The first vs. second stage of neolithisation in Polish territories (to say nothing of the third?)

Marek Nowak



2019, Documenta Praehistorica


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Neolithic Archaeology,

Mesolithic/Neolithic,

Neolithisation



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The present-day territory of Poland (Fig. 1) was and is situated in the borderland of different environmental (Rdzany 2014) but also different cultural, prehistoric, and historic formations (Davies 2005). In the period discussed here this resulted in different types of Neolithic culture, and different faces of neolithisation. These variants of the Neolithic and neolithisation developed in parallel for a relatively long time, coming into various interactions in the process. This situation is fairly unique for the entire European continent. As in other parts of Central Europe, the origins of the Neolithic in the region in question are associated with the appearance of the Linear Band Pottery culture (LBK) (Fig. 2) after the mid-6 th millennium The first vs. second stage of neolithisation in Polish territories (to say nothing of the third|) ABSTRACT-The origins of the Neolithic in Polish territories are associated with migrations of groups of the Linear Band Pottery culture (LBK) after the mid-6 th millennium BC. Communities of this culture only settled in enclaves distinguished by ecological conditions favourable to farming ('LBK neo-lithisation'). This situation persisted into the 5 th millennium BC, when these enclaves were inhabited by post-Linear groups. This state of affairs changed from c. 4000 BC onwards due to the formation and spectacular territorial expansion of the Funnel Beaker culture (TRB). In the territories under consideration this expansion covered the areas previously inhabited by both hunter-gatherers ('TRB neolithisation') and farmers. Some of the Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers did not accept TRB patterns. They successfully carried on their traditional lifestyle until the Early Bronze Age although some changes in their material culture are visible (including 'ceramisation').