abandon him to his fate, and accuse him for abandoning his faith.

    3, The betrayal of Fokianos.
    Fokianos was a strange story, he fought against Pesmantzoglou, but he supported the Phanariotai and Voyars, he become a member of Filliki etaireia, although had the title of kaminaris by Ottomans, ( high officer rank, tax collector and 500-1000 men commander).
    at the Greek revolt, he stood beside Ipsilantis, but at the he fought against him, as commander of 700 Turk-Albanians.
    his double-triple betryal did not like even to Ottomans, who trap him and exterminate him and his army, at May of 1821.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tudor_Vladimirescu
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimitrie_Macedonski


    the story of Ypsilantis and Sacred band.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacred_Band_(1821)
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Ypsilantis


    the flag of Ypsilantis

    the society of Phoenix
    From my dust (ashes) I reborn




    the flag of sacred band.





    Other heroes;

    Georgakis Olympios
    , his wife was Serbian from Karadjordjevic armatoliki.
    he belonged to the wider Lazaioi family and Olympos armatoliki who fought Ali Pasha, and keep Olymp and other areas away from his influence, his true name was Nikolaou,
    he was one of the most 'WANTED' man for Ali Pasha, who promised a fortune for him.
    He fought at the Serbian revolt at 1804, his best frind was Serbian Karadorde Petrovic, and With Ypsilantis at Greek revolt of Danube principalities.



    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgakis_Olympios


    Ioannis Pharmakis
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yiannis_Pharmakis

    Athanasios Karpenisiotis
    https://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%91...84%CE%B7%CF%82

    Ioannis Kolokotronis son of Apostolos.
    He is the only one who achieved the dream of Ipsilantis
    with the remnats of the revolt army he manage to cross Romania Bulgaria Makedonia Thessaly Sterea and reach Peloponese.
    he needed 3 months to do this,
    He is the only officer who accomplished Ypsilantis goal, and Sacred band dream, From Danube to Peloponese, light the fire of revolution, to every nation.

  14. #14
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    THE REVOLT AT EPIROS

    the revolt at Epiros ended very early,
    Epiros was tired, and abandoned, the wars of Ali Pasha and Ottomans, Greeks with Ali Pasha. Greek with Ottomans, even Napoleon war games, left the place very weak, unpopulated and deserted enough.
    it ended at 16 July 1822

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Peta

    Remarkable to say that at this battle fought the Battaglion of Phillelenes


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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Phillelenes

    Phillelenes were foreigns who support the Greek 'run to freedom' English, Scots, Italians, Francais, Bavarians, Hungarians, Polish, Montenegrins, Bulgarians, Serbs Wallachians, Moldavians, Jews Spanish Danish USA, Sweden, Low lands, Egypt Arabs, Turks even Mameluks are reported,many of them loving ancient Greek spirit, (some may have been disapointed)
    Other for the adventure,
    Other for the ideas and the Revolution,
    others order by their country, to observe and watch the situation, Like in case of Acropolis siege,
    For example most of Spanish Phillelenes were against Ferdinand 7nth and were asking a Constitution in Spain.
    While at Acropolis siege there were nobles, who invested on the Greek loan at London stock exchange,
    or Lord Byron who seeking a noble course, poetry and adventure, fall in love at Epiros.
    or Samuel Howe, who gives up surgery and takes the arms.
    Ludwig of Bavaria
    Giuseppe Rosaroll and di Rossi Count of Santarosa
    Ernst Mamgel the creator of the first band of revolution and Greek State after.Henrik Nikola Kroyer.
    the numberof Polish is unknown, many fought with Ypsilantis, and about 30 at the battle of Peta,
    the triple occupation of Poland, by Prussia, Russia and Austria, was an ideal escape and gave them hope for the future of Poland,
    the newpappers of that era, show that Polish dreamed of a simmilar revolt,
    and painter Delacroix etc etc etc.

    at the battle of Peta even Mameluks are reported,
    while Karaiskakis had Egyptians,
    and some Turks who deny the massacres and slain of population like Halil pasha.

    The difficult life of Phillelenes, and the disapointment of many.

    the 7 years revolt, the condition of land, the 'seek and hide' nature of war, as also the war tactics that Greek used,
    made the life of Phillelenes difficult, even disapointed them,
    For example the Swedish Ashling, a specilist and top European fortification designer of the era,
    he could not understand the primitive way that Greeks use for war, while the eternal seek and hide, win and lost, made him feel not wanted,
    he was so dissapointed, and felt uselless, that left back in 1 year time

    The Russian and Austrian Phillelenism.

    as we said before, after french revolt and especially after Napoleon, strong monarchies of Europe were hostile against every action of revolution, no matter economical, social or nationally.
    in these areas Phillelenism could be punished and is a a kind of crime, yet some Phillelenes existed,
    Like the Russian officers which later participate at the December revolt (decembrists) against Russian feudal system, who help buying ammunition and send them to Ypsilantis.
    Generally these state were under Metternich observation, and wanted to struggle any ideas that sprink from Greek revolution, although they wanted to succeed for weakening the Ottoman empire.
    on contradictory, the case of Carbonari in Italy, was a pain in the ... for them.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Alliance

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_Verona

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_Laibach


    Holy alliance was the wall that European enlightment could not pass.
    much later we will see this in first GREEK STATE.

  16. #16
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    The revolt in Makedonia

    Makedonia has 3 sparks of revolt,

    1. Chalkidiki
    2 Naoussa, and Dobra Berroia
    3 Siatista and Grevenna.

    the revolt in Chalkidiki has 2 start points
    one at Kssandra paninsula, with captain Hapsas
    and the other at Ierissos with Emmanuel Pappas.
    East of Thessaloniki.
    at the revolt of Chalkidiki the naval help was from Psara island, and the remnants of Black ships of Olympos ntaifa

    the revolt at Naoussa and Dobra is connected and is West of Thessaloniki,
    but was suspented, due to much later coming and arrest of Ypatros, the messenger of Philliki Etaireia.
    their plan was to attack from 2 sides Thessaloniki.



    the unexpected enemy.
    The Greeks found a new unexpecte enemy at Makedonia mainly and Partially at Thessaly,
    the Jews, not the whole community, but certain circles and casts or Families,
    I will write about these later,

    The Siatista and Grevenna revolt was doomed with out naval support or cut off supllies.
    the rebels there moved south and took partitipation at siege and exodos of the holy city of Massolongi



    The chalkidiki Revolt
    and especially Kassandra's peninsula manage to reach very near Thessaloniki, less than 30 km.
    But Captain Hapsas was attacked by the Jews battaglions, something unexpected, and fprced to return, leaving Basilica village burned to the ground.
    on the other paninsula Pappas had to face united Ottoman forces from Thessaly and East Makedonia,
    no matter he had most loses than wins, He hold his line, but later his forces where needed south, instead of being standingg to a point, waiting for doom.

    The Naoussa revolt started 1 year later,
    by the return of Kasomoulis from Peloponese, and the Olympioi return back to their lands,
    The arrest of Ypatros, has given lot of Data to Ottomans.
    no matter was promising, the mistake of Salas to attack Kolindros village led the Olympioi out of revolt, and Vermion revolters alone to defend Naoussa.
    Naoussa revolt had a bitter end, Massacres followed, and atrocities, to the limit Women, who went to hide to the river, finally decide to suicide holding their children by droping to waterfall of local river,







    The revolt at West Makedonia, at Siatista and Grevenna after Naoussa destruction,
    is limited mainly to repell the Turk-Albanin raiding attacks,
    a silence treaty of living the lands, so to save the villages, had partially result,
    Most of the them with the rest Makedonians went to Defend, or better to liberate or Die at Messolongi holy city, or Psara Island,
    while the forces of Pappas joined Demetrios Ypsilantis at Argos,


    The mistakes that lead revolt at Makedonia to a fall.

    1,
    The primary mistake was the political choice to send of Kasomoulis to Peloponese and choose Salas as political commander and Observer at Makedonia

    2.
    the unexpected stance of the strong Jew communities of Central Makedonia, and their organized formations to army, allied to Ottomans,
    that also is expanded or the strong economical support of local Ottoman army, later we will see Karaiskakis at Thessaly to have an economical struggle.

    3. the mistake to use the strongest and most trained groups away from their lands,

    the most strongest and trained the era of revolt were The Olympioi.
    Term Olympioi means from Olympos mt, but in this case means the families or groups that were connected and act with Olympos mt as home or hide place,
    the 13 families of N and West Olymp as described by Kasomoulis. and the other 8 of South Olymp, and the Litochoro naval forces, were connected by blood, marriages, etc,
    they all sprunk after Meintanis revolt at West Makedonia, with the rest families of West Makedonia, that were away from Olymp.
    some of them were not even locals, and some were Aromanians, or were Slavophones.
    SO
    The wars of Olympioi against Ali-Pasha,
    the participation of Olympioi at Serbian revolt, (Georgakis, Nikotsaras etc)
    The participation of Olympioi at Moldowallachia revolt,
    the participation of Olympioi to the liberation efforts at N Sporades islands and Evoia island.
    the participation of Olympioi at revolt at Chalkidike (Raideniotes)
    shows clearly that were always away from their lands, in unknown lands and seas, and under other captains commands.
    So when the revolt of Naoussa broke, the mistaken attack desicion by a political observer, led to the destruction of Lazaioi tower, the most strong family of Olympioi,
    and the Vermion mt Revolt alone without support from Olymp.
    the death of Nikotsaras just before revolution, the away prime leader of Georgakis Olympios to Moldowallachia, no matter Diamantis Raideniotis (Nikolaou) was strong and very capable leader, left the ntaifa splited at all over balkans, except Makedonia.



    some names,

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmanouel_Pappas

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamatios_Kapsas

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zafeirakis_Theodosiou

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastasios_Karatasos

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamantis_Nikolaou

    The Slavophonos from Edessa (Vodhena)
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelis_Gatsos



    The aftermath

    Revolt at Makedonia can have many faces,
    the way it was designed and supported lead to fail,
    the atrocities that took place are huge,
    the loses tremendous, only in Naoussa revolt 12 villages nearby were burned to ground,
    and other 8 at Pieria, some of never never inhabited after.
    But manage to succed one achievement
    Hold at least 30 000 organised Ottoman army and another 5 000 cavalry, for over 2 years away from the main scene of revolt, The Peloponesos


    The flag of Naoussa revolt.







    The flag of Kassandra revolt





    The Olympos Ntaifa flag, from 1807, as raised at the island of Skopelos.
    It is the same with the Black ships,





    Last edited by Yetos; 01-04-21 at 03:20.

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