https://www dot pnas dot org/content/118/20/e2021655118

Title: The evolution and changing ecology of the African hominid oral microbiome. PNAS 2018.

"The oral microbiome plays key roles in human biology ..."

"To better understand the evolution and changing ecology of the human oral microbiome, we analyzed 124 dental biofilm metagenomes from humans, including Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene to present-day modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, as well as New World howler monkeys for comparison."

"We additionally find evidence of shared genetic diversity in the oral bacteria of Neanderthal and Upper Paleolithic modern humans that is not observed in later modern human populations."