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    Ancient genomes reveal structural shifts after the arrival of Steppe-related ancestry

    Ancient genomes reveal structural shifts after the arrival of Steppe-related ancestry in the Italian Peninsula
    Tina Saupe 26, 27
    Francesco Montinaro 26
    Cinzia Scaggion
    Nicola Carrara
    Toomas Kivisild
    Eugenia D'Atanasio
    Ruoyun Hui
    Anu Solnik
    Ophélie Lebrasseur
    Greger Larson
    Luca Alessandri
    Ilenia Arienzo
    Flavio De Angelis
    Mario Federico Rolfo
    Robin Skeates
    Letizia Silvestri
    Jessica Beckett
    Sahra Talamo
    Andrea Dolfini
    Monica Miari
    Mait Metspalu
    Stefano Benazzi
    Cristian Capelli 26
    Luca Pagani 26
    Christiana L. Scheib 26
    Open Access
    Published:May 10, 2021DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.04.022
    Highlights
    • 22 genomes from Northeastern and Central Italy dated between 3200 and 1500 BCE
    • Arrival of Steppe-related ancestry in the central Italian Peninsula by 1600 BCE
    • Close patrilineal kinship patterns within commingled Chalcolithic cave burials
    • Roman Imperial period had a stronger effect on phenotype shifts than the Bronze Age
    Summary
    Across Europe, the genetics of the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age transition is increasingly characterized in terms of an influx of Steppe-related ancestry. The effect of this major shift on the genetic structure of populations in the Italian Peninsula remains underexplored. Here, genome-wide shotgun data for 22 individuals from commingled cave and single burials in Northeastern and Central Italy dated between 3200 and 1500 BCE provide the first genomic characterization of Bronze Age individuals (n = 8; 0.001–1.2× coverage) from the central Italian Peninsula, filling a gap in the literature between 1950 and 1500 BCE. Our study confirms a diversity of ancestry components during the Chalcolithic and the arrival of Steppe-related ancestry in the central Italian Peninsula as early as 1600 BCE, with this ancestry component increasing through time. We detect close patrilineal kinship in the burial patterns of Chalcolithic commingled cave burials and a shift away from this in the Bronze Age (2200–900 BCE) along with lowered runs of homozygosity, which may reflect larger changes in population structure. Finally, we find no evidence that the arrival of Steppe-related ancestry in Central Italy directly led to changes in frequency of 115 phenotypes present in the dataset, rather that the post-Roman Imperial period had a stronger influence, particularly on the frequency of variants associated with protection against Hansen’s disease (leprosy). Our study provides a closer look at local dynamics of demography and phenotypic shifts as they occurred as part of a broader phenomenon of widespread admixture during the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age transition.

    P.s
    I look at the y haplogroups no E not even the european e-v13

    https://www.cell.com/action/showFull...2821%2900535-2
    ancestery :
    mostly western jewish here is the overlapp with south europe
    phenotype
    :
    gracile- med

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    Ancient genomes reveal structural shifts after the arrival of Steppe-related ancestry in the Italian Peninsula


    P.s
    I look at the y haplogroups no E not even the european e-v13

    https://www.cell.com/action/showFull...2821%2900535-2

    Thanks kingjohn for linking this interesting paper. I'll take my time to read it in depth. Anyway, it's really weird that after all these papers about Ancient Greece, Rome, BA Europe, etc. the researchers still haven't found e-v13.

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    Quote Originally Posted by real expert View Post
    Thanks kingjohn for linking this interesting paper. I'll take my time to read it in depth. Anyway, it's really weird that after all these papers about Ancient Greece, Rome, BA Europe, etc. the researchers still haven't found e-v13.
    It might be wrong, but people believe E-V13 was the core Y-DNA of Eastern Urnfielders who basically even were the pioneers of cremation, Gava-Holigrady derived, Vatin-related cultures.

    There is various reasons to believe they are right.

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    Quote Originally Posted by real expert View Post
    Anyway, it's really weird that after all these papers about Ancient Greece, Rome, BA Europe, etc. the researchers still haven't found e-v13.
    Not really. This study only has two Bronze Age Y-DNA samples (both R1b-P312, one U152>L2>DF90 and the other one apparently U152 based on the SNP calls). Hardly representative. We would need over 100 samples to get a better idea of whether E-V13 was found among BA and IA Italics.

    If you remember what I wrote in my E-V13 history several years ago, I explained that E-V13 probably came to Italy in 3 waves:

    1) Italic invasion

    2) Greek immigration

    3) Ostrogoths (who had absorbed Balkans people before settling in Italy)
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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    Not really. This study only has two Bronze Age Y-DNA samples (both R1b-P312, one U152>L2>DF90 and the other one apparently U152 based on the SNP calls). Hardly representative. We would need over 100 samples to get a better idea of whether E-V13 was found among BA and IA Italics.
    If you remember what I wrote in my E-V13 history several years ago, I explained that E-V13 probably came to Italy in 3 waves:
    1) Italic invasion
    2) Greek immigration
    3) Ostrogoths (who had absorbed Balkans people before settling in Italy)
    You got a point a sample of 22 individuals
    Is not enough....
    But even if e-v13 was present among bronze and iron age italics it doesn't look to be there main branch thats for sure might be rare even among them
    P.s
    About way of enterence of e-v13 to italy
    I agree about point 2 and 3..
    On point 1 time will tell...


    Last edited by kingjohn; 11-05-21 at 14:59.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post

    If you remember what I wrote in my E-V13 history several years ago, I explained that E-V13 probably came to Italy in 3 waves:

    1) Italic invasion

    2) Greek immigration

    3) Ostrogoths (who had absorbed Balkans people before settling in Italy)

    There are over 600 inscriptions of the Messapic language in Italy, most densely concentrated in the heel. Their distribution is in the image below.

    Messapic was a non-Italic, non-Greek, non-Germanic, language.

    These regions where these inscriptions appear are the regions that are most densely concentrated with E-V13 today. This is modern distribution, so it must be taken with a grain of salt, but nonetheless very relevant to the question of E-V13's entry in Italy.

    I think not considering Messapics is not warranted by the evidence. They are much more likely than Ostrogoths to have brought it.


    From Austrian linguist, who studied paleo-balkan languages and old Albanian, in 2018:


    "Albanian is closely related to Illyrian and Messapic (a language spoken in Southern Italy but originally of Balkan origin)"


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    Quote Originally Posted by Johane Derite View Post
    There are over 600 inscriptions of the Messapic language in Italy, most densely concentrated in the heel. Their distribution is in the image below.

    Messapic was a non-Italic, non-Greek, non-Germanic, language.

    These regions where these inscriptions appear are the regions that are most densely concentrated with E-V13 today. This is modern distribution, so it must be taken with a grain of salt, but nonetheless very relevant to the question of E-V13's entry in Italy.

    I think not considering Messapics is not warranted by the evidence. They are much more likely than Ostrogoths to have brought it.


    From Austrian linguist, who studied paleo-balkan languages and old Albanian, in 2018:


    "Albanian is closely related to Illyrian and Messapic (a language spoken in Southern Italy but originally of Balkan origin)"


    Page 1790
    Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics
    Joachim Matzinger
    2018




    sound logic you are correct
    that people should also consider that as a possible source
    for spread of e-v13 to italy
    but what would explain the 10% e-v13 in lombardia ?

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    sound logic you are correct
    that people should also consider that as a possible source
    for spread of e-v13 to italy
    but what would explain the 10% e-v13 in lombardia ?
    I agree with Maciamo's reasoning that it probably didn't come all in one group only, and there has already been actual lombards tested
    Positive for ev13, so we know they at least had some. I just think Messapics should be taken into account also. Whether goths brought it or integrated a local lineage i dont know. But i more or less agree that ev13 probably only started expanding big time in late bronze age to early iron age, with maybe a few branches in the balkans spreading a bit earlier (middle bronze age).

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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    Not really. This study only has two Bronze Age Y-DNA samples (both R1b-P312, one U152>L2>DF90 and the other one apparently U152 based on the SNP calls). Hardly representative. We would need over 100 samples to get a better idea of whether E-V13 was found among BA and IA Italics.

    If you remember what I wrote in my E-V13 history several years ago, I explained that E-V13 probably came to Italy in 3 waves:

    1) Italic invasion

    2) Greek immigration

    3) Ostrogoths (who had absorbed Balkans people before settling in Italy)
    Rather than Italic proper, I would look out for the Thraco-Cimmerian horizon, Hallstatt and Thraco-Illyrian migrations (only those influenced by Eastern Urnfield got it at higher frequency), including soldiers and slave trade. I actually think that even the Celts might have brought more E-V13 than the Italics, because they got more of it in the Iron Age, whereas Italics might have entered from an Urnfield branch which was not heavily influenced by the South Eastern Urnfielders of the Channelled/Fluted Ware groups, which were the primary carriers of E-V13 in the transitional phase (1.200-1.100 BC in particular).

    Greek, Germanic, even Slavic and of course Albanian migrations played their role as well, because of all of these carried at least some E-V13 when coming on Italian territory.

    E-V13 is therefore a good marker, in all likelihood, for post-Italic paternal migrations from CE and SEE to Italia, together with others like R-U106, I1, R1a etc.

    Its possible that already with the Thraco-Cimmerian horizon and Hallstatt E-V13 came especially to Northern Italia:

    Thraco-Cimmerian horizon:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thraco-Cimmerian

    Hallstatt related cultures:
    https://live.staticflickr.com/331/19...fd3fb6fa_b.jpg

    To Southern Italia most likely later, earliest with Illyrians which were more influenced by Eastern Urnfielders/Channelled Ware, but primarily with Greek colonisation and later migrants (slaves primarily, but also workers, soldiers, merchants, and large waves of refugees from the Balkan when the Roman-Byzantine control got lost).
    The majority looks older, so probably being Greek-related, because Greeks, especially Northern Greeks and Dorians, being more heavily influenced by the Channelled Ware/Fluted ware people than some coastal Illyrians.

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    I quickly skimmed through this study. For those who are interested in the phenotype of Copper and Bronze Age Italians. The authors conclude that CA and BA North and Central Italians were intermediate, thus moderately white with brown eyes and hair. That said, individuals that had dark blond or blond hair with blue eyes were found among Copper Age and Bronze Age Italians, too. Furthermore, the variant rs16891982, linked to darker eyes and hair, decreased in Central Italy after the Copper Age, and in the BA and the post-Roman Republic among the Italian groups. Besides, also interesting to note that J2a was detected in the La Sassa samples from the Chalcolithic period ! As far as I remember the one Etruscan male from the Roman paper was J2a too. In the BA samples R1b-DF90 and R-P312 were found. However, this study had some issues with failed C14 dating.

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    Quote Originally Posted by real expert View Post
    Besides, also interesting to note that J2a was detected in the La Sassa samples from the Chalcolithic period ! As far as I remember the one Etruscan male from the Roman paper was J2a too. In the BA samples R1b-DF90 and R-P312 were found. However, this study had some issues with failed C14 dating.
    Nope, Etruscan male was J2b-L283. J2a has been found in the Marche region in the Neolithic period.

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    Quote Originally Posted by real expert View Post
    I quickly skimmed through this study. For those who are interested in the phenotype of Copper and Bronze Age Italians. The authors conclude that CA and BA North and Central Italians were intermediate, thus moderately white with brown eyes and hair. That said, individuals that had dark blond or blond hair with blue eyes were found among Copper Age and Bronze Age Italians, too. Furthermore, the variant rs16891982, linked to darker eyes and hair, decreased in Central Italy after the Copper Age, and in the BA and the post-Roman Republic among the Italian groups. Besides, also interesting to note that J2a was detected in the La Sassa samples from the Chalcolithic period ! As far as I remember the one Etruscan male from the Roman paper was J2a too. In the BA samples R1b-DF90 and R-P312 were found. However, this study had some issues with failed C14 dating.
    Think it was L283 actually.
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    I am almost sure the etruscan was j2b
    But i might be wrong...
    But either it is very cool that they found j2a
    In chl time...
    I think the roman paper you speak about found
    J2a in neolithic italy...
    It look like some branches of j2 made
    To italy pretty early 😎
    So in skin color they are predicted more
    Lighter skin than the aegeans bronze age individuals interesting🤔 thanks for looking at paper and sharing 👍

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    On June 1, E-V13 will show up, wait and see.


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    Quote Originally Posted by blevins13 View Post
    On June 1, E-V13 will show up, wait and see.


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    Are more samples coming out? Or different paper coming out?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Archetype0ne View Post
    Are more samples coming out? Or different paper coming out?
    ISBA9: 9th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology June 1st-4th 2021

    Viminacium samples are coming out.

    1. Olalde Iñigo. Human mobility at the Roman Danubian Limes before and after the fall of the Empire


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    Quote Originally Posted by blevins13 View Post
    ISBA9: 9th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology June 1st-4th 2021

    Viminacium samples are coming out.

    1. Olalde Iñigo. Human mobility at the Roman Danubian Limes before and after the fall of the Empire


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    Is this the samples leaked earlier on Anthro?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Archetype0ne View Post
    Is this the samples leaked earlier on Anthro?
    I believe yes.


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    Quote Originally Posted by blevins13 View Post
    ISBA9: 9th International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology June 1st-4th 2021

    Viminacium samples are coming out.

    1. Olalde Iñigo. Human mobility at the Roman Danubian Limes before and after the fall of the Empire


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    that would be cool
    i hope they will release the paper and that it is not only a lecture .....
    beyond the high number of e-L618 and e-v13
    there is also 1 case of e-m123 individual ( could be e-m84>pf6751 or e-L791) if the leak was correct
    maybe he was a middle eastern auxiliary in viminacium (some of those places in roman empire were cosmopolitan)
    going to be interesting paper

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    Great! Finally some Chalcolithic Italian DNA.


    Here are the locations of the samples.



    There are two J2a samples from La Sassa. Both are J2a1-L26 > PF5087 > PF5160 and both date from c. 2840–2500 cal BCE. That branch of J2a is particularly common in the Arabian peninsula today, but is also found in Greece. In Italy, most of the J2-PF5160 today falls under the Z438 > L70 > Z435 clade.


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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    There are two J2a samples from La Sassa. Both are J2a1-L26 > PF5087 > PF5160 and both date from c. 2840–2500 cal BCE. That branch of J2a is particularly common in the Arabian peninsula today, but is also found in Greece. In Italy, most of the J2-PF5160 today falls under the Z438 > L70 > Z435 clade.
    J-PF5160 and especially J-L70 are found all around the Mediterranean, and even in other parts of Europe, yet only Greece is noted here.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Çerç View Post
    J-PF5160 and especially J-L70 are found all around the Mediterranean, and even in other parts of Europe, yet only Greece is noted here.
    I wrote that PF5160 is particularly common in Arabia (Levant included should I add) and Greece. It may be found elsewhere but it is much less common. There is no good data about deep clades of J2 in Turkey, so it's frequency there is hard to tell. Anyway I expect considerable regional differences within Turkey.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    Great! Finally some Chalcolithic Italian DNA.


    Here are the locations of the samples.



    There are two J2a samples from La Sassa. Both are J2a1-L26 > PF5087 > PF5160 and both date from c. 2840–2500 cal BCE. That branch of J2a is particularly common in the Arabian peninsula today, but is also found in Greece. In Italy, most of the J2-PF5160 today falls under the Z438 > L70 > Z435 clade.


    There are a lot of Sardinian samples not out yet from what I understood from the graphic. I am very interested in the Nuragics.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Archetype0ne View Post
    There are a lot of Sardinian samples not out yet from what I understood from the graphic. I am very interested in the Nuragics.

    Genetics[edit]

    A genetic study published in Nature Communications in February 2020 examined the remains of 17 individuals identified with Nuragic civilization. The samples of Y-DNA extracted belonged to haplogroup I2a1b1 (2 samples), R1b1b2a, G2a2b2b1a1, R1b1b (4 samples), J2b2a1 (3 samples) and G2a2b2b1a1a, while the samples of mtDNA extracted belonged to various types of haplogroup T, V, H, J, K and U.[70] The study found strong evidence of genetic continuity between Nuragic civilization and earlier Neolithic inhabitants of Sardinia, who were genetically similar to Neolithic peoples of Iberia and southern France.[71] They were determined to be of about 80% Early European Farmer (EEF) ancestry and 20% Western Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) ancestry.[72] They were predicted to be largely descended from peoples of the Neolithic Cardial Ware culture, which spread throughout the western Mediterranean in Southern Europe c. 5500 BC.[73] The Nuragic people were strongly differentiated from other Bronze Age peoples of Europe by the near absence of steppe-related ancestry.[71]



    source:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039977/



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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    Genetics[edit]

    A genetic study published in Nature Communications in February 2020 examined the remains of 17 individuals identified with Nuragic civilization. The samples of Y-DNA extracted belonged to haplogroup I2a1b1 (2 samples), R1b1b2a, G2a2b2b1a1, R1b1b (4 samples), J2b2a1 (3 samples) and G2a2b2b1a1a, while the samples of mtDNA extracted belonged to various types of haplogroup T, V, H, J, K and U.[70] The study found strong evidence of genetic continuity between Nuragic civilization and earlier Neolithic inhabitants of Sardinia, who were genetically similar to Neolithic peoples of Iberia and southern France.[71] They were determined to be of about 80% Early European Farmer (EEF) ancestry and 20% Western Hunter-Gatherer (WHG) ancestry.[72] They were predicted to be largely descended from peoples of the Neolithic Cardial Ware culture, which spread throughout the western Mediterranean in Southern Europe c. 5500 BC.[73] The Nuragic people were strongly differentiated from other Bronze Age peoples of Europe by the near absence of steppe-related ancestry.[71]



    source:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039977/


    I am aware of that. Exactly why I am so interested in the many Sardinian samples in this study. Since the biggest open question for L283 are the 1300 bc Nuragic basal subbranches of l283. Who most certainly weren't Neolithic, and had to be bronze age immigrants in the area.

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