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Thread: Ancient genomics reveals tripartite origins of Japanese populations.

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    Ancient genomics reveals tripartite origins of Japanese populations.

    Abstract

    Prehistoric Japan underwent rapid transformations in the past 3000 years, first from foraging to wet rice farming and then to state formation. A long-standing hypothesis posits that mainland Japanese populations derive dual ancestry from indigenous Jomon hunter-gatherer-fishers and succeeding Yayoi farmers. However, the genomic impact of agricultural migration and subsequent sociocultural changes remains unclear. We report 12 ancient Japanese genomes from pre- and postfarming periods. Our analysis finds that the Jomon maintained a small effective population size of ~1000 over several millennia, with a deep divergence from continental populations dated to 20,000 to 15,000 years ago, a period that saw the insularization of Japan through rising sea levels. Rice cultivation was introduced by people with Northeast Asian ancestry. Unexpectedly, we identify a later influx of East Asian ancestry during the imperial Kofun period. These three ancestral components continue to characterize present-day populations, supporting a tripartite model of Japanese genomic origins.


    An enduring hypothesis on the origin of modern Japanese populations proposes a dual-structure model (5), in which Japanese populations are the admixed descendants of the indigenous Jomon and later arrivals from the East Eurasian continent during the Yayoi period. This hypothesis was originally proposed on the basis of morphological data but has been widely tested and evaluated across disciplines [see a recent review in (6)]. Genetic studies have identified population stratifications within present-day Japanese populations, supporting at least two waves of migrations to the Japanese archipelago (710). Previous ancient DNA studies have also illustrated the genetic affinity of Jomon and Yayoi individuals to Japanese populations today (1115). Still, the demographic origins and impact of the agricultural transition and later state formation phase are largely unknown. From a historical linguistic standpoint, the arrival of proto-Japonic language is theorized to map to the development of Yayoi culture and the spread of wet rice cultivation (6). However, archaeological contexts and their continental affiliations are distinct between the Yayoi and Kofun periods (1); whether the spread of knowledge and technology was accompanied by major genetic exchange remains elusive.





    Here,we report 12 newly sequenced ancient Japanese genomes spanning 8000 years of the archipelago’s pre- and protohistory (Fig.1and Table1).To our knowledge, this is the largest set of time-stamped genomes from the archipelago, including the oldest Jomon individual and the first genomic data from the imperial Kofun period. We also include five published prehistoric Japanese genomes in our analysis: three Jomon individuals (F5 and F23 from the Late Jomon period and IK002 from the Final Jomon period) (1214),as well as two 2000-year-old individuals associated with the Yayoi culture from the northwestern part of Kyushu Island, where skeletal remains exhibit Jomon-like characters rather than immigrant types but other archaeological materials clearly support their association with the Yayoi culture (15, 16).Despite this morphological assessment (16),these two Yayoi individuals show an increased genetic affinity to present-day Japanese populations compared with the Jomon, implying that admixture with continental groups was already advanced by the Late Yayoi period (15).Integrating these Japanese genomes with a larger ancient genomic dataset spanning the Central and Eastern Steppe (17, 18),Siberia (19),Southeast Asia (12),and East Asia (15, 20, 21),our study aims to better characterize the preagricultural populations of the Jomon period, as well as the subsequent migrations and admixtures that have shaped the genetic profile of the archipelagotoday.
    Genetic distinction between different cultural periods

    We explored the genetic diversity within our time series data by looking at the shared genetic drift between all pairwise comparisons of individuals from both the ancient and modern (SGDP) Japanese populations using the statistic f3(Individual_1, Individual_2; Mbuti) (Fig. 2A). Our results very clearly define three distinct clusters of Jomon, Yayoi, and Kofun individuals, the last of whom group with the modern Japanese individuals, suggesting that cultural shifts were accompanied by genomic changes. Despite the large spatial and temporal variation in the Jomon dataset, extremely high levels of shared drift are observed between all 12 individuals. The Yayoi individuals are most closely related to each other and also have a higher affinity to the Jomon than to the Kofun individuals. The Kofun and modern Japanese individuals are almost indistinguishable from one another by this metric, implying some level of genetic continuity over the past 1400 years.




    https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.abh2419


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    Ancient genomics reveals tripartite origins of Japanese populations
    Table 1
    Table 1


    ASSOCIATED
    CULTURE
    SAMPLE ID DATE RANGE
    AND MEDIAN
    (CAL B.P.)
    COVERAGE MTDNA
    CONTAMINATION RATE
    (%)
    MOLECULAR SEX MTDNA
    HAPLOGROUP
    Y CHROMOSOME
    HAPLOGROUP
    REF.
    NEWLY SEQUENCED IN THIS STUDY
    JOMON JpKa6904 8646–8991; 8819 7.51 1.46 XX N9b3
    JPOD274 6119–6289; 6204 1.56 1.13 XY M7a D1b1d1
    JPOD6 5934–6179; 6057 1.18 1.55 XX N9b3
    JPOD181 5751–5917; 5834 1.83 0.91 XY N9b1 D1b1d1
    JPOD282 5737–5902; 5820 0.96 1.38 XY M7a1 D1b1d1
    JPFU1 5478–5590; 5534 1.13 2.15 XX M7a1
    JPKO2 4294–4514; 4404 2.47 1.44 XX N9b
    JPKO13 3847–3978; 3913 1.81 1.50 XX N9b1
    JPHI01 3685–3850; 3768 0.88 1.45 XX M7a1a
    KOFUN JpIw32 1347–1409; 1378 4.80 0.41 XY B5a2a1b O3a2c
    JPIW31 1303–1377; 1340 1.44 0.63 XX D5c1a
    JPIW33 1295–1355; 1325 1.54 0.75 XX M7b1a1a1
    PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED
    JOMON F23 3550–3960; 3755 34.82 1.20 XX N9b1 - (14)
    F5 3.74 2.45 XY N9b1 D1b2b (14)
    IK002 2418–2720; 2569 1.85 0.50 XX N9b1 (12)
    YAYOI Yayoi_1 0.01 2.92 XX M7a1a4 (15)
    YAYOI_2 1931–2001; 1966 0.07 2.33 XY D4a1 O (15)

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    Nice to see those D
    It realy look like
    A jomon marker
    places from where ancient samples were
    taken from this present research

    https://i.imgur.com/XPoSCOX.jpg



    p.s
    The 5000bc remain from saga city
    From another paper
    Was also D
    Source:
    https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article...icle/-char/ja/
    Last edited by kingjohn; 18-09-21 at 16:08.
    ancestery :
    mostly western jewish here is the overlapp with south europe[U]

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    The main point of this study is that there was a major influx of Han Chinese migrants from mainland China during the Kofun period from the 3rd to the 7th centuries. One Kofun sample from the period (KOFUN) carried Y-DNA haplogroup O3a2, which is a major Han lineage, covering 35% of the Han Chinese population today. Kofun are burial mounds built for members of the ruling class from the 3rd to the 7th centuries in Japan. These huge burial mounds were built by Han Chinese migrants who had a civilizing influence on ancient Japan.


    Mitochondrial haplogroups for all Jomon individuals belong to the N9b or M7a clades, which are strongly associated with this population (11–14, 22) and rare outside of Japan today (23). The three Jomon males (table S3) belong to the Y chromosome haplogroup D1b1, which is present in modern Japanese populations but almost absent in other East Asians (24). In contrast, the Kofun individuals all belong to mitochondrial haplogroups that are common in present-day East Asians (25), while the single Kofun male has the O3a2c Y chromosome haplogroup, which is also found throughout East Asia, particularly in mainland China (26).


    To further screen the source of additional ancestry in the Kofun individuals, we tested a three-way admixture by replacing the Yayoi ancestry with Jomon and Northeast Asian ancestry (table S10). Only Han were successfully modeled as a source of ancestry in the model (Fig. 5B), with a significantly better fitting of the three-way admixture than any possible two-way admixture models (table S11). Given that Jomon ancestry is diluted by approximately a factor of 4 between the Yayoi and Kofun populations sampled, these results suggest that the state formation phase saw a large influx of migrants who had East Asian ancestry.

    The most noticeable archaeological characteristic of Kofun culture is the custom of burying the elite in keyhole-shaped mounds, the size of which reflect hierarchical rank and political power (1). The three Kofun individuals sequenced in this study were not buried in those tumuli (see note S1), which suggests that they were lower-ranking people. Their genomes document the arrival of people with majority East Asian ancestry to Japan and their admixture with the Yayoi population (Fig. 5 and fig. S17). This additional ancestry is best represented in our analysis by Han, who have multiple ancestral components. A recent study has reported that people became morphologically homogeneous in the continent from the Neolithic onward (56), which implies that migrants during the Kofun period were already highly admixed.
    Давайте вместе снова сделаем мир великий!

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    This is very interesting.
    I just came here after seeing this new.
    Apparently there was a third contribution to the Japanese genome.
    And it's linked to the appearence of the centralized state.

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    here is another new paper
    this time with dna from ancient south korea and japan

    Triangulation supports agricultural spread of the Transeurasian languages

    Dataset is already available:
    https://assets.researchsquare.com/fi...f?c=1631873944

    Data and BAM files as well:

    https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB46162

    The origin and early dispersal of speakers of Transeurasian languages, i.e., Japanese, Korean, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic, is among the most disputed issues of Eurasian population history. A key problem is the relationship between linguistic dispersals agricultural expansions and population movements. Here we address this question through ‘triangulating’ genetics, archaeology and linguistics in a unified perspective. We report new, wide-ranging datasets from these disciplines, including the most comprehensive Transeurasian agropastoral and basic vocabulary presented to date, an archaeological database of 255 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites from Northeast Asia, and the first collection of ancient genomes from Korea, the Ryukyu islands and early cereal farmers in Japan, complementing previously published genomes from East Asia. Challenging the traditional ‘Pastoralist Hypothesis’, we show that the common ancestry and primary dispersals of Transeurasian languages can be traced back to the first farmers moving across Northeast Asia from the Early Neolithic onwards, but that this shared heritage has been masked by extensive cultural interaction since the Bronze Age. As well as marking significant progress in the three individual disciplines, by combining their converging evidence, we show that the early spread of Transeurasian speakers was driven by agriculture.


    someone in anthrogenica gone through those bam files
    here are the y haplogroup and mtdna

    Sample Country Dating Site Culture Gender Y-Haplo Y-SNP MT_Haplo

    AND001 Korea 6300-3000 BC Ando Neolithic Chulmun M O2a2a1a1b2b O-MF15475 low_quality
    AND004 Korea 6300-3000 BC Ando Neolithic Chulmun F low_quality
    DAJ001 Korea 767-541 calBC Daejukri Bronze Age M C2a C-L1373 low_quality
    GDI002 Korea 4689-4531 calBC Janghang Neolithic Chulmun M low_quality low_quality D4b1
    GDI008 Korea 4461-4354 calBC Janghang Neolithic Chulmun M D1a2a1 D-M116.1 D4b2a
    TYD006 Korea 5000 BC? Yeondae-do Neolithic Chulmun M C1a1~ C-M8 D4e2d
    TYD007 Korea 5000 BC? Yeondae-do Neolithic Chulmun M C1a1~ C-M8 D4
    TYJ001 Korea ~2000 BC? Yokchido Neolithic F M7a
    YAK002 Japan 200-100 BC Kuma−Nishioda Yayoi M low_quality low_quality low_quality
    YAK006 Japan 200-1 BC Kuma−Nishioda Yayoi M low_quality low_quality low_quality
    NAG007 Japan - Nagabaka Late Neolithic M O1b2a1a1a O-CTS1875 D4d
    NAG012 Japan - Nagabaka Late Neolithic M D1a2a1 D-M64.1 low_quality
    NAG016 Japan 2026-1906 calBC Nagabaka Early Neolithic F low_quality
    NAG019 Japan 796-560 calBC Nagabaka Late Neolithic F M7a+16324
    NAG035 Japan 1650-1950 calAD Nagabaka Early modern M C1a1a1a1 C-Y170131 D4d
    NAG036 Japan 1666-1950 calAD Nagabaka Early modern M O1b2a1a O-F1204 M7a1a2
    NAG037 Japan - Nagabaka Late Neolithic M D1a2a1 D-M64.1 M7a1a
    NAG038 Japan 821-794 calBC Nagabaka Late Neolithic F M7a1a
    NAG039 Japan 1664-1950 calAD Nagabaka Early modern M O1b2a1a1b O-Z24598 D5a1a1


    there autosomal profile



    p.s
    cool to see a D case in south east korea in 4000 bc
    gadeokdo island
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadeokdo

    https://i.imgur.com/6al8oQW.jpg

    probably jomon influence
    Last edited by kingjohn; 18-09-21 at 15:32.

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    Quote Originally Posted by ThirdTerm View Post
    The main point of this study is that there was a major influx of Han Chinese migrants from mainland China during the Kofun period from the 3rd to the 7th centuries. One Kofun sample from the period (KOFUN) carried Y-DNA haplogroup O3a2, which is a major Han lineage, covering 35% of the Han Chinese population today. Kofun are burial mounds built for members of the ruling class from the 3rd to the 7th centuries in Japan. These huge burial mounds were built by Han Chinese migrants who had a civilizing influence on ancient Japan.
    There is no shinto for ancient chinese in japan. The important thing is artifacts inside in the Kofun. We don't need to see whole thing, but their crowns.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    this time with dna from ancient south korea and japan

    The origin and early dispersal of speakers of Transeurasian languages, i.e., Japanese, Korean, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic, is among the most disputed issues of Eurasian population history. A key problem is the relationship between linguistic dispersals agricultural expansions and population movements. Here we address this question through ‘triangulating’ genetics, archaeology and linguistics in a unified perspective. We report new, wide-ranging datasets from these disciplines, including the most comprehensive Transeurasian agropastoral and basic vocabulary presented to date, an archaeological database of 255 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites from Northeast Asia, and the first collection of ancient genomes from Korea, the Ryukyu islands and early cereal farmers in Japan, complementing previously published genomes from East Asia. Challenging the traditional ‘Pastoralist Hypothesis’, we show that the common ancestry and primary dispersals of Transeurasian languages can be traced back to the first farmers moving across Northeast Asia from the Early Neolithic onwards, but that this shared heritage has been masked by extensive cultural interaction since the Bronze Age. As well as marking significant progress in the three individual disciplines, by combining their converging evidence, we show that the early spread of Transeurasian speakers was driven by agriculture.




    Hongshan heavily impacted upon china, korea and japan. Hongshan has a jade culture which means king's culture in china
    (jade is 玉, 王 is a King)

    Hongshan ancestors spread haplogroup
    O across China approximately 5300 years ago, with diffusion
    of Sinitic languages. More than 40% of present Han
    Chinese can be assigned to clades spread by Hongshan
    ancestors NRY (Yan et al. 2014). Haplotype O2a-M324
    occurred among aristocrats at both the Niuheliang site
    and the Banlashan site, the two largest mausoleums of
    Hongshan.
    In summary, millet farming in northern China resulted
    in the gathering of diverse lineages of people and in the
    development of the Sino-Tibetan ethnic groups in the
    Neolithic Age, with a leading lineage of haplogroup O2a-
    M324 and subgroup M117.





    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...e_Y_chromosome

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    The funniest part of the paper was "unexpectedly" if talking about the genetic impact of Kofun.
    Unexpectedly, we identify a later influx of East Asian ancestry during the imperial Kofun period.
    As if people still can't believe that most major cultural shifts were accompanied by some sort of demic diffusion, conquests most of the time. This was speculated long ago, long before ancient DNA came out. Most technological shifts were used by those getting it first to expand and dominate, that's just logical. It was way more complicated, but just to name some prominent aspects related to this:

    This conclusion is thus in line with ancient records testifying that there were no horses in Japan about 2,000 years ago as well as archaeological and historical evidence that native horses on the Asian continent were frequently transported to Japan via the Korean peninsula.
    Nihonshoki chronicle records that the king of Silla, upon being defeated by Empress Jingu, presented the horse to her as a gift. The introduction of mounted cavalry and advanced military strategies has been attributed to this act. Also, according to both the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, during Emperor Suijins reign, Geunchogo of Paekche presented stallions and broodmares with horse trainers to the Japanese emperor.
    https://heritageofjapan.wordpress.co...rive-in-japan/

    Most Japanese horses are descended from Chinese and Korean imports, and there was some cross-breeding with indigenous horses which had existed in Japan since the Stone Age.[19] Although records of horses in Japan are found as far back as the Jōmon period, they played little or no role in early Japanese agriculture or military conflicts until horses from the continent were introduced in the 4th century.[20] The Kojiki and Nihon Shoki mention horses in battle.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horses..._Asian_warfare

    In this case it was rather a stream of settlers and specialists, mainly from Korea, which brought Japan on the continental cultural level, rather than conquest probably.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Riverman View Post
    The funniest part of the paper was "unexpectedly" if talking about the genetic impact of Kofun.


    As if people still can't believe that most major cultural shifts were accompanied by some sort of demic diffusion, conquests most of the time. This was speculated long ago, long before ancient DNA came out. Most technological shifts were used by those getting it first to expand and dominate, that's just logical. It was way more complicated, but just to name some prominent aspects related to this:
    indeed it was speculated long ago, untill this assumption was not 'politicaly correct'
    the 'unbiassed scientist' doesn't exist any more

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    Quote Originally Posted by Riverman View Post
    The funniest part of the paper was "unexpectedly" if talking about the genetic impact of Kofun..
    As if people still can't believe that most major cultural shifts were accompanied by some sort of demic diffusion, conquests most of the time. This was speculated long ago, long before ancient DNA came out. Most technological shifts were used by those getting it first to expand and dominate, that's just logical. It was way more complicated, but just to name some prominent aspects related to this:
    https://heritageofjapan.wordpress.com/following-the-trail-of-tumuli/rebellion-in-kyushu-and-the-rise-of-royal-estates/in-the-news-ancient-horse-trappings-dug-up-at-burial-mound/when-did-horses-arrive-in-japan/
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horses..._Asian_warfare

    In this case it was rather a stream of settlers and specialists, mainly from Korea, which brought Japan on the continental cultural level, rather than conquest probably.
    In addition to horse, I think brutal steppe culture was also provided like scythian, mongol (skull pyramid), turk and american indian. I think it started 5,300years ago.

    The
    Mimizuka (耳塚, "Ear Mound", often translated as "Ear Tomb"), an alteration of the original Hanazuka (鼻塚, "Nose Mound")[1][2][3] is a monument in Kyoto, Japan, dedicated to the sliced noses of killed Korean soldiers and civilians[4][5] as well as Ming Chinese troops[6] taken as war trophies during the Japanese invasions of Korea from 1592 to 1598
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimizuka

    Nanjing Massacre:
    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/...fig1_314835643
    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/...fig6_315719146


    " East Asia, geographically extending to the Pamir Plateau in the west, to the Himalayan Mountains in the southwest, to Lake Baikal in the north and to the South China Sea in the south, harbors a variety of people, cultures, and languages. To reconstruct the natural history of East Asians is a mission of multiple disciplines, including genetics, archaeology, linguistics, and ethnology. Geneticists confirm the recent African origin of modern East Asians. Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa and immigrated into East Asia via a southern route approximately 50,000 years ago. Following the end of the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 12,000 years ago, rice and millet were domesticated in the south and north of East Asia, respectively, which allowed human populations to expand and linguistic families and ethnic groups to develop. These Neolithic populations produced a strong relation between the present genetic structures and linguistic families. The expansion of the Hongshan people from northeastern China relocated most of the ethnic populations on a large scale approximately 5300 years ago. Most of the ethnic groups migrated to remote regions, producing genetic structure differences between the edge and center of East Asia. In central China, pronounced population admixture occurred and accelerated over time, which subsequently formed the Han Chinese population and eventually the Chinese civilization. Population migration between the north and the south throughout history has left a smooth gradient in north–south changes in genetic structure. Observation of the process of shaping the genetic structure of East Asians may help in understanding the global natural history of modern humans"

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    Quote Originally Posted by johen View Post


    " East Asia, geographically extending to the Pamir Plateau in the west, to the Himalayan Mountains in the southwest, to Lake Baikal in the north and to the South China Sea in the south, harbors a variety of people, cultures, and languages. To reconstruct the natural history of East Asians is a mission of multiple disciplines, including genetics, archaeology, linguistics, and ethnology. Geneticists confirm the recent African origin of modern East Asians. Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa and immigrated into East Asia via a southern route approximately 50,000 years ago. Following the end of the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 12,000 years ago, rice and millet were domesticated in the south and north of East Asia, respectively, which allowed human populations to expand and linguistic families and ethnic groups to develop. These Neolithic populations produced a strong relation between the present genetic structures and linguistic families. The expansion of the Hongshan people from northeastern China relocated most of the ethnic populations on a large scale approximately 5300 years ago. Most of the ethnic groups migrated to remote regions, producing genetic structure differences between the edge and center of East Asia. In central China, pronounced population admixture occurred and accelerated over time, which subsequently formed the Han Chinese population and eventually the Chinese civilization. Population migration between the north and the south throughout history has left a smooth gradient in north–south changes in genetic structure. Observation of the process of shaping the genetic structure of East Asians may help in understanding the global natural history of modern humans"
    Didn't the Hongshan have predominant Y-DNA N?
    If they expanded and replaced other people, wouldn't there be more Y-DNA N be observed in neolithic and bronze age northern China?

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    N seems to be predominant until 4,000bp. As I posted above, authors focuses upon Hongshan jade culture and O2a-M324.





    So I think modern northeast asians like manchu and korean are more close to early neolithic northern east asian ( picture C) than Han and japanese.









    Ancestry localized to the north and south in the Early Neolithic is found in admixed form across northern and southern East Asia today. (A to C) A heatmap showing f4(Mbuti, X; Qihe, Bianbian), where Bianbian is the oldest northern East Asian sampled (~9,500 BP) and Qihe is the oldest southern East Asian sampled (~8,400 BP). X are East and Southeast Asians who date to the Early Neolithic (A), Late Neolithic (B), or present-day (C). Green indicates more affinity to Early Neolithic northern East Asians, whereas blue indicates greater affinity to Early Neolithic southern East Asians.

    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/...fig2_341390966

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    Quote Originally Posted by Riverman View Post
    The funniest part of the paper was "unexpectedly" if talking about the genetic impact of Kofun.

    "Nihonshoki chronicle records that the king of "Silla", upon being defeated by Empress Jingu, presented the horse to her as a gift.
    The introduction of mounted cavalry and advanced military strategies has been attributed to this act. Also, according to both the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, during Emperor Suijin�s reign, Geunchogo of Paekche presented stallions and broodmares with horse trainers to the Japanese emperor."
    Japan National Treasure No. 1

    https://kknews.cc/fo/o2k8agp.html


    silla :

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    Quote Originally Posted by johen View Post
    In addition to horse, I think brutal steppe culture was also provided like scythian, mongol (skull pyramid), turk and american indian. I think it started 5,300years ago.


    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mimizuka

    Nanjing Massacre:
    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/...fig1_314835643
    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/...fig6_315719146


    " East Asia, geographically extending to the Pamir Plateau in the west, to the Himalayan Mountains in the southwest, to Lake Baikal in the north and to the South China Sea in the south, harbors a variety of people, cultures, and languages. To reconstruct the natural history of East Asians is a mission of multiple disciplines, including genetics, archaeology, linguistics, and ethnology. Geneticists confirm the recent African origin of modern East Asians. Anatomically modern humans arose in Africa and immigrated into East Asia via a southern route approximately 50,000 years ago. Following the end of the Last Glacial Maximum approximately 12,000 years ago, rice and millet were domesticated in the south and north of East Asia, respectively, which allowed human populations to expand and linguistic families and ethnic groups to develop. These Neolithic populations produced a strong relation between the present genetic structures and linguistic families. The expansion of the Hongshan people from northeastern China relocated most of the ethnic populations on a large scale approximately 5300 years ago.
    kofun crown:


    similar to silla crown:
    https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-re...-57992199.html

    another silla crown:


    and ALTAI:
    https://miro.medium.com/max/750/1*mw...VAfIX7i3w.jpeg
    https://medium.com/@mark.john.wisema...n-b884766b7ada

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    new paper
    cool with facial constructions

    Diverse northern Asian and Jomon-related genetic structure discovered among socially complex Three Kingdoms period Gaya region Koreans

    Abstract

    The genetic history of prehistoric and protohistoric Korean populations is not well understood due to the lack of ancient Korean genomes. Here, we report the first paleogenomic data from Korea; eight shotgun-sequenced genomes (0.7×∼6.1× coverage) from two archeological sites in Gimhae: Yuha-ri shell mound and Daesung-dong tumuli, the most important funerary complex of the Gaya confederacy. All eight individuals are from the Korean Three Kingdoms period (4th-7th century CE), during which there is archaeological evidence of extensive trade connections with both northern (modern-day China) and eastern (modern-day Japan) kingdoms. All genomes are best modeled as an admixture between a northern-Chinese Iron Age genetic source and a Japanese-Jomon-related ancestry. The proportion of Jomon-related ancestry suggests the presence of two genetic groups within the population. The observed substructure indicates diversity among the Gaya population that is not related to either social status or sex.




    from the pdf file ( page 7)

    Uniparental markers All the samples have typical East Asian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (TableS3) : D (n=5), B, F, and M when we determined the haplogroups from the consensus sequences obtained from Schmutzi (27) with HaploGrep2 (28). All the identified mtDNA haplogroups prevail among present-day Koreans (9, 11). The most common Korean mtDNA haplogroup is D4, which we identified in four of the individuals. This haplogroup is also common among Japanese Yayoi farmers, while absent in Jomon (29). Out of the three male individuals in this study, we successfully called Y chromosome haplogroups for two: AKG_10203 (D1a2a1) and AKG_10204 (O1b2a1a2a1b1). The third male, AKG_10218,could not offer fine resolution, but was nonetheless able to be assigned an O haplogroup.Haplogroup O is the most common Y haplogroup shared by more than 73% of Koreanmales (9), and haplogroup D is more common in the present-day Japanesepopulation (30).

    source:

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...465563v1?rss=1
    Last edited by kingjohn; 30-10-21 at 07:31.

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