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Thread: What is the carbon footprint of a new petrol, hybrid and electric car?

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    Satyavrata Maciamo's Avatar
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    Question What is the carbon footprint of a new petrol, hybrid and electric car?

    For most people having a car represents the biggest share of one's personal carbon footprint. Unless one travels a lot by plane, few other consumables generate nearly as much CO2. Driving 15,000 km per year (a bit less than 10,000 miles) with a petrol car generates as much CO2 as home heating and electricity, food, clothes, household appliances, electronics, etc.

    Even before you start driving your brand new car, the manufacturing process has already caused significant emissions. The Swiss Touring Club has a search engine for the carbon footprint of new cars.

    Here a some examples for petrol cars:

    • Citroën C1 : 7.6 tonnes Co2e
    • Toyota Aygo 1.0 VVT-i x 3 doors : 7.6 t.
    • Renault Twingo Sce 65 Zen : 8.1 t.
    • FIAT Panda 0.9 : 9.3 t.
    • FIAT 500 Abarth 595 : 9.5 t.
    • Dacia Sandero SCe 65 Access : 10. t.
    • Peugeot 208 : 10 t.
    • Toyota Yaris : 10.8 t.
    • Opel Corsa 1.2 : 10.9 t.
    • Citroën C3 : 11 t.
    • Renault Clio : 11 t.
    • Ford Fiesta 1.1 Trend 5 doors : 11.1 t.
    • Citroën C4 Cactus : 11.4 t.
    • DS 3 Crossback PureTech 100 : 11.8 t.
    • Nissan Juke 1.0 : 12.0 t.
    • Dacia Lodgy Tce 130 PF Comfort (5 seats) : 12.1 t.
    • Audi A1 30 TFSI : 12.1 t.
    • FIAT Fiorino Base 1.4 8V : 12.2 t.
    • VW Polo 1.0 : 12.2 t.
    • Opel Mokka 1.2 : 12.4 t.
    • Dacia Dokker : 12.5 t.
    • Honda HR-V 1.5i-VTEC : 12.7 t.
    • Mini 3 Door Cooper : 12.8 t.
    • Honda Civic 1.0 VTEC : 13.0 t.
    • Mazda 3 Skyactiv-G 150 : 13.0 t.
    • Citroën C4 PureTech 130 : 13.1 t.
    • Toyota Corolla 1.2 Turbo Active : 13.1 t.
    • Alfa Romeo Giulietta 1.4 Turbo 120 : 13.1 t.
    • VW Golf 1.5 TSI : 13.2 t.
    • FIAT Tipo 1.6 MultiJet : 13.3 t.
    • Opel Astra Sports Tourer 1.2 Turbo 130 : 13.3 t.
    • Renault Megane Grandtour TCe 115 : 13.3 t.
    • Renault Kadjar TCe 140 Intens EDC : 13.7 t.
    • Audi A3 Sportback 35 TFSI : 13.7 t.
    • Peugeot 308 : 13.8 t.
    • Ford Focus 1.0 EcoBoost Auto 150 : 13.8 t.
    • Lamborghini Huracan Coupé : 14.0 t.
    • DS 4 PureTech 130 : 14.0 t.
    • Hyundai i30 1.0 : 14.1 t.
    • Dacia Duster dCi 115 S&S 4WD Comfort : 14.2 t.
    • FIAT 500L 1.3 : 14.2 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz A 180 : 14.2 t.
    • Ferrari F8 : 14.3 t.
    • Ferrari Roma : 14.3 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz CLA 180 : 14.5 t.
    • Citroën Grand C4 S. Tourer : 14.7 t.
    • Peugeot 3008 : 14.7 t.
    • DS 7 Crossback 1.2 PureTech 130 : 14.7 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz B 180 : 14.9 t.
    • Peugeot 508 : 14.9 t.
    • Peugeot 5008 : 15.0 t.
    • Opel Insignia Grand Sport 1.5 : 15.0 t.
    • Nissan X-Trail 1.3 : 15.0 t.
    • Mini Countryman Cooper ALL4 : 15.1 t.
    • Mazda 6 SW Skyactiv-D 150 : 15.2 t.
    • Renault Grand Scenic TCe 115 : 15.3 t.
    • Ferrari 812 : 15.3 t.
    • BMW 2 Active Tourer 218d : 15.4 t.
    • DS 9 PureTech 225 EAT8 : 15.4 t.
    • VW Passat Variant 1.5 TSI : 15.4 t.
    • VW Tiguan 1.5 : 15.5 t.
    • Alfa Romeo Giulia Business 2.0 200 AT8 : 15.5 t.
    • Toyota RAV4 2.0 Comfort 4WD : 15.7 t.
    • Volvo XC40 T2 Momentum Light : 15.7 t.
    • Aston Martin Vantage Coupé : 15.7 t.
    • Ford Kuga 1.5 EcoBoost 150 : 15.8 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz C 180 : 15.8 t.
    • BMW X1 sDrive18d : 15.9 t.
    • VW Touran 1.5 TSI : 16.0 t.
    • Citroën Berlingo : 16.1 t.
    • BMW 3 Touring 318i : 16.2 t.
    • Hyundai Tucson 1.6 CRDi 136 : 16.6 t.
    • Aston Martin DBS Superleggera : 16.8 t.
    • Ford Mondeo 2.0 Ecoblue 150 : 16.9 t.
    • Renault Talisman Grandtour : 16.9 t.
    • Cadillac XT4 350T AWD : 17.0 t.
    • VW Arteon : 17.0 t.
    • Aston Martin DB11 V12 AMR : 17.2 t.
    • Jaguar XF 20d : 17.8 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz GLC 43 AMG 4Matic : 18.3 t.
    • Alfa Romeo Stelvio Business 2.0 Q4 200 AT8 : 18.3 t.
    • Jeep Cherokee 2.0 Turbo Limited Active Drive I : 18.4 t.
    • Renault Espace dCi 160 Intens : 18.5 t.
    • BMW 5 Limousine 520d : 19.2 t.
    • Maserati Ghibli S Q4 Essence : 19.2 t.
    • Maserati Quattroporte V8 Trofeo : 19.2 t.
    • Jaguar F-Pace P250 AWD : 19.3 t.
    • Porsche Macan : 19.7 t.
    • Land Rover RR Velar D180 : 19.7 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz E 63 AMG 4Matic+ : 20.0 t.
    • Toyota Land Cruiser 2.8 D-4D 177 : 20.4 t.
    • Porsche Panamera Turbo : 20.8 t.
    • Maserati Levante GTS : 21.0 t.
    • VW Touareg 3.0 V6 TSI : 21.9 t.
    • Land Rover Discovery 2.0 : 22.3 t.
    • Bentley Continental : 22.5 t.
    • Rolls-Royce Ghost : 22.8 t.
    • Porsche Cayenne Turbo : 22.9 t.
    • Jeep Grand Cherokee 3.0 : 23.2 t.
    • Bentley Bentayga Speed : 24.1 t.
    • Rolls-Royce Phantom : 24.9 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz GLS 400 d 4Matic : 25.8 t.
    • Bentley Mulsanne : 26.2 t.


    For hybrid cars:

    • FIAT Panda 1.0 Hybrid Cool : 9.4 t.
    • Suzuki Swift 1.2 Compact + Hybrid : 9.6 t.
    • Toyota Yaris 1.5 Hybrid : 11.8 t.
    • Hyundai i20 1.0 T-GDi 120 Amplia DCT : 12.4 t.
    • Honda Jazz 1.5i-MMD Comfort : 12.6 t.
    • Kia Stonic 1.0 T-GDi First Edition Mild-Hybrid : 12.6 t.
    • Ford Fiesta 1.0 EcoBoost 155 Hybrid Titanium : 13.0 t.
    • Renault Clio E-Tech 140 Intens : 13.3 t.
    • Ford Puma 1.0 EcoBoost Hybrid 125 Cool & Connect : 13.3 t.
    • Toyota Prius 1.8 Comfort : 14.0 t.
    • Toyota Corolla 1.8 HSD Active e-CVT : 14.1 t.
    • Lexus CT 200h impression : 14.1 t.
    • Suzuki Swace Compact + : 14.2 t.
    • Seat Leon 1.0 eTSI Style : 14.3 t.
    • Ford Focus 1.0 EcoBoost Hybrid 125 Trend : 14.3 t.
    • Toyota C-HR 1.8 HSD Trend e-Multidrive : 14.6 t.
    • Hyundai Kona 1.6 GDi Origo HEV : 14.6 t.
    • Hyundai i30 Wagon 1.5 T-GDi Origo auto. : 14.6 t.
    • Hyundai Ioniq Hybrid 1.6 GDi Origo DCT : 14.7 t.
    • VW Golf 1.0 eTSI evo ACT OPF Life DSG : 14.7 t.
    • Kia Ceed SW 1.5 T-GDi DCT Mild-Hybrid Power : 14.7 t.
    • Audi A3 Sportback 35 TFSI S tronic : 14.8 t.
    • Skoda Octavia Combi 1.0 TSI mHEV : 14.9 t.
    • Renault Arkana E-Tech 145 Zen : 15.0 t.
    • Kia Niro 1.6 GDi Hybrid Trend DCT : 15.0 t.
    • Nissan Qashqai 1.3 DIG-T Acenta DCT 160 : 15.0 t.
    • Subaru Impreza 2.0i e-Boxer Advantage Lineartronic : 15.3 t.
    • Toyota Prius+ Wagon 1.8 Premium CVT : 15.7 t.
    • Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid 1.8 Solar : 16.0 t.
    • Lexus UX 250h FWD ECO : 16.1 t.
    • Audi A4 35 TFSI S tronic : 16.3 t.
    • Toyota Camry 2.5 HSD Comfort e-CVT : 16.4 t.
    • Audi Q3 35 TFSI S tronic : 16.5 t.
    • Audi A5 Sportback 40 TFSI S tronic : 16.7 t.
    • Toyota RAV4 2.5 Comfort e-Multidrive 4WD : 17.0 t.
    • Ford Mondeo Hybrid Titanium eCVT : 17.2 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz C 200 9G-Tronic : 17.2 t.
    • Volvo S60 B4 Mild Hybrid Geartronic Inscription : 17.6 t.
    • Volvo XC40 B4 Mild Hybrid Geartronic Momentum : 17.7 t.
    • Ford Kuga 2.5 Duratec FHEV Cool & Connect : 17.8 t.
    • Volvo V60 B4 Mild Hybrid Geartronic Momentum : 17.8 t.
    • BMW 2 Active Tourer 225xe : 17.9 t.
    • BMW 3 Limousine M340i xDrive Steptronic : 18.0 t.
    • DS 4 E-Tense 225 4x2 : 18.4 t.
    • BMW 5 Limousine 520i Steptronic : 18.6 t.
    • Volvo V90 B5 Mild Hybrid Geartronic Inscription : 18.8 t.
    • Audi A7 Sportback 45 TFSI quattro S tronic : 19.1 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz GLC 300 4Matic : 19.1 t.
    • DS 9 E-Tense 225 e-EAT8 : 19.3 t.
    • Hyundai Santa Fe 1.6 T-GDi HEV 4wd Auto. : 19.3 t.
    • Kia Sorento 1.6 T-GDi Hybrid Auto.(7 seats) : 19.6 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz E 200 4Matic : 19.7 t.
    • Jaguar E-Pace P300 AWD Auto. : 19.7 t.
    • Land Rover RR Evoque P300 Aut. : 19.8 t.
    • Toyota Highlander 2.5 HSD Comfort e-CVT : 20.0 t.
    • Maserati Ghibli Hybrid : 20.1 t.
    • DS 7 Crossback E.Tense 300 PS 4x4 : 20.2 t.
    • BMW 5 Touring 540i xDrive Steptronic : 20.8 t.
    • Lexus RXL 450hL Comfort : 22.0 t.
    • Audi RS7 Sportback 4.0 TFSI quattro tiptronic : 22.0 t.
    • Land Rover Defender 90 P400 : 22.8 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz S Lang 500 4Matic : 23.0 t.
    • BMW X6 xDrive40i Steptronic : 23.4 t.
    • Audi Q8 60 TFSI e quattro tiptronic : 26.0 t.
    • Mercedes-Benz GLS 63 AMG 4Matic : 26.6 t.
    • Bentley Bentayga Hybrid : 27.1 t.


    And for electric cars:

    • Smart fortwo EQ : 10.8 tonnes CO2e
    • Smart forfour EQ : 11.7 t.
    • Renault Twingo Electric Zen : 11.7 t.
    • Fiat 500e : 12.4 t.
    • BMW i8 Roadster : 16.5 t.
    • Peugeot e-208 : 17 t.
    • Renault Zoé R110 : 17 t.
    • Honda e Advance : 17.1 t.
    • Nissan Leaf Acenta : 17.3 t.
    • Opel Corsa-e : 17.4 t.
    • DS 3 Crossback E.Tense 136 : 17.8 t.
    • Opel Mokka Elektro : 17.9 t.
    • Hyundai Ionic : 18 t.
    • BMW X1 xDrive25e : 18.7 t.
    • BMW Limousine 320e : 19.2 t.
    • Tesla Model 3 : 19.6 t.
    • Hyundai Kona : 19.9 t.
    • Lexus UX 300e : 20.4 t.
    • Hyundai Nexo Vertex : 20.8 t.
    • BMW 5 Limousine 520e : 21.2 t.
    • Volvo XC40 Recharge Twin Pro Electric : 24.2 t.
    • Audi Q4 40 e-tron : 24.4 t.
    • BMW iX3 : 24.7 t.
    • Tesla Model S : 25.0 t.
    • Jaguar I-Pace EV400 SE : 25.4 t.
    • Tesla Model X Long Range : 27.6 t.
    • Audi e-tron 50 quattro : 27.9 t.



    Let's compare the CO2e of a few models that exist in petrol, hybrid and/or electric.

    Car model Petrol Hybrid Hybrid
    plug-in
    Electric
    BMW 2 Active Tourer 14.7 t. - 17.9 t. -
    BMW 3 Limousine 16.3 t. 18.0 t. 19.2 t. -
    BMW X3 xDrive30i/X3 xDrive30e/eX3 18.5 t. 20.7 t. 21.4 t. 24.7 t.
    Citroen C4 12.4 t. - - 18.3 t.
    Hyundai Ioniq - 14.7 t. 16.0 17.6 t.
    Jaguar F-Pace 250/I-Pace 250/E-Pace 400 19.3 t. 19.6 t. - 25.4 t.
    Opel Mokka 12.4 t. 17.9 t.
    Peugeot 208 11.5 t. - - 17.4 t.
    VW Golf 1.0 12.9 t. 14.7 t. - -

    In average, a hybrid car requires 2 extra tonnes of CO2e to build, a plug-in hybrid 3 extra tonnes, and an electric car 6 extra tonnes.

    Is it worth buying an electric car?

    Electric cars typically have a bigger carbon footprint to produce than thermic cars - especially because of the battery. It has been calculated that the Tesla Model 3's battery alone (without the rest of the car) has a footprint of 12.75 metric tonnes CO2.

    According to the EU, in 2019, average CO2 emissions from all new cars reached 122.3 g CO2/km. But as only a small percentage of cars on the road are new, the real average may be closer to 150g CO2/km. Driving 10,000 km per year with a car emitting 150g CO2/km results in 1.5 tonne of CO2 per year.

    In a country where nearly 100% of the electricity is green (like Norway, Sweden or Iceland), you would need to drive about 15,000 km before an average electric car starts having lower emissions than a petrol car. In the EU in average it takes between 50,000 km to 80,000 km to recoup the EV battery footprint. In the USA it is 55,000 km to 200,000 km (more than I have driven in my lifetime!). So electric cars are not necessarily better for the environment. It really depends where you live and what is the source of the electricity you use to recharge your car.

    As of 2018, the average European driver in the EU-28 drove 12,000 km per year. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Highway Administration, the average American drives around 13,500 miles (22,000 km) every year. This means that for most people buying an electric car is not going to lower greenhouse emissions compared to a petrol car. At present electric vehicles are only interesting for very frequent drivers, such as taxi drivers or people who spend a lot of time on the road for work.


    Compensating your carbon footprint by planting trees

    The number of trees are needed to compensate 1 tonne of CO2 varies a lot depending on the climate and species of tree. In general it is more cost effective to plant trees in tropical countries because they tend to grow faster and absorb more CO2 per year, but also because labour is cheaper to plant the trees in places like India or Sub-Saharan Africa. You can offset your carbon footprint by planting trees through one of those websites.
    Last edited by Maciamo; 19-09-21 at 14:33.
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  2. #2
    Satyavrata Maciamo's Avatar
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    I have updated the list of cars with their carbon footprint. There are now over 100 models of new cars from this year.

  3. #3
    Satyavrata Maciamo's Avatar
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    The bottom line is, if you are going to buy an electric car, buy a BMW i8 Roadster. With a footprint of only 16.5 tonnes of CO2, it is more ecological than a Renault Zoe or Nissan Leaf! And infinitely cooler.


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    Regular Member Duarte's Avatar
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    Carbon footprint report - Volvo Cars: The carbon footprints of C40 Recharge, XC40 Recharge, both charged with EU-28 electricity mix, and XC40 ICE fuelled with petrol containing 5 per cent ethanol (E5).

    https://www.volvocars.com/images/v/-...LCA-report.pdf

    ‘…Testing of alternative electricity mixes for the C40 Recharge in the use phase shows that the choice of electricity source when charging the car is a crucial factor in determining the total life cycle carbon footprint. A C40 Recharge that runs on wind power has only half the carbon footprint of an XC40 ICE for the function of 200,000km total driving distance. Scenarios for the European market indicate that the carbon intensity of electricity production may further decrease there. This would mean that there will
    likely be a continuous reduction of the BEVs carbon footprints even if no active choice of using renewable energy in the use phase is made, although an active choice for renewable electricity gives a much larger positive difference for the climate. Although total emissions from all phases except the use phase of the C40 Recharge are higher than for the XC40 ICE, the C40 Recharge will over the span of its lifetime cause less emissions thanks to lower emissions in the use phase. Where this break-even occurs depends on the difference in GHG emissions
    from the production of the car, and how carbon intense the electricity mix is in the use phase.

    (…)

    Total amount of GHG emissions, depending on total kilometres driven, from XC40 ICE (dashed line) and C40 Recharge (with different electricity mixes in the use phase).



    For all three electricity mixes in the LCA, the break- even occurs at 49,000, 77,000 and 110,000km respectively, all within the assumed life cycle of the vehicle (200,000km)...’

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