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Thread: Ancient genomes from the initial Jomon period: new insights into the genetic history

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    Ancient genomes from the initial Jomon period: new insights into the genetic history

    Starting 16000 years ago, the Neolithic lifestyle known as the Jomon culture spread across the Japanese archipelago. Although extensively studied by archaeology and physical anthropology, little is known about the genetic characteristics of the Jomon people. Here, we report the entire mitogenome and partial nuclear genome of skeletal remains from the initial Jomon period that were excavated from the Higashimyo shell midden site at Saga City, Kyushu Island, Japan. This is the first genome analysis of the initial Jomon people of Kyushu Island. These results provide important data for understanding the temporal transition and regional differences of the Jomon people. The mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups were similar to those found in the previously reported later Jomon people. Moreover, comparison of three nuclear genomes from the initial to final Jomon periods indicated genetic continuity throughout the Jomon period within the Japanese archipelago with no significant evidence of admixture. This indicates that the genetic differentiation found among the Jomon people was promoted by the progression of regionalization throughout the Jomon period. Further accumulation of high-quality Jomon genome data spanning a wide range of regions and ages will clarify both intimate regional and temporal differences of the Jomon people and details of their admixture history with rice farmers, as suggested by Jomon mitochondrial genome data. The results obtained from this study provide important information for further analysis.


    from the paper:
    Because the ruins were conserved without undergoing disturbance, it is possible to infer additional information about the life of the Jomon people. According to 14C dating, the ruins were formed c. 7460–7980 years ago (Saga City Board of Education, 2016); this corresponds to the initial Jomon period. This site is the oldest and largest wetland shell midden in Japan, and skeletal remains excavated there are among the oldest Jomon human remains from Kyushu Island.

    The depth of coverage of the nuclear genome was 0.086×, and breadth of the coverage was 6.9%. As inferred from the ratio of reads mapped to the Y and X chromosomes, the Higashimyo skeleton examined in this study was considered male (Supplementary Table 2). The Y-chromosome haplogroup was classified into D1b. D1b-specific alleles were observed at all six SNP sites defining this haplogroup. However, no further subdivision of the D1b haplogroup was possible because of data limitations

    Our results indicate that the Jomon people formed clusters with each other in PCA and phylogenetic trees. This finding indicates that the people responsible for the Jomon culture may be genetically derived from a common ancestral group. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the Y-chromosome haplogroup D1b found in the Funadomari Jomon (Kanzawa-Kiriyama et al., 2019) was also detected in the Higashimyo individual.
    Judging from the Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup observed in all the Jomon specimens that have ever been analyzed (Kanzawa-Kiriyama et al., 2019 and this study), haplogroup D1b is expected to be common in the Jomon population. Interestingly, haplogroup D, which contained D1b, remains in areas separated by the seas and mountains of Asia, such as the modern-day Himalayan region and Japan. These findings suggest that this haplogroup was originally widely distributed and later isolated. The geographical environment of the Japanese archipelago, which is separated by the sea, may have prevented interaction between the influx of people during the Paleolithic period and the continental population, which resulted in the formation of the unique genetic characteristics of the Jomon people.

    big wow
    this is up to date the oldest D remain in east asia dated to more than 5000 bc

    Last edited by kingjohn; 29-04-21 at 17:02.
    gracile- med

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