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Thread: Reconstructing the history of the peopling of Sardinia

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    Moderator Pax Augusta's Avatar
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    Reconstructing the history of the peopling of Sardinia

    From old markers to next generation: reconstructing the history of the peopling of Sardinia

    Pages 203-212 | Received 02 Oct 2020, Accepted 11 May 2021, Published online: 29 Aug 2021

    https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2021.1944312

    Abstract
    Context
    For many years the Sardinian population has been the object of numerous studies because of its unique genetic structure. Despite the extreme abundance of papers, various aspects of the peopling and genetic structure of Sardinia still remain uncertain and sometimes controversial.

    Objective
    We reviewed what has emerged from different studies, focussing on some still open questions, such as the origin of Sardinians, their relationship with the Corsican population, and the intra-regional genetic heterogeneity.

    Methods
    The various issues have been addressed through the analysis of classical markers, molecular markers and, finally, genomic data through next generation sequencing.

    Results and conclusions
    Although the most ancient human remains date back to the end of the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic populations brought founding lineages that left evident traces in the modern population. Then, with the Neolithic, the island underwent an important demographic expansion. Subsequently, isolation and genetic drift contributed to maintain a significant genetic heterogeneity, but preserving the overall homogeneity on a regional scale. At the same time, isolation and genetic drift contributed to differentiate Sardinia from Corsica, which saw an important gene flow from the mainland. However, the isolation did not prevent gene flow from the neighbouring populations whose contribution are still recognisable in the genome of Sardinians.From old markers to next generation: reconstructing the history of the peopling of Sardinia







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    "A second important haplogroup, which accounts for about 18% of the Sardinian variability, is R1b1a2 (R-M269) that has been related to the pre-Neolithic heritage of Sardinia (Contu et al. 2008; Morelli et al. 2010) for its large prevalence in western Europe. It is differentiated in a large number of sub-haplogroups that could have followed different pathways, such as, for example, R-U152, the most frequent lineage in central and northern Italy, which could reflect ancient contacts with the Etruscan people. The Palaeolithic origin of this haplogroup has been challenged by some aDNA studies that indicated its earliest origin in the YSP from eastern Europe (Haak et al. 2015), but more recently it has been detected in one Palaeolithic individual from Villabruna (northern Italy), indicating a much earlier origin and diffusion of this haplogroup (Fu et al. 2016).

    Other Sardinian founding lineages may have arrived on the Island from other areas and with a different timing, but not related to the spread of the agriculture from the fertile crescent. The sub-haplogroup G2a, which accounts for about 11% of the Sardinian sample is very important for its phylogeographic distribution, rooted in the Caucasus and diffused in Europe through the Danubian route of Neolithisation. In particular, the founder lineage defined by the presence of L-91 SNP shows a peak in northern Sardinia – southern Corsica and a noticeable occurrence in Tuscany and in Tyrol, including the Bronze Age mummified individual known as Oetzi (Keller et al. 2012), possibly indicating a crossing of the Alps and subsequent arrival in the Mediterranean islands. The STR variation is higher in north Sardinia than in south Corsica, possibly indicating a migration of Nuragic people who introduced the Torrean culture to the neighbouring island (Grugni et al. 2019)."





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    "A second important haplogroup, which accounts for about 18% of the Sardinian variability, is R1b1a2 (R-M269) that has been related to the pre-Neolithic heritage of Sardinia (Contu et al. 2008; Morelli et al. 2010) for its large prevalence in western Europe."
    It's sad to see that there are still population geneticists who hold such outdated and wrong ideas as R-M269 being pre-Neolithic in Western Europe.
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    Satyavrata Maciamo's Avatar
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    No supplementary data?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Pax Augusta View Post
    "A second important haplogroup, which accounts for about 18% of the Sardinian variability, is R1b1a2 (R-M269) that has been related to the pre-Neolithic heritage of Sardinia (Contu et al. 2008; Morelli et al. 2010) for its large prevalence in western Europe. It is differentiated in a large number of sub-haplogroups that could have followed different pathways, such as, for example, R-U152, the most frequent lineage in central and northern Italy, which could reflect ancient contacts with the Etruscan people. The Palaeolithic origin of this haplogroup has been challenged by some aDNA studies that indicated its earliest origin in the YSP from eastern Europe (Haak et al. 2015), but more recently it has been detected in one Palaeolithic individual from Villabruna (northern Italy), indicating a much earlier origin and diffusion of this haplogroup (Fu et al. 2016).

    Other Sardinian founding lineages may have arrived on the Island from other areas and with a different timing, but not related to the spread of the agriculture from the fertile crescent. The sub-haplogroup G2a, which accounts for about 11% of the Sardinian sample is very important for its phylogeographic distribution, rooted in the Caucasus and diffused in Europe through the Danubian route of Neolithisation. In particular, the founder lineage defined by the presence of L-91 SNP shows a peak in northern Sardinia – southern Corsica and a noticeable occurrence in Tuscany and in Tyrol, including the Bronze Age mummified individual known as Oetzi (Keller et al. 2012), possibly indicating a crossing of the Alps and subsequent arrival in the Mediterranean islands. The STR variation is higher in north Sardinia than in south Corsica, possibly indicating a migration of Nuragic people who introduced the Torrean culture to the neighbouring island (Grugni et al. 2019)."




    Which G2a subranch are we talking about. Particularly interested because of my Maternal Grandfather belonging to this branch.

    Afaik there was Mycenean G2a in Crete. So a sea/sea people connection might be implicit. But also, the paragraph you mentioned mentions Nuragics. Was there any G2a in the Nuragic study?

    Very interesting overall.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    It's sad to see that there are still population geneticists who hold such outdated and wrong ideas as R-M269 being pre-Neolithic in Western Europe.

    It is clear that geneticists cannot be expected to be as accurate as possible. Studies are riddled with errors.


    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    No supplementary data?

    I don't think there are any new samples tested for this study.

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    Some Yamnaya appear modelling Bronze Age Sardinians as a mixture of Sardinia Neolithic (instead of Tur_Barcin and WHG) Yamnaya and Iran Ganj Dareh. Distances are lower



    Apparently Bronze Age Sardinians were a mixture of mostly Old European peoples (low Yamnaya) from South-Western Europe. I'm curious if future accademic studies will confirm this

    "There are at the same time obvious cultural affinities with the surrounding regions of the western Mediterranean: Bell Beaker or Bell
    Beaker assemblies in some Bonnanaro tombs; the clear stylistic associations of Bonnanaro A ceramics with Bell Beaker, Polada, and Corsican materials; the bronzes with Polada, Remedello, Rinaldone, and El Argar affinities; and megalithic monuments built in the dolmen tradition and similar to those of Corsica, South of France and Catalonia" - Webster 2015

    https://epocadelbronzoantico.files.w...js-22.05-1.png

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