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Thread: A genome sequence from a modern human skull ~45,000 years old from Zlatý kůň Czechia

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    A genome sequence from a modern human skull ~45,000 years old from Zlatý kůň Czechia


    Kay Prüfer, Cosimo Posth, He Yu, Alexander Stoessel, Maria A. Spyrou, Thibaut Deviese, Marco Mattonai, Erika Ribechini, Thomas Higham, Petr Velemínský, Jaroslav Brůžek & Johannes Krause

    Abstract
    Modern humans expanded into Eurasia more than 40,000 years ago following their dispersal out of Africa. These Eurasians carried ~2–3% Neanderthal ancestry in their genomes, originating from admixture with Neanderthals that took place sometime between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago, probably in the Middle East. In Europe, the modern human expansion preceded the disappearance of Neanderthals from the fossil record by 3,000–5,000 years. The genetic makeup of the first Europeans who colonized the continent more than 40,000 years ago remains poorly understood since few specimens have been studied. Here, we analyse a genome generated from the skull of a female individual from Zlatý kůň, Czechia. We found that she belonged to a population that appears to have contributed genetically neither to later Europeans nor to Asians. Her genome carries ~3% Neanderthal ancestry, similar to those of other Upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers. However, the lengths of the Neanderthal segments are longer than those observed in the currently oldest modern human genome of the ~45,000-year-old Ust’-Ishim individual from Siberia, suggesting that this individual from Zlatý kůň is one of the earliest Eurasian inhabitants following the expansion out of Africa.



    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-021-01443-x






    The finding reinforces that humans mated with Neanderthals shortly after we first reached Europe between 50,000 and 45,000 years ago.

    The DNA from this person and their population is not seen in modern-day people in either Asia or Europe, where Homo sapiens later colonised, the researchers found.
    'It is quite intriguing that the earliest modern humans in Europe ultimately didn't succeed!' says Johannes Krause, senior author of the study and director at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
    This evidence, the academics say, means the Czechia individual is almost certainly older than other contenders with a claim as the earliest human fossil in Europe.

    https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencet...ome-found.html

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    The reconstructed mtDNA belongs to haplogroup N and its branch length, measured as the number of accumulated substitutions, is similar to those of the currently oldest sequenced modern human mtDNA genomes (Fig. 2a and Extended Data Fig. 3), including the recently published mtDNAs from Bacho Kiro, a cave in Bulgaria with remains dating to 43–47 ka1. Bayesian tip dating suggests that Zlatý kůň lived ~43 ka (95% highest posterior density = 31.5–52.6 ka)

    Sefhardi, aschenazi, bulgarian
    die Überlebenden
    https://www.yfull.com/live/tree/E-Y62418/
    https://yfull.com/mtree/H3ap/
    k12b ancient
    Closest:
    3.30708331
    R136_Imperial_Era_Marcellino_&_Pietrophenotype: east med with pontic vibe

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    I was speculating whether the Zlatý kůň could be the human remains of Basal Eurasians. Zlatý kůň predates the split of the European and Asian populations. That said, the authors concluded that Zlatý kůň is closer related to Eastern Eurasians than to Europeans since Europeans harbor BE ancestry. Hence, this result eliminates the possibility of Zlatý kůň being Basal Eurasian.

    We first compared Zlatý kůň with present-day European and Asian individuals using an African population (Mbuti) as an outgroup and found that Zlatý kůň shares more alleles with Asians than with Europeans (Extended Data Fig. 6). A closer relationship to Asians has also been observed for other Upper Palaeolithic and Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers compared with present-day Europeans and can be explained by ancestry in present-day Europeans from a deeply divergent out-of-Africa lineage referred to as basal Eurasian.European hunter-gatherers generally do not carry basal Eurasian ancestry, whereas such ancestry is widespread among ancient hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, Levant and Anatolia. When we tested European hunter-gatherers without basal Eurasian ancestry against ancient and present-day Asians, we found that none of these comparisons indicate a closer relationship of Zlatý kůň with either group (Supplementary Sections 5 and 9 and Extended Data Fig.7). This suggests that Zlatý kůň falls basal to the split of the European and Asian populations.

    Extended Data Fig. 6: Comparable signal of Basal Eurasian ancestry in Zlatý kůň and Ust’-Ishim.


    https://www.nature.com/articles/s415...43-x/figures/9

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    ZKU002


    Processed with BAM Analysis Kit


    AnalysisZlatyKun.jpg



    PCA map based on Eurogenes K15

    Converted data K36 to K15 for ZKU002

    ZKU002.jpg




    According to SNP traits like skull, facial, ear, chin, teeth, eye, skin, hair color, spine and limb morphology, similarities where calculated.
    Overall similarity in optical traits:


    Yamnaya (80%)*
    Starcevo-Körös (78%)*
    Modern Northern Swede (72%) Neanderthal (72%)
    Denisova (68%)
    Kostenki (63%) Iron Gates HG* (63%)
    Jarawa (61%)
    African Bantu (60%)
    Modern Asian (58%) Trans Baikal Mesolithic (58%) Ust Ishim (58%) Biaka Pygmy (58%)
    Aboriginal Australian (50%)
    CHG (46%)
    Mal Ta Buret (45%)
    Villabruna (43%)
    Kongemose (42%)
    Anatolia HG (38%)

    *It should be noted that those populations are genetically diverse, more hetero-zygote, so they get more matches on average


    Some traits calculated via various SNPs:

    Doesn't have typical Asian features (Teeth, Hair)
    Probably amber to hazel eyes with gray ring.
    Brown skin and probably black, wavy hair.
    The Person was a good sprinter and overall had effective muscles.
    The Person was of average intelligence and average empathy.
    Lactose intolerant as an adult.
    Slim nose, long, straight nose bridge, but broader nostrils, long faced, European eyelids.


    The sample is classified as female(?), but I got little Y Data from it:


    # Mutation ISOGG-Y-Haplogroup
    CTS4188 = R1b1a2a1a2a1b3
    CTS4803 = G2a2b2a1b1a1b1
    FGC5628/Y4010 = R1b1a2a1a2c1f2a1a
    M5588/PF210 = CT
    M9042 = BT
    M9109 = BT
    M9202 = BT
    M9357/PF1209 = BT
    M9378 = BT
    PF210/M5588 = CT
    PF1209/M9357 = BT
    PF1239 = CT
    PF2837 = G
    PF3728/CTS4272 = I
    Y1193.2 = E1a
    Y4010/FGC5628 = R1b1a2a1a2c1f2a1a
    Z11929 = BT
    Z11997 = BT
    Z12002 = BT

  6. #6
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    Quote Originally Posted by Doggerland View Post
    ZKU002


    Processed with BAM Analysis Kit


    AnalysisZlatyKun.jpg



    PCA map based on Eurogenes K15

    Converted data K36 to K15 for ZKU002

    ZKU002.jpg




    According to SNP traits like skull, facial, ear, chin, teeth, eye, skin, hair color, spine and limb morphology, similarities where calculated.
    Overall similarity in optical traits:


    Yamnaya (80%)*
    Starcevo-Körös (78%)*
    Modern Northern Swede (72%) Neanderthal (72%)
    Denisova (68%)
    Kostenki (63%) Iron Gates HG* (63%)
    Jarawa (61%)
    African Bantu (60%)
    Modern Asian (58%) Trans Baikal Mesolithic (58%) Ust Ishim (58%) Biaka Pygmy (58%)
    Aboriginal Australian (50%)
    CHG (46%)
    Mal Ta Buret (45%)
    Villabruna (43%)
    Kongemose (42%)
    Anatolia HG (38%)

    *It should be noted that those populations are genetically diverse, more hetero-zygote, so they get more matches on average


    Some traits calculated via various SNPs:

    Doesn't have typical Asian features (Teeth, Hair)
    Probably amber to hazel eyes with gray ring.
    Brown skin and probably black, wavy hair.
    The Person was a good sprinter and overall had effective muscles.
    The Person was of average intelligence and average empathy.
    Lactose intolerant as an adult.
    Slim nose, long, straight nose bridge, but broader nostrils, long faced, European eyelids.


    The sample is classified as female(?), but I got little Y Data from it:


    # Mutation ISOGG-Y-Haplogroup
    CTS4188 = R1b1a2a1a2a1b3
    CTS4803 = G2a2b2a1b1a1b1
    FGC5628/Y4010 = R1b1a2a1a2c1f2a1a
    M5588/PF210 = CT
    M9042 = BT
    M9109 = BT
    M9202 = BT
    M9357/PF1209 = BT
    M9378 = BT
    PF210/M5588 = CT
    PF1209/M9357 = BT
    PF1239 = CT
    PF2837 = G
    PF3728/CTS4272 = I
    Y1193.2 = E1a
    Y4010/FGC5628 = R1b1a2a1a2c1f2a1a
    Z11929 = BT
    Z11997 = BT
    Z12002 = BT
    How reliable are these predictions when it comes to such an archaic population as Zlatý kůň ? I read that this Zlatý kůň individual isn't close to the WHGs or other European populations who lacked Basal Eurasian admixture, too. Hence, the BE admixture in Europeans isn't the reason what makes Zlatý kůň closer related to East Asians than to Europeans. Anyway, it seems that Zlatý kůň is rather a population that could be consider as Crown Eurasian.

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