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Thread: Biomolecular insights into North African-related ancestry in 11th Century Al-Andalus.

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    Biomolecular insights into North African-related ancestry in 11th Century Al-Andalus.

    Biomolecularinsights into North African-related ancestry, mobility and diet ineleventh-century Al-Andalus


    Abstract
    Historical records document medieval immigration from North Africa to Iberia to create Islamic al-Andalus. Here, we present a low-coverage genome of an eleventh century CE man buried in an Islamic necropolis in Segorbe, near Valencia, Spain. Uniparental lineages indicate North African ancestry, but at the autosomal level he displays a mosaic of North African and European-like ancestries, distinct from any present-day population. Altogether, the genome-wide evidence, stable isotope results and the age of the burial indicate that his ancestry was ultimately a result of admixture between recently arrived Amazigh people (Berbers) and the population inhabiting the Peninsula prior to the Islamic conquest. We detect differences between our sample and a previously published group of contemporary individuals from Valencia,exemplifying how detailed, small-scale aDNA studies can illuminate fine-grained regional and temporal differences. His genome demonstrates how ancient DNA studies can capture portraits of past genetic variation that have been erased by later demographic shifts—in this case, most likely the seventeenth century CE expulsion of formerly Islamic communities as tolerance dissipated following the Reconquista by the Catholic kingdoms of the north.



    Although Arabs were the urban and political elite during the Umayyad Caliphate, ruling from 711 CE until the end of the Caliphate of Cordoba in 1031 CE, they are thought to have been a minority amongst the new settlers. Berbers formed the bulk of the army who first seized Visigothic Spain in the eighth century CE21. Berbers had converted to Islam as a result of the Arab conquest of North Africa in the preceding century and embarked in a slow and complex process of Arabisation that lasted centuries. However, they were far from culturally homogeneous; a deep division existed between nomadic and sedentary Berber groups, and it was the latter who first settled in the rural areas of Spain18. Although Berber numbers in Iberia were likely larger than those oft the Arabs, they initially wielded no significant political power, but this changed during the eleventh–thirteenth centuries CE with the establishment of the Almoravid and Almohad Berber empires18.


    Discussion

    We analysed individual UE2298/MS060 excavated from the Islamic necropolis of Plaza del Almudín, in Segorbe, dating to the eleventh century CE. The archaeologists responsible for the excavation in 1999 considered this individual unusual due to his considerable height compared with other individuals found at the same site (despite periods of disease and/or malnutrition in childhood)27,and dubbed him the “Segorbe Giant”. The subsequent anthropological analysis suggested some African morphological features and a link was postulated to the Berber-speaking populations that settled in the region in medieval times 26,27. Analysis of the uniparental markers from UE2298/MS060 fits well with this assumption, pointing to an origin in the Maghreb, most likely from a Berber group. MtDNA lineage U6a is not only connected to modern Amazigh populations 30,but has also been found in Moroccan remains associated with Iberomaurusian culture, and in the Moroccan Early Neolithic site ofIfri n’Amr or Moussa2,32 (Fig. 1b). He also carries the Y-chromosome E1b1b1b1 (E–M310) lineage. E1b1bis extremely common amongst extant North Africans and has been found in ancient North African and Levantine remains2,32,33,37 (SupplementaryFig. S7). Due to low coverage, we could only assign him to a basal position within E1b1b1b1, but it is possible that he may belong to a more derived subclade. One possibility would be E1b1b1b1a (E–M81), which is the most common haplogroup amongst modern Berber males today 42,53,and has been linked to Islamic remains in southern France38. Another would be its descendant E1b1b1b1a1-M183 lineage, identified in three Guanche males, in two Islamic individuals from Granada, and in an earlier sixth century CE male from the Visigoth phase of Pla del'Horta, in Catalonia 6,33.

    Although he carries both uniparental markers of North African origin, autosomal evidence paints a more complex picture. The individual is positioned in the PCA mid-way between modern/ancient Iberian populations, and Late Neolithic Moroccan, Guanches and modern North African individuals (Fig. 3a),and formal tests of admixture point to high proportions of Iberian-like ancestry (Fig. 4;Supplementary Table S7).
    Considering the archaeological and historical records for this period in the region of Valencia, we envisage three possible scenarios to explain the observed ancestry in UE2298/MS060. One would be to assume that this individual is a direct migrant from North Africa (whose unique genetic composition has not yet been examined using aDNA), or derives from a population that moved into Iberia but retained its genetic identity. A second scenario is that he descends from pre-Islamic Iberian genetic diversity. Finally, the third scenario is that he ist he result of admixture between Iberian and North African sources.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-95996-3

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    It is too bad it is not in BAM format, maybe Salento could help with converting the FASTQ file.

    Populations from North Africa, when compared of other west Eurasians, are best viewed in a 3D PCA.

    https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/vi...085?show=reads

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    Well, at first glance the discussion is more nuanced than the abstract.

    Autosomally, if I remember correctly, he's less "Berber" like than the samples found in the Islamic cemetery in France.


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    He was tall i jelous

    He was dubbed as “the Giant” by the archaeologists responsible for the excavation (here referred to as the “Segorbe Giant”), due to his unusual height (184–190 cm) compared with the other individuals found in the site (Barrachina 2004) (Supplementary Method
    ancestery :
    mostly western jewish here is the overlapp with south europe[U]

    "Know where you came from and where you are going."

    Direct paternal line : mizrahi from damascus

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    2 members found this post helpful.
    I predict the sample will surely exist on this orange line. This is the side view of a 3D PCA of West Eurasian populations; see the Z-axis.:


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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Well, at first glance the discussion is more nuanced than the abstract.
    Autosomally, if I remember correctly, he's less "Berber" like than the samples found in the Islamic cemetery in France.
    Unfortuntely 🤔
    We don't have there autosomal file
    Since the researcher never releasd them
    We only know there uniparental markers
    Y haplogroup and mtdna ...
    It is possible they were also southwest european admixed autosomally

    P.s
    Although chances are low since they are much earlier in time than this dude so they had less chance to mix with natives around them

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    2 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Jovialis View Post
    It is too bad it is not in BAM format, maybe Salento could help with converting the FASTQ file.

    Populations from North Africa, when compared of other west Eurasians, are best viewed in a 3D PCA.

    https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/vi...085?show=reads
    Hi Jovialis, … sent u a pm with Data.

    … low coverage and ENA says that MS060 admixture types is extinct.

    … MS060 was a Genius, … high IQ, though we’re all Smart here :)



    Code:
    MS060_Dod_K12b,14.19,3.22,12.10,6.53,42.24,0.00,0.00,3.29,18.44,0.00,0.00,0.00

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    Quote Originally Posted by Salento View Post
    Hi Jovialis, … sent u a pm with Data.

    … low coverage and ENA says that MS060 admixture types is extinct.

    … MS060 was a Genius, … high IQ, though we’re all Smart here :)



    Code:
    MS060_Dod_K12b,14.19,3.22,12.10,6.53,42.24,0.00,0.00,3.29,18.44,0.00,0.00,0.00

    Hi Salento. This giant was indeed unique.

    Distance to: MS060_Dod_K12b
    32.40672461 Spanish_Canarias
    32.49677369 Spanish_Asturias
    33.02812438 Duarte
    33.80348799 Spanish_Andalusia
    34.27320965 Portuguese
    34.29727540 Sardinian
    34.64341207 Spanish_Castilla-Leon
    34.80077298 Spanish_Galicia
    34.92755216 Moroccan
    35.15567380 Spanish_Valencia
    35.54483225 Spanish_Aragon
    36.41521523 Spanish_La_Rioja
    36.51573086 French_Corsica
    36.78470742 Spanish_Catalonia
    36.97950378 Spanish_Cantabria
    37.04114334 Spanish_Baleares
    37.20951088 Algerian
    37.66392571 French_Southwest
    38.24548862 Spanish_Basque
    38.25534342 Italian_Liguria
    38.64841006 Italian_Emilia
    38.69286239 Italian_Tuscany
    39.08841005 Italian_Piedmont
    39.28545914 Morocco_Jews
    39.48167803 Italian_Romagna






    Target: MS060_Dod_K12b
    Distance: 22.8079% / 22.80785884 | R2P
    53.7 Moroccan
    46.3 Spanish_Basque


    Target: MS060_Dod_K12b
    Distance: 20.4406% / 20.44055150
    39.0 Spanish_Basque
    31.9 Moroccan
    9.0 Kuwait2
    7.2 Sardinian
    7.0 Meena
    4.9 Dai
    1.0 Yukagir


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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Nice Duarte, … MS060 is a bit closer to Ancient samples,

    … portraits of past genetic variation that have been erased by later demographic shifts …


    Distance to: MS060_Dod_K12b
    23.61283761 I12645_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE
    24.79208946 I7423_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE
    25.08076953 RomanVillaGranadaSpain_I4055
    26.02724726 I3583_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    26.74427789 I7805_Sicily_EBA_Contrada_Paolina_Castellucciana
    26.93600007 I3578_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    27.23854438 I7500_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE
    27.53878356 I8147_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE
    28.43170589 I3879_Malak_Preslavets
    28.46250692 HispanoRomanMaghrebiCordobaCaliphate_I7497
    28.53120397 I3575_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    28.56757778 I7674_NE_Iberia_c.6-8CE_ES
    28.76668385 I3980_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    28.83534463 MedievalTaifaofValencia_I12649
    28.87918455 I2426_Balkans_Chalcolithic
    29.00413074 LateRomanIberiaGranada_I3576
    29.14109984 EarlyMedievalIberiaGranada_I3981
    29.20464689 I15939_Sardinia_BA_contam_Anghelu_Ruju
    29.50904268 I9128_Bronze_Age_Minoan_Moni_Odigitria_Heraklion_C rete
    29.67159922 I3574_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    29.67297087 I7800_Sicily_EBA_Contrada_Paolina_Castellucciana
    29.70212282 I3582_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    29.72514928 I3982_SE_Iberia_c.3-4CE
    29.98840609 CarthagoMaghrebiAndalusia_I7457
    29.99961833 LateRomanIberiaGranada_I3581

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Salento View Post
    Nice Duarte, … MS060 is a bit closer to Ancient samples,

    … portraits of past genetic variation that have been erased by later demographic shifts …


    Distance to: MS060_Dod_K12b
    23.61283761 I12645_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE
    24.79208946 I7423_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE
    25.08076953 RomanVillaGranadaSpain_I4055
    26.02724726 I3583_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    26.74427789 I7805_Sicily_EBA_Contrada_Paolina_Castellucciana
    26.93600007 I3578_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    27.23854438 I7500_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE
    27.53878356 I8147_SE_Iberia_c.10-16CE
    28.43170589 I3879_Malak_Preslavets
    28.46250692 HispanoRomanMaghrebiCordobaCaliphate_I7497
    28.53120397 I3575_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    28.56757778 I7674_NE_Iberia_c.6-8CE_ES
    28.76668385 I3980_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    28.83534463 MedievalTaifaofValencia_I12649
    28.87918455 I2426_Balkans_Chalcolithic
    29.00413074 LateRomanIberiaGranada_I3576
    29.14109984 EarlyMedievalIberiaGranada_I3981
    29.20464689 I15939_Sardinia_BA_contam_Anghelu_Ruju
    29.50904268 I9128_Bronze_Age_Minoan_Moni_Odigitria_Heraklion_C rete
    29.67159922 I3574_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    29.67297087 I7800_Sicily_EBA_Contrada_Paolina_Castellucciana
    29.70212282 I3582_SE_Iberia_c.5-8CE
    29.72514928 I3982_SE_Iberia_c.3-4CE
    29.98840609 CarthagoMaghrebiAndalusia_I7457
    29.99961833 LateRomanIberiaGranada_I3581
    a
    Despite the distances, the Iberian bias of this individual is evident.

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