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Thread: Large-Scale Migration into Southern Britain During the Middle to Late Bronze Age.

  1. #1
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    6 members found this post helpful.

    Large-Scale Migration into Southern Britain During the Middle to Late Bronze Age.

    ​Abstract


    Present-day populations from England and Wales harbour more ancestry derived from Early European Farmers (EEF) than did people of the Early Bronze Age. To study how this occurred, we generated genome-wide data from 803 individuals, almost all from the Middle to Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age, increasing data in this period from Britain by 12-fold, and from Western and Central Europe by more than two-fold. Between 1000-875 BCE, EEF ancestry increased in southern Britain (England and Wales) but not in northern Britain (Scotland), due to incorporation into the population of a stream of migrants who arrived at this time and in previous centuries and who were genetically most similar to ancient individuals from France. These migrants cumulatively contributed about half the ancestry of Iron Age people of England and Wales, thereby documenting a previously unknown demographic process that is a plausible vector for the spread of early Celtic languages into Britain. These patterns are part of a broader trend of EEF ancestry proportions becoming more similar across Central and Western Europe in the Middle to Late Bronze Age, coincident with intensification of cultural exchange and highlighting this period as a peak of interaction and mobility. We find no evidence of a comparable rate of migration into Britain in the Iron Age. The distinct genetic trajectories of Britain and continental Europe in the Iron Age are also exemplified by the fact that the allele conferring lactase persistence rose to ~50% frequency in Britain by this time whereas it was only ~7% in Central Europe and underwent a comparable rise in frequency only a millennium later, a pattern that could only occur if there were qualitative differences in how dairy products were used in Britain and in Central Europe.

    https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browser/view/PRJEB47891

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    2 members found this post helpful.
    That's probably the Hallstatt expansion. The paper hasn't been published yet. I'd love to see the Y-DNA haplogroups of the newcomers. So far we have hardly any Y-DNA of Iron Age Celts from Britain, Gaul, the Alps or northern Italy.
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    We are going to see a lot of r1b-L21
    ancestery :
    mostly western jewish here is the overlapp with south europe[U]

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    We are going to see a lot of r1b-L21
    Maybe not only: possible changes from BA to IA??? some rare Y-haplo's ("exotic") and more U-152 and other R1b? (Belgae : more U152?)

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    I hope teenpan from anthrogenica
    Or someone else
    Would anlayse all those bam files
    To see the y haplogroups and also mtdna
    types

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    Quote Originally Posted by MOESAN View Post
    Maybe not only: possible changes from BA to IA??? some rare Y-haplo's ("exotic") and more U-152 and other R1b? (Belgae : more U152?)
    Between 1000-875 BCE would be a bit early for Belgae.
    But I'd expect U-152 too.
    L21 was already predominant in the British Isles since 2000 BC.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Maciamo View Post
    That's probably the Hallstatt expansion. The paper hasn't been published yet. I'd love to see the Y-DNA haplogroups of the newcomers. So far we have hardly any Y-DNA of Iron Age Celts from Britain, Gaul, the Alps or northern Italy.

    Halstatt expansion ? , was it phase 1 1000BC ( everybody likes to forget this phase ).... or phase 2, 800BC ................or is it 400 years a later under La Tene ?

    If La Tene and Halstatt are the same people ? ......as they are over 400 years apart in time

    maybe it was just plain old Southern-Germany celtish lands

    or even celtish central-Germany from Glauberg
    Fathers mtdna ...... T2b17
    Grandfather mtdna ... T1a1e
    Sons mtdna ...... K1a4p
    Mothers line ..... R1b-S8172
    Grandmother paternal side ... I1-CTS6397
    Wife paternal line ..... R1a-Z282

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    I remember the fights on dna forums over this issue as if it were yesterday. :)

    It seems it was basically over by the Iron Age, so if it is "Hallstadt" related it would be A and B. The following is from Koch. No idea how accurate it is.

    "Hallstatt A–B (1200–800 BC) are part of the Bronze AgeUrnfield culture. In this period, people were cremated and buried in simple graves. In phase B, tumulus (barrow or kurgan) burial becomes common, and cremation predominates. The "Hallstatt period" proper is restricted to HaC and HaD (800–450 BC), corresponding to the early European Iron Age. Hallstatt lies in the area where the western and eastern zones of the Hallstatt culture meet, which is reflected in the finds from there.[7] Hallstatt D is succeeded by the La Tène culture."

    They were lucky to get samples if this much cremation was practiced.

    The unanswered question is where did the Central European Hallstadt type people get their additional EEF? Is it a "resurgence" again based on the "locals" coming back out of the shadows, as with WHG? If it is, then I guess Italy is the only place where it can't happen. :)

    The yDna is also interesting. Going by my memory, which may be faulty, there is a difference autosomally between the English and Welsh and the far northern English, i.e. Border areas in particular, and the Scots, although the differences are small so I would think migration within the island must have erased some of the differences. Is there a difference in the Ydna?

    Again from memory, the first steppe admixed people who arrived in Britain already carried a lot of R1b L21.

    So, did the newcomers have U-152 perhaps? I didn't think there was enough of it to make such a difference given that our Eupedia map shows an east west cline with a maximum of 10% in a small area of Britain, shading to 5% and then disappearing in the west.



    Of course, the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes might have wiped it out. It would be informative to know the breakdown of the y in Wales given some parts of it were less impacted by movement from "England".


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    Quote Originally Posted by torzio View Post
    Halstatt expansion ? , was it phase 1 1000BC ( everybody likes to forget this phase ).... or phase 2, 800BC ................or is it 400 years a later under La Tene ?
    If La Tene and Halstatt are the same people ? ......as they are over 400 years apart in time
    maybe it was just plain old Southern-Germany celtish lands
    or even celtish central-Germany from Glauberg
    the abstract says between 1000-875 BCE
    the surprise is that it is such a massive migration into the far outskirts of Hallstatt culture
    it seems Hallstatt was not just for a small elite, it was progress for miners and farmers too
    400 BC seems to have been more tumultuous, when the princely seats dissapeared and the Gauls expanded as far as Belgium, northern Italy and the Carpathian Basin

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur 2 View Post
    the abstract says between 1000-875 BCE
    the surprise is that it is such a massive migration into the far outskirts of Hallstatt culture
    it seems Hallstatt was not just for a small elite, it was progress for miners and farmers too
    400 BC seems to have been more tumultuous, when the princely seats dissapeared and the Gauls expanded as far as Belgium, northern Italy and the Carpathian Basin
    Phase 1 then......celtish migration into illyrian Noricum .......miners of Noric steel

    IIRC....there is a burial of a few thousand "halstatt" people

    so....you saying Halstatt times where more peaceful .................while La Tene was not?

    Halstatt celts went into the balkans towards greece...the black sea and asia minor

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    5 members found this post helpful.
    teenpan from anthrogenica mtdna types ( by anlaysing the bam files ) afcorse there might been
    a mistake here and there
    ( about the y haplogroups i am not posting it yet since it doesn't look logic
    to me with many haplogroups so i wait patiently for the paper )


    I0231:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): U4a1-a
    I0371:Result ( 95.3% 61 -0 +3): U2d2-a
    I0418:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): T1a1
    I0438:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): U5a1a1
    I0440:Result ( 94.7% 54 -0 +3): I3a
    I0525:Result ( 91.0% 63 -1 +4): U2e1e1
    I0527:Result ( 71.4% 20 -0 +8): U2e-a
    I10342:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): W6a
    I10343:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): J1c5
    I10344:Result ( 92.2% 47 -0 +4): H3-b
    I10345:Result ( 90.6% 50 -1 +3): H1e1a
    I10347:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): T1a-b
    I10348:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1e
    I11033:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a3b
    I11034:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a3b
    I11142:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H3b-a
    I11143:Result (100.0% 48 -0 +0): H3b-a
    I11144:Result (100.0% 47 -0 +0): H5'36
    I11145:Result ( 90.4% 47 -0 +5): H1-f
    I11146:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): J1c1c
    I11147:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U5a1b1e
    I11148:Result ( 96.3% 52 -0 +2): H2a2a1
    I11149:Result ( 92.2% 49 -1 +2): V16d
    I11150:Result ( 98.1% 51 -0 +1): H15a1
    I11151:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): K1-a4
    I11152:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): U3a1
    I11153:Result ( 92.2% 47 -0 +4): H3-b
    I11154:Result ( 98.1% 51 -0 +1): H5a1z
    I11156:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): J1c3
    I11158:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): U5b2c3a
    I11159:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): U5a1a2a
    I11160:Result ( 96.5% 57 -1 +0): K1c1
    I11629:Result ( 95.2% 61 -1 +1): T2e1
    I11631:Result ( 98.4% 61 -0 +1): T2b
    I11683:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): K1-a4
    I11699:Result ( 92.7% 51 -0 +4): H11a2
    I11701:Result ( 98.4% 61 -0 +1): T2b
    I11708:Result ( 93.1% 56 -1 +2): U7b
    I11710:Result ( 92.5% 49 -0 +4): H5-a
    I11712:Result ( 88.0% 48 -2 +2): HV0a4
    I11713:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): V18a
    I11715:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): V
    I11716:Result ( 88.9% 48 -0 +6): H55b
    I11717:Result ( 90.9% 52 -1 +3): H1n6a
    I11719:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): J1c2
    I11721:Result ( 95.0% 59 -1 +1): K1c2
    I11722:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): U5a1b1
    I11971:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H3
    I11972:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): U5b2b1
    I11973:Result ( 96.3% 52 -0 +2): H5a1f2
    I11991:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H3b-a
    I11992:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H3b-a
    I11993:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): J1c2a2
    I11994:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): U5a2c3a
    I11995:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H2a5
    I11997:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): X2b-a
    I12081:Result ( 91.8% 56 -0 +5): U5a1c3b
    I12082:Result ( 91.7% 57 -1 +3): K1d
    I12083:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): J2b1a1
    I12097:Result ( 97.8% 45 -0 +1): HV10
    I12098:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U5a1a1
    I12099:Result ( 91.2% 54 -1 +3): W-a
    I12102:Result ( 82.4% 42 -0 +9): J1c15c
    I12103:Result ( 90.5% 59 -1 +4): K1a2c1
    I12104:Result ( 88.3% 53 -0 +7): T2b
    I12105:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H1
    I12106:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): N1b1a5b
    I12107:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): H34
    I12110:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): J1c12
    I12171:Result ( 93.3% 58 -1 +2): J1c1b
    I12312:Result ( 98.2% 55 -0 +1): K1-a4
    I12313:Result ( 98.4% 61 -0 +1): T2b
    I12314:Result ( 98.4% 61 -0 +1): T2b
    I12317:Result ( 95.9% 49 -1 +0): H5m
    I12411:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H2a3b
    I12412:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): K1c1a
    I12413:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H2a3b
    I12414:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H2a3b
    I12415:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): J1c9
    I12608:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3ap
    I12610:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): J1c1
    I12611:Result ( 94.6% 55 -1 +1): I2d1b1
    I12612:Result ( 87.5% 60 -2 +4): U1a1a
    I12613:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H1-e
    I12614:Result ( 93.3% 58 -1 +2): K1a1b1-b
    I12624:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3
    I12770:Result ( 98.1% 53 -0 +1): H3b1b1
    I12771:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): U5b2a2a3
    I12772:Result ( 92.5% 64 -1 +3): T2c1d-a
    I12774:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H10b
    I12775:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): U5a1b1e1
    I12776:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): U4a2c2
    I12778:Result ( 96.3% 54 -1 +0): H4a1a2
    I12779:Result ( 98.4% 63 -0 +1): T2b4c
    I12783:Result ( 94.7% 56 -1 +1): J1c5
    I12785:Result ( 98.4% 60 -0 +1): J1c1b2
    I12786:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): J1c2
    I12787:Result ( 98.1% 52 -0 +1): H2a2a1
    I12790:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a1u
    I12791:Result ( 94.2% 51 -1 +1): H1e1a-b
    I12792:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a1u
    I12793:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a1u
    I12900:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): U5b2b1a1
    I12903:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): U5b1c2b
    I12905:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H27
    I12906:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): W1c
    I12907:Result ( 93.4% 59 -1 +2): N1a1a1a3b1
    I12926:Result ( 96.3% 52 -0 +2): H2a2a2a
    I12927:Result ( 93.2% 57 -1 +2): U5b3b1
    I12931:Result ( 96.3% 52 -0 +2): H6a2
    I12932:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1bs
    I12935:Result ( 98.1% 51 -0 +1): H1ah2
    I12936:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): J1c5f
    I13025:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): K2b1a
    I13026:Result ( 92.3% 60 -0 +5): J1b1a1
    I13027:Result ( 93.8% 62 -1 +2): T2b4-a1
    I13028:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H1a
    I13467:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H-a
    I13468:Result ( 98.2% 55 -0 +1): U5a1b1
    I13469:Result ( 88.3% 57 -2 +3): J1c15c
    I13470:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H-h
    I13471:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): V
    I13615:Result (100.0% 49 -0 +0): H1c41
    I13616:Result ( 92.6% 50 -0 +4): H1b1-a
    I13617:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H-h
    I13618:Result ( 70.2% 37 -2 +10): U4a2j
    I13620:Result ( 93.9% 64 -1 +2): T2c1d-a
    I13621:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): K1a4a1
    I13623:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H1
    I13680:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): U5a2a1
    I13681:Result ( 93.6% 44 -0 +3): H3b-a
    I13682:Result ( 94.3% 50 -0 +3): H5a1
    I13683:Result ( 80.0% 22 -1 +3): H1h1d
    I13684:Result ( 96.4% 55 -1 +0): W1n
    I13685:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): U5a1b1e
    I13687:Result ( 94.8% 55 -0 +3): W1-a
    I13688:Result ( 88.7% 49 -1 +4): H1-a6
    I13689:Result ( 93.7% 59 -0 +4): K1a3a7a
    I13690:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H1b3b
    I13710:Result ( 90.6% 50 -1 +3): I4a
    I13711:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H61
    I13712:Result ( 92.6% 65 -1 +3): U5b2b3a
    I13713:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): H1c
    I13714:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H1c8
    I13716:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H11a
    I13717:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): U5a1a1
    I13720:Result ( 90.2% 59 -2 +2): U4b1a2-a
    I13726:Result ( 94.3% 52 -1 +1): H13a1a1
    I13727:Result ( 93.7% 59 -0 +4): T1a1
    I13728:Result ( 96.9% 62 -0 +2): T2a1a
    I13729:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H1ag1
    I13730:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1bb
    I13731:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): U5a1a1g
    I13732:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): U5b2c1
    I13751:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H2a3b
    I13752:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): J1c9
    I13753:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a3b
    I13754:Result ( 95.4% 62 -0 +3): U5b2b3-a1
    I13755:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H2a3b
    I13756:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): K1c1a
    I13757:Result ( 92.4% 65 -2 +1): T2c1d1a
    I13758:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H2a3b
    I13759:Result ( 94.3% 50 -0 +3): H2a3b
    I13760:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H2a3b
    I13780:Result ( 93.3% 56 -0 +4): K1a26
    I13781:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): T1a1
    I13783:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H1-e
    I13786:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H1q5
    I13787:Result ( 92.0% 48 -1 +2): H26c
    I13788:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): X2b-a8
    I13789:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): J1c5
    I13791:Result (100.0% 59 -0 +0): K1a4a1
    I13792:Result ( 93.8% 61 -0 +4): U5b2b1a1
    I13793:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H1-e
    I13794:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H2a6
    I13795:Result ( 91.4% 55 -1 +3): J1c8
    I13796:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H-c1
    I13798:Result ( 98.2% 55 -0 +1): U5a2b1a
    I13799:Result ( 91.0% 63 -1 +4): U2e1a1g
    I13889:Result ( 97.0% 64 -0 +2): K1b1a1
    I13890:Result ( 98.4% 62 -0 +1): T2e1c
    I13891:Result ( 96.4% 53 -0 +2): U5b1-a1
    I13892:Result ( 98.4% 62 -0 +1): T2e1c
    I13893:Result ( 91.7% 57 -1 +3): K1a4r
    I13897:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): V
    I13898:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): K1a3a1
    I13899:Result ( 93.4% 57 -0 +4): U3a1
    I1389:Result ( 98.1% 51 -0 +1): X2b4a
    I1391:Result ( 95.0% 57 -0 +3): J1c4i
    I14096:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): H4a1a2a
    I14097:Result (100.0% 49 -0 +0): H66a1
    I14099:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a3b
    I14100:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): J1c9
    I14101:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a3b
    I14102:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): K1c1a
    I14103:Result ( 91.1% 51 -0 +5): H1e1a15
    I14104:Result ( 86.3% 48 -2 +3): H1ao
    I14105:Result ( 94.3% 50 -0 +3): H2a3b
    I14106:Result ( 92.1% 58 -0 +5): K1c1a
    I14107:Result ( 93.3% 58 -1 +2): K1c1a
    I14108:Result ( 92.5% 49 -0 +4): V2a
    I14185:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): K1c1
    I14186:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): W3a1a
    I14188:Result ( 95.2% 59 -0 +3): K1a1b2a
    I14189:Result ( 88.5% 56 -1 +5): K1a4
    I14190:Result ( 98.4% 60 -0 +1): T2e
    I14191:Result ( 89.8% 55 -1 +4): R1b1a
    I14192:Result ( 96.3% 52 -0 +2): H1j2a
    I14193:Result ( 96.8% 61 -0 +2): T2e4
    I14200:Result ( 95.3% 63 -1 +1): K1b1a
    I14326:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H1c
    I14327:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H5
    I14347:Result ( 89.8% 55 -1 +4): K2a
    I14348:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): U3a1c
    I14351:Result ( 89.8% 55 -1 +4): K2a
    I14352:Result ( 93.0% 55 -1 +2): K2a
    I14353:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U5b2a1a1
    I14358:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H3
    I14359:Result ( 88.5% 54 -0 +7): J1c1
    I14360:Result ( 95.0% 57 -0 +3): J1c1
    I14377:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): U5b1b1d
    I14378:Result ( 94.8% 55 -0 +3): I2d1b1
    I14379:Result ( 86.6% 64 -3 +3): T2c1d-a
    I14380:Result ( 95.2% 61 -1 +1): T2e1
    I14381:Result ( 96.8% 61 -0 +2): U5b2b1a1
    I14464:Result ( 71.4% 30 -0 +12): H1bc
    I14465:Result ( 94.6% 53 -0 +3): U5a2b
    I14467:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): K1a4g
    I14468:Result ( 91.8% 45 -0 +4): H-d2
    I14481:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): W3a1
    I14543:Result ( 98.4% 61 -0 +1): K1a4a1g
    I14549:Result ( 90.6% 48 -0 +5): H1dg
    I14550:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3-b
    I14551:Result ( 96.4% 53 -0 +2): H6a1a
    I14552:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): J1c2
    I14553:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H5c
    I14585:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): K1a1b2a
    I14742:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H1-e
    I14743:Result ( 94.6% 53 -0 +3): I4a
    I14745:Result ( 90.6% 48 -0 +5): X2b
    I14747:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H3
    I14800:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): J2b1j
    I14801:Result ( 94.2% 49 -0 +3): X2b-a
    I14802:Result ( 92.0% 48 -1 +2): X2d
    I14803:Result ( 90.6% 50 -1 +3): H2a1
    I14804:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H1o
    I14806:Result ( 64.3% 29 -1 +13): H1bb
    I14807:Result ( 95.2% 59 -0 +3): T1a1
    I14808:Result ( 94.2% 49 -0 +3): H1b1
    I14809:Result ( 89.1% 49 -0 +6): V7
    I14837:Result ( 95.2% 60 -0 +3): K1a4a1c
    I14857:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H3-c
    I14858:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): J1c1
    I14859:Result (100.0% 49 -0 +0): H7d3
    I14860:Result (100.0% 49 -0 +0): X2b-a
    I14861:Result ( 85.7% 48 -0 +8): V
    I14862:Result ( 92.2% 47 -0 +4): H1
    I14863:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): U5b1b1-b
    I14864:Result ( 93.8% 61 -0 +4): T2b
    I14865:Result (100.0% 6 -0 +0): A2i
    I14866:Result (100.0% 49 -0 +0): H1at1
    I14980:Result ( 98.2% 54 -0 +1): U5a2b1
    I14982:Result ( 65.6% 21 -0 +11): J
    I14983:Result ( 94.9% 58 -1 +1): J1c1m
    I14984:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H1-d
    I14985:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H5c
    I14986:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H73
    I14987:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): T1a1
    I14988:Result ( 95.8% 46 -0 +2): H
    I15027:Result ( 90.5% 59 -1 +4): U4a3a
    I15028:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): J1c2e
    I15029:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): V
    I15030:Result ( 94.6% 53 -0 +3): U5b1-a1
    I15031:Result ( 98.5% 65 -0 +1): T2b3d
    I15032:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H3
    I15033:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): T1a1
    I15034:Result ( 98.5% 64 -0 +1): J2a1a1
    I15035:Result ( 98.1% 53 -0 +1): H4a1a
    I15039:Result ( 96.4% 54 -0 +2): H6a1a13
    I15040:Result ( 93.1% 56 -1 +2): U5b1b1-a
    I15041:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H1
    I15042:Result ( 94.2% 49 -0 +3): H26a1
    I15043:Result ( 98.5% 66 -0 +1): U5b2b3a1
    I15044:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H3v-a1
    I15045:Result ( 98.1% 53 -0 +1): H13a1a1a
    I15046:Result ( 94.8% 55 -0 +3): H4a1c1a
    I15047:Result ( 96.3% 52 -0 +2): H13a1a1
    I15048:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H1aa
    I15049:Result ( 93.0% 55 -1 +2): W1n
    I15071:Result ( 90.0% 56 -1 +4): U5b1b1-b
    I15642:Result ( 94.0% 49 -1 +1): V6b1
    I15643:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U4d1
    I15644:Result ( 97.9% 46 -0 +1): H-d
    I15646:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H-h
    I15648:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): K1-a4f
    I15650:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H1
    I15818:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): HV0a
    I15819:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): K1a3a3
    I15821:Result ( 53.6% 17 -1 +11): O
    I15823:Result ( 96.8% 60 -0 +2): K1a4a1z
    I15824:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): J2b1a
    I15825:Result (100.0% 56 -0 +0): J1c2
    I15826:Result ( 98.4% 61 -0 +1): T2b
    I15950:Result ( 98.4% 63 -0 +1): K1a4a1a2a
    I15951:Result ( 90.9% 52 -1 +3): H13b1-a
    I15952:Result ( 96.4% 54 -0 +2): H6a1a13
    I15953:Result ( 96.4% 54 -0 +2): H6a1a13
    I15954:Result (100.0% 49 -0 +0): H1q5
    I15955:Result ( 94.8% 55 -0 +3): U5a2b1a
    I15956:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1e
    I15957:Result ( 93.9% 46 -0 +3): H-d
    I15958:Result ( 86.6% 62 -2 +5): T2b39
    I15959:Result ( 91.7% 57 -1 +3): K1a-a2
    I15960:Result ( 96.4% 54 -0 +2): I4a1
    I15961:Result ( 96.8% 61 -0 +2): T2b
    I16086:Result ( 72.9% 35 -0 +13): J1c1m
    I16087:Result ( 80.0% 32 -0 +8): U5b1b
    I16088:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): U5b1b1-b
    I16089:Result ( 98.1% 52 -0 +1): H5e1a
    I16090:Result ( 88.7% 49 -1 +4): V10
    I16092:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U5b3b
    I16099:Result ( 97.9% 46 -0 +1): HV0-a
    I16100:Result ( 96.8% 61 -0 +2): T2b
    I16108:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): X2b4
    I16109:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): K1a1b2b
    I16110:Result ( 98.1% 53 -0 +1): I4a
    I16111:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): T1a1
    I16112:Result ( 94.2% 49 -0 +3): V6b1
    I16113:Result ( 95.4% 62 -0 +3): K1a1b2a1a
    I16170:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H3
    I16182:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): J1c
    I16184:Result ( 85.2% 48 -1 +6): H17a1
    I16247:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): U5b3b
    I16268:Result ( 93.1% 56 -1 +2): K2a6
    I16269:Result ( 93.4% 57 -0 +4): U4a2c2
    I16270:Result ( 98.5% 64 -0 +1): J1b1a1b
    I16271:Result ( 93.2% 55 -0 +4): I2d1b1
    I16272:Result ( 93.4% 57 -0 +4): J1c2e
    I16273:Result ( 94.3% 50 -0 +3): H5a2
    I16326:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H7
    I16327:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H3
    I16329:Result ( 83.9% 49 -1 +7): W6a
    I16380:Result ( 90.5% 61 -2 +2): U4b1a1a1
    I16386:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): T1a1
    I16387:Result ( 45.9% 19 -1 +18): S-a
    I16388:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): J1c1
    I16390:Result ( 62.5% 34 -2 +14): T1a1aq
    I16394:Result ( 93.5% 58 -0 +4): K1c1u
    I16395:Result ( 92.7% 53 -1 +2): U5b1j
    I16396:Result ( 93.4% 59 -1 +2): K1a4a1
    I16400:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): U3a1
    I16403:Result ( 89.5% 55 -2 +2): K2a
    I16405:Result ( 94.8% 55 -0 +3): K1-a4
    I16410:Result ( 93.8% 61 -0 +4): T2b50
    I16412:Result ( 83.3% 53 -4 +1): J1c17-a
    I16413:Result ( 98.2% 54 -0 +1): H6a1a8
    I16416:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H3-b7
    I16418:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): U5a1d2a1-a
    I16422:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H3-b7
    I16424:Result ( 78.9% 51 -3 +6): R1b
    I16425:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): K1a4a1
    I16427:Result ( 92.5% 49 -0 +4): X2b-a
    I16429:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): K1-a4
    I16430:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H61
    I16435:Result ( 69.6% 45 -3 +11): U2-a
    I16436:Result ( 89.7% 56 -2 +2): J1c5
    I16437:Result ( 98.5% 64 -0 +1): K1b1a1
    I16438:Result ( 91.8% 56 -0 +5): J1c2
    I16439:Result ( 91.2% 64 -1 +4): T2c1d-a
    I16440:Result ( 91.2% 64 -1 +4): T2c1d-a
    I16441:Result ( 93.4% 57 -0 +4): J1c2ae
    I16442:Result ( 93.7% 61 -1 +2): U4b1a1a1
    I16444:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): J1c1b1
    I16448:Result ( 91.4% 64 -0 +6): K1b1a1
    I16450:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): T1a1
    I16453:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): U5a2a1
    I16454:Result ( 93.7% 59 -0 +4): U5b2b2
    I16455:Result ( 93.0% 53 -0 +4): T1a1
    I16456:Result ( 85.0% 55 -2 +5): T1a1
    I16457:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): T1a1
    I16458:Result ( 91.2% 64 -1 +4): T2c1d-a
    I16459:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3-b
    I16463:Result ( 96.4% 54 -0 +2): H4a1a2
    I16467:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): U5a1g1
    I16469:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H3-b
    I16471:Result ( 77.2% 52 -4 +5): J1
    I16475:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): X2b4
    I16476:Result ( 89.1% 41 -0 +5): H1bc
    I16479:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3ap
    I16488:Result ( 94.8% 55 -0 +3): U5a1b1
    I16491:Result ( 96.9% 62 -0 +2): U5b2b3-a1
    I16495:Result ( 98.2% 54 -0 +1): H6a1a8
    I16498:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a1
    I16499:Result ( 98.2% 55 -0 +1): I2a
    I16503:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H1ak1
    I16504:Result (100.0% 48 -0 +0): H1as
    I16505:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H61
    I16514:Result ( 71.7% 35 -1 +11): HV5
    I16538:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): J1c3s
    I16549:Result ( 94.2% 49 -0 +3): H1an1
    I16591:Result ( 94.3% 52 -1 +1): H13a1a1
    I16592:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U5a1b1e
    I16593:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H7b
    I16595:Result ( 95.5% 64 -0 +3): T2b9
    I16596:Result ( 93.9% 46 -0 +3): H3b-a
    I16597:Result ( 92.3% 48 -0 +4): H1-c
    I16599:Result ( 95.4% 62 -0 +3): T2b1
    I16600:Result ( 95.4% 62 -0 +3): T2b1
    I16601:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H17
    I16602:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H1aq
    I16609:Result ( 98.1% 52 -0 +1): J1c2e
    I16611:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1c45
    I16612:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3
    I16613:Result ( 98.4% 63 -0 +1): J1b1a1
    I16615:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): K1c1
    I16616:Result ( 83.7% 36 -0 +7): H13a1a1
    I16617:Result ( 96.4% 54 -0 +2): H4a1a1a
    I16618:Result (100.0% 56 -0 +0): K1a4
    I16619:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H49
    I16620:Result ( 94.3% 50 -0 +3): H1bs3a
    I16782:Result ( 91.8% 45 -0 +4): H1b1-a
    I16791:Result ( 96.8% 60 -0 +2): R1a1a
    I16792:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): R1a1a
    I17014:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): U5b1b1d
    I17015:Result ( 92.9% 52 -0 +4): H2a2a1
    I17016:Result ( 90.9% 62 -1 +4): U2e1a1
    I17017:Result ( 86.0% 53 -2 +4): U5b1-a
    I17019:Result ( 96.8% 61 -0 +2): T2b
    I17139:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H5c
    I17143:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H5c
    I17145:Result ( 98.2% 54 -0 +1): H5a4a1
    I17146:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H1q5
    I17258:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): K1a2a
    I17259:Result ( 90.9% 50 -0 +5): H5a1
    I17260:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): U5a1a2a
    I17261:Result ( 89.1% 49 -0 +6): R0a
    I17262:Result ( 96.8% 61 -0 +2): T2b-f
    I17263:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): J1c1c
    I17264:Result ( 92.5% 64 -1 +3): U2e1f1a
    I17266:Result ( 91.1% 51 -0 +5): U5b1b1-b
    I17267:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): HV0a4
    I17310:Result ( 91.7% 57 -1 +3): J1c7
    I17311:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): U5b2a1a1
    I17312:Result ( 96.2% 51 -0 +2): X2b4b
    I17313:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1ae
    I17314:Result ( 98.2% 54 -0 +1): U5a1b
    I17315:Result ( 79.6% 45 -1 +9): H10e
    I17316:Result ( 96.8% 60 -0 +2): J1c1b1a1
    I17317:Result ( 90.8% 59 -0 +6): U5b2b2
    I17320:Result ( 89.7% 54 -1 +4): U5b1b1d
    I17321:Result ( 93.4% 59 -1 +2): K1a4a1
    I17322:Result ( 87.7% 59 -1 +6): U2e1
    I17323:Result ( 98.1% 53 -0 +1): I4a
    I17324:Result ( 75.9% 43 -1 +11): W
    I17325:Result ( 67.9% 40 -2 +13): H3ag
    I17327:Result ( 95.3% 61 -0 +3): U5b2b1a1
    I17607:Result ( 94.6% 53 -0 +3): I4a
    I17611:Result ( 92.3% 62 -1 +3): U2e1a1g
    I17612:Result ( 79.4% 27 -0 +7): H1-e
    I17613:Result ( 86.5% 45 -0 +7): H59
    I17614:Result ( 89.8% 44 -0 +5): H3h
    I17616:Result ( 89.3% 52 -1 +4): H13b1-a
    I17669:Result ( 66.7% 28 -0 +14): H5
    I17670:Result ( 78.8% 26 -0 +7): V7
    I17671:Result ( 79.4% 27 -0 +7): U5a2c
    I1774:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): U4b1a2-a
    I17750:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H86
    I18110:Result ( 92.0% 46 -0 +4): H
    I18181:Result ( 88.5% 54 -0 +7): U4a
    I18182:Result ( 98.4% 60 -0 +1): T2b
    I18183:Result ( 96.8% 61 -0 +2): J1c1b1a5
    I18211:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): U5a1f1a
    I18213:Result ( 98.5% 65 -0 +1): T2a1b1a1
    I18216:Result ( 62.1% 20 -1 +9): V2
    I18220:Result ( 98.1% 53 -0 +1): U5a2b
    I18226:Result ( 98.1% 51 -0 +1): H5a3a
    I18227:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H10a1
    I18239:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H1
    I18241:Result ( 98.4% 61 -0 +1): T2b
    I18245:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U4d1
    I18246:Result ( 93.4% 57 -0 +4): J2b1
    I18259:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): I1a1-a
    I18426:Result ( 66.7% 2 -0 +1): H1au1b
    I18427:Result ( 64.3% 9 -0 +5): H1ah2
    I18428:Result ( 94.8% 55 -0 +3): K1a1b1
    I18488:Result ( 95.4% 62 -0 +3): T2b2b-a1
    I18489:Result ( 92.0% 46 -0 +4): H-c
    I18490:Result ( 92.0% 46 -0 +4): H-c
    I18491:Result ( 93.2% 57 -1 +2): J1c3j2
    I18492:Result ( 92.0% 46 -0 +4): H-c
    I18493:Result ( 85.2% 48 -1 +6): H76a
    I18526:Result ( 93.5% 60 -1 +2): J1c2c2
    I18527:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3
    I18528:Result ( 85.7% 56 -1 +7): K1a4
    I18529:Result ( 93.2% 55 -0 +4): W1k
    I18530:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H14a
    I18531:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H1-f2
    I18599:Result ( 92.0% 46 -0 +4): HV-a1a
    I18606:Result ( 94.0% 65 -1 +2): K1b1a1g
    I18691:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): J1c-a1
    I18719:Result ( 93.0% 53 -0 +4): HV0a1a1
    I18832:Result ( 93.1% 54 -0 +4): U5a1b
    I18833:Result ( 76.7% 46 -0 +14): U8b1b2
    I18834:Result ( 87.0% 62 -1 +7): U2e1a1
    I18835:Result ( 90.3% 56 -0 +6): K1a1a
    I18837:Result ( 85.7% 42 -0 +7): H1
    I18838:Result ( 88.2% 62 -1 +6): T2c1f
    I18839:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3
    I18840:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H7
    I18988:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H10
    I19037:Result ( 98.5% 64 -0 +1): J1b1a1b
    I19040:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1m
    I19042:Result ( 90.9% 64 -2 +2): T2b33a
    I19043:Result ( 95.0% 57 -0 +3): J1c1
    I19044:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): K1-a4l
    I19045:Result ( 98.2% 54 -0 +1): U4a
    I19046:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1t
    I19047:Result ( 87.5% 42 -0 +6): H39
    I19207:Result ( 92.0% 46 -0 +4): H
    I19209:Result ( 82.0% 43 -1 +7): H113
    I19210:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): H1cg
    I19211:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H1
    I19220:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H3g1
    I19286:Result ( 95.2% 59 -0 +3): J1c1b1
    I19287:Result ( 96.9% 63 -0 +2): K1b1a
    I19356:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H1
    I19357:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H5
    I19358:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H1
    I19359:Result ( 95.2% 59 -0 +3): K1a4a1
    I19360:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): K1b2a
    I19361:Result ( 82.1% 34 -1 +5): H1c9
    I19362:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): K1b2a
    I19363:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): K1b2a
    I19587:Result ( 88.1% 54 -1 +5): K2a7
    I19588:Result ( 70.0% 21 -0 +9): H1ah-a
    I19652:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): J1c2a2
    I19653:Result ( 92.5% 49 -0 +4): H1n6a
    I19654:Result ( 85.7% 52 -2 +4): H1c3a1
    I19655:Result ( 66.0% 37 -2 +13): H1c3a1
    I19656:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H5'36
    I19657:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H5s
    I19722:Result ( 89.3% 52 -1 +4): H4a1a8
    I19854:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): J1c2a2
    I19855:Result ( 90.4% 49 -1 +3): H1ak1
    I19856:Result ( 78.9% 51 -3 +6): K2a
    I19857:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): J2b1a
    I19858:Result ( 94.8% 57 -1 +1): J2b1a
    I19859:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3
    I19860:Result ( 92.3% 62 -1 +3): T2b4-a1
    I19861:Result ( 88.2% 64 -2 +4): U2e2a1c
    I19862:Result ( 96.3% 52 -0 +2): H5a1f2
    I19863:Result ( 93.7% 61 -1 +2): N1a1a1a2a
    I19867:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3-d
    I19868:Result ( 92.3% 62 -1 +3): T2e1a
    I19869:Result ( 90.8% 59 -0 +6): T1a1aq
    I19870:Result ( 90.8% 59 -0 +6): T1a1aq
    I19872:Result ( 92.9% 52 -0 +4): H13a1a1
    I19873:Result ( 91.8% 58 -1 +3): U5b2b-a4
    I19874:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H1ax
    I19907:Result ( 88.2% 62 -1 +6): U2e1a1
    I19908:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): K2b1a
    I19909:Result ( 95.0% 59 -1 +1): T1a1
    I19910:Result (100.0% 56 -0 +0): U4a2j
    I19911:Result ( 93.4% 59 -1 +2): K1a4a1
    I19912:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): H1bs
    I19913:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): J1c2e
    I19914:Result ( 92.6% 50 -0 +4): H3g1
    I19915:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): K1c1
    I19916:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): V3a
    I19917:Result ( 92.0% 48 -1 +2): X2c2
    I19918:Result ( 93.9% 46 -0 +3): H-d
    I19987:Result ( 98.1% 51 -0 +1): H1e1a6
    I19988:Result ( 98.1% 51 -0 +1): H1e1a6
    I19989:Result ( 96.2% 51 -0 +2): H1e1a6
    I19990:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): U5b1g
    I19991:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): U5b1g
    I20057:Result ( 47.4% 9 -0 +10): U5a1b
    I20058:Result ( 84.2% 32 -0 +6): T1a1
    I20062:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H1-e
    I20063:Result ( 83.1% 54 -0 +11): K1b1a
    I20503:Result ( 60.7% 41 -2 +20): U4b1a2-a
    I20504:Result ( 90.6% 48 -0 +5): H3ag
    I20505:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1ae
    I20507:Result ( 84.6% 48 -2 +4): K2a5
    I20509:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): H7b
    I20510:Result ( 85.7% 58 -2 +5): J1c1p
    I20511:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): K1c2
    I20513:Result ( 93.0% 55 -1 +2): K2a5
    I20515:Result ( 94.7% 54 -0 +3): H6a1a3
    I20516:Result ( 95.0% 57 -0 +3): K1c1
    I20517:Result ( 93.9% 48 -1 +1): H26c
    I20518:Result ( 79.6% 45 -1 +9): H40d
    I20519:Result ( 93.8% 62 -1 +2): T2b17
    I20520:Result ( 74.1% 22 -1 +5): U2e2a1c
    I20521:Result ( 95.2% 61 -1 +1): T2e7a
    I20522:Result ( 90.6% 48 -0 +5): H3ag
    I20523:Result ( 93.9% 46 -0 +3): H
    I20525:Result ( 96.4% 53 -0 +2): I4a
    I20526:Result ( 93.5% 58 -0 +4): T2-b
    I20582:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H10
    I20583:Result ( 95.0% 59 -1 +1): K1a4a1
    I20584:Result ( 95.0% 59 -1 +1): K1a4a1
    I20585:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): K1c1
    I20586:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): J2b1a7
    I20587:Result ( 95.0% 57 -0 +3): K1a2a
    I20588:Result ( 92.3% 48 -0 +4): V
    I20589:Result ( 90.2% 48 -1 +3): V
    I20615:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): H1i
    I20620:Result ( 93.9% 64 -1 +2): T2a1b1a3
    I20621:Result ( 88.1% 65 -3 +2): T2c1d1b4
    I20622:Result ( 88.1% 65 -3 +2): T2c1d1b4
    I20623:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): V2b
    I20624:Result ( 90.9% 62 -1 +4): U2e1a1
    I20625:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): T1a1
    I20626:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H7b
    I20627:Result ( 94.2% 49 -0 +3): V2b
    I20628:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): I2a
    I20630:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H1au1b
    I20631:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): V2b
    I20632:Result ( 94.2% 49 -0 +3): V2b
    I20634:Result ( 98.4% 61 -0 +1): K2b1a1a
    I20735:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H1j10
    I20736:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H1j10
    I20740:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H1j10
    I20811:Result ( 76.0% 38 -0 +12): H3
    I20812:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H1-d
    I20813:Result ( 98.2% 55 -0 +1): J1c2o
    I20815:Result ( 92.1% 58 -0 +5): K1a1b1-b
    I20816:Result ( 55.8% 33 -2 +19): U5a1
    I20817:Result ( 93.8% 63 -1 +2): T2b3-a
    I20827:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3
    I20828:Result ( 93.3% 56 -0 +4): U5b2a1a1c
    I20982:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): J1c3
    I20983:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H3b-a
    I20984:Result ( 94.2% 51 -1 +1): H1j6
    I20985:Result ( 90.3% 58 -1 +4): U4a3a
    I20986:Result ( 92.0% 46 -0 +4): HV0-a
    I20987:Result ( 96.9% 62 -0 +2): U5b2b3-a1
    I20988:Result ( 95.2% 61 -1 +1): T2b19
    I20989:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): K1c1
    I20990:Result ( 90.3% 60 -2 +2): J1c1b1a
    I20997:Result ( 96.2% 51 -0 +2): X2b4a
    I21178:Result ( 95.4% 64 -1 +1): T2b3-a2b
    I21179:Result ( 96.8% 60 -0 +2): T2b
    I21180:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H7a1
    I21181:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H3f
    I21182:Result ( 93.2% 55 -0 +4): J1c2
    I21271:Result ( 91.7% 55 -0 +5): W1c
    I21272:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): V
    I21274:Result ( 93.4% 59 -1 +2): K1a4a1
    I21275:Result ( 93.4% 59 -1 +2): K1a4a1
    I21276:Result ( 93.4% 59 -1 +2): K1a4a1
    I21277:Result ( 93.4% 59 -1 +2): K1a4a1
    I21293:Result ( 98.3% 58 -0 +1): J1c1b
    I21302:Result ( 88.3% 55 -1 +5): K1-a4
    I21303:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H2a5
    I21305:Result ( 90.4% 47 -0 +5): H1
    I21306:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H1an1b
    I21307:Result ( 88.5% 48 -1 +4): H7d
    I21308:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): J1c1b3
    I21309:Result ( 94.2% 49 -0 +3): X2b-a
    I21310:Result ( 92.1% 60 -1 +3): U4c1-a
    I21311:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H16-a
    I21312:Result ( 98.4% 63 -0 +1): J1b1a1
    I21313:Result ( 92.3% 48 -0 +4): H3g
    I21314:Result ( 92.3% 50 -1 +2): V23a
    I21315:Result ( 92.3% 48 -0 +4): T1a1ax
    I21385:Result ( 93.2% 57 -1 +2): K1d
    I21390:Result ( 91.4% 53 -0 +5): U8b1b4
    I21399:Result ( 92.1% 58 -0 +5): K1a1b1-b
    I21400:Result ( 93.3% 56 -0 +4): K1a1b1-b
    I21401:Result ( 77.8% 7 -0 +2): F3
    I21402:Result ( 93.8% 61 -0 +4): J2b1b1
    I21403:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H1-f2c
    I21931:Result ( 95.2% 59 -0 +3): K1a4a1
    I22052:Result ( 88.2% 64 -2 +4): U2e2a1a
    I22055:Result ( 95.5% 64 -0 +3): K1b1a1
    I22056:Result ( 98.2% 55 -0 +1): H4a1a3a
    I22057:Result ( 89.1% 51 -1 +4): H2a1k
    I22060:Result ( 98.2% 55 -0 +1): H4a1a3a
    I22062:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): K1-a4b1
    I22064:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): H4a1a3a
    I22065:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H3q1
    I22937:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): U4a1a
    I22938:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): U5b1b1-b
    I22940:Result ( 90.2% 46 -0 +5): HV-a1a
    I23205:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): U3a1
    I23206:Result ( 92.0% 48 -1 +2): H76a
    I23207:Result ( 98.2% 54 -0 +1): H6a1b2
    I23208:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): U5a1d2a1-a
    I23209:Result ( 93.3% 56 -0 +4): K1a1a
    I23210:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): J2b1a1
    I23211:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U5a1a1
    I23212:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): U5a1b1
    I23569:Result ( 92.5% 51 -1 +2): X2b4a
    I23904:Result ( 96.8% 60 -0 +2): T2b
    I23911:Result ( 98.4% 62 -0 +1): T2a1a
    I23974:Result ( 96.6% 57 -0 +2): T2b
    I23978:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H49
    I23995:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H3b
    I23996:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H3b
    I2405:Result ( 84.2% 48 -0 +9): W5a
    I2407:Result ( 97.5% 39 -0 +1): H28a
    I2413:Result ( 44.3% 37 -1 +42): H-d
    I2419:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): H1b
    I24342:Result ( 94.0% 63 -0 +4): T2b23-a
    I24344:Result ( 87.7% 50 -0 +7): H13a2a
    I24345:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): HV0e
    I2435:Result ( 85.7% 42 -0 +7): H28a
    I2446:Result ( 95.5% 64 -0 +3): K1b1a1
    I2448:Result ( 90.7% 49 -0 +5): U8a
    I24638:Result ( 94.5% 54 -1 +1): U5a1g
    I24639:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H1
    I2469:Result ( 92.2% 47 -0 +4): H3-b
    I2470:Result ( 95.4% 64 -1 +1): J2a1a1
    I24879:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H5
    I24882:Result ( 93.9% 46 -0 +3): H
    I24883:Result ( 81.1% 32 -1 +5): HV0e
    I25504:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): H79b
    I25505:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H60a
    I25507:Result ( 95.2% 59 -0 +3): T1a5
    I25508:Result ( 96.4% 53 -0 +2): H4a1a-a
    I25509:Result ( 94.7% 54 -0 +3): U5a2b1
    I25510:Result ( 96.2% 50 -0 +2): H2a1
    I25512:Result ( 92.2% 47 -0 +4): H80
    I25516:Result ( 91.5% 56 -1 +3): U2e1a1
    I25517:Result ( 79.2% 44 -1 +9): H13a1a1
    I25518:Result ( 94.0% 49 -1 +1): H2a5
    I25519:Result ( 93.6% 44 -0 +3): HV-b
    I25522:Result ( 96.9% 62 -0 +2): T2b67
    I25523:Result ( 90.9% 50 -0 +5): H2a1u
    I25524:Result ( 91.7% 55 -0 +5): K1-a4
    I25525:Result ( 94.9% 58 -1 +1): J1c3j1
    I2565:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): W1-a
    I2569:Result ( 95.2% 59 -0 +3): K1a3a7a
    I2574:Result ( 98.2% 55 -0 +1): U5a1a2b
    I2575:Result ( 94.6% 53 -0 +3): K1c1
    I2598:Result ( 97.9% 46 -0 +1): H
    I2611:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): U5a2d1-a
    I2629:Result ( 74.4% 29 -0 +10): J1c1b
    I2656:Result ( 94.3% 52 -1 +1): H2a2a2a
    I2658:Result (100.0% 54 -0 +0): H6a1b2
    I26628:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H61
    I26629:Result ( 94.7% 54 -0 +3): U5a1b11
    I26630:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): H61
    I26726:Result ( 96.5% 57 -1 +0): J1c3-a1
    I26735:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): J1c12
    I26738:Result ( 95.2% 62 -1 +1): T2b2b
    I26741:Result ( 98.4% 61 -0 +1): T2b
    I26742:Result ( 93.9% 46 -0 +3): HV0-a
    I26773:Result ( 85.7% 56 -1 +7): J1c2
    I26774:Result ( 91.8% 56 -0 +5): J1c2
    I26828:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H2a2
    I26829:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H5b
    I26830:Result ( 94.2% 49 -0 +3): H3v-a
    I26831:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): U5a1a1
    I26832:Result ( 91.8% 58 -1 +3): U4a3
    I26893:Result ( 93.0% 53 -0 +4): U8b1b1
    I2692:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a1
    I2693:Result ( 96.0% 48 -0 +2): H3-b7
    I2694:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H1ak1
    I2695:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H2a1
    I2696:Result ( 98.1% 53 -0 +1): U5a2b4a
    I2699:Result ( 88.7% 47 -0 +6): V10
    I27379:Result ( 94.1% 48 -0 +3): H7d
    I27380:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H3k1
    I27381:Result ( 95.2% 60 -0 +3): U4c1-a
    I27382:Result ( 92.3% 48 -0 +4): H1dz
    I27383:Result ( 95.2% 60 -0 +3): U4c1-a
    I27384:Result ( 94.5% 52 -0 +3): H2a2a1g
    I27385:Result ( 96.9% 62 -0 +2): T2b19
    I2796:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3
    I2799:Result ( 97.9% 47 -0 +1): H1-e
    I2824:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H13a1a
    I2982:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H7a1
    I2983:Result ( 92.5% 64 -1 +3): U2e2a1c
    I3014:Result ( 95.8% 46 -0 +2): H
    I3019:Result ( 92.7% 53 -1 +2): H4a1a-a
    I3035:Result ( 96.0% 50 -1 +0): H5a1
    I3083:Result ( 95.0% 59 -1 +1): U4a3a
    I3137:Result ( 93.9% 46 -0 +3): HV0-a
    I3139:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H132
    I3141:Result ( 92.5% 51 -1 +2): H15b1
    I3315:Result ( 93.0% 55 -1 +2): U5b1-a1e1
    I3320:Result ( 98.2% 54 -0 +1): I1g
    I3321:Result ( 90.2% 57 -1 +4): U3a1
    I3566:Result ( 98.0% 50 -0 +1): H13a1a
    I3567:Result ( 96.5% 57 -1 +0): J1c3b
    I3568:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): H7a1
    I4067:Result ( 87.9% 55 -2 +3): R1b1c
    I4188:Result ( 91.4% 55 -1 +3): K1a1
    I4949:Result ( 93.8% 61 -0 +4): T2b
    I4996:Result ( 94.7% 56 -1 +1): J1c5
    I4998:Result ( 96.8% 61 -0 +2): T2b
    I5287:Result ( 93.7% 59 -0 +4): K1a1b2b
    I5288:Result ( 91.5% 54 -0 +5): W-a
    I5365:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U5a1b1e
    I5440:Result ( 98.3% 57 -0 +1): K1c1
    I5471:Result ( 88.9% 50 -1 +4): H1c3
    I5474:Result ( 94.9% 56 -0 +3): K1a26
    I5502:Result ( 95.9% 47 -0 +2): H3
    I5503:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): U5b1c2
    I5504:Result ( 88.9% 32 -0 +4): T1a-a
    I5505:Result ( 98.0% 49 -0 +1): V16
    I5506:Result ( 95.1% 58 -0 +3): K1c1a
    I5507:Result ( 94.3% 50 -0 +3): H2a3b
    I5508:Result ( 98.2% 56 -0 +1): J1c9
    I5509:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): K1c1a
    I5510:Result ( 93.5% 58 -0 +4): K1c1a
    I5511:Result ( 96.6% 56 -0 +2): J1c9
    I5689:Result ( 88.2% 64 -2 +4): K1b1a1i
    I5690:Result ( 98.3% 59 -0 +1): T1a1
    I5691:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): I1a2
    I5692:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): U5a1a1l2
    I5693:Result ( 98.1% 52 -0 +1): H2a2a1
    I5695:Result ( 87.9% 53 -1 +5): N1a1a
    I5696:Result ( 96.5% 55 -0 +2): H4a1c1a
    I5697:Result ( 96.1% 49 -0 +2): H7a1
    I5698:Result ( 94.0% 47 -0 +3): H3
    I6748:Result ( 98.0% 48 -0 +1): V
    I6769:Result ( 98.2% 54 -0 +1): H6a1b2
    I6771:Result ( 96.7% 59 -0 +2): U4b1a2-a
    I6776:Result ( 93.4% 59 -1 +2): U4a3a
    I7629:Result (100.0% 47 -0 +0): H17
    I7632:Result ( 88.2% 47 -1 +4): H1-e
    I7950:Result ( 95.8% 46 -0 +2): H
    I7951:Result ( 85.5% 55 -1 +7): U8b1a1a3
    I7952:Result ( 89.7% 56 -2 +2): N1a1a1a
    I7953:Result ( 98.1% 52 -0 +1): H2a2a1
    I7958:Result ( 98.1% 53 -0 +1): I4a
    I7959:Result ( 96.7% 58 -0 +2): K2b2
    I7960:Result ( 92.6% 65 -1 +3): U2e2a1a2
    I7962:Result ( 96.8% 61 -0 +2): T2e4
    I7963:Result ( 86.6% 60 -1 +7): U2e2
    I7964:Result ( 75.4% 54 -4 +7): U5a2c3
    I8582:Result ( 98.1% 52 -0 +1): H2a1e1



    P.S
    i can only say that
    many are in r1b branches as expected
    some I-M170 and G
    and there were 2 e-v13 for sure in the data ( thats for e-v13's in our forum )
    we need to wait to see the context , period, date of each sample

  12. #12
    Regular Member Anfänger's Avatar
    Join Date
    07-04-18
    Posts
    219

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    R1b-Z2103
    MtDNA haplogroup
    U7a4

    Ethnic group
    Iranian
    Country: Germany



    1 members found this post helpful.
    There is U7 mtDNA in these samples. U7 was also found among "princely burials" of the Late Hallstatt culture in Baden-Württemberg Germany. I am pretty sure that this population turnover in Great Britain is related to Celts.

  13. #13
    Regular Member
    Join Date
    12-11-19
    Posts
    278


    Country: Belgium - Flanders



    Quote Originally Posted by torzio View Post
    Phase 1 then......celtish migration into illyrian Noricum .......miners of Noric steel
    IIRC....there is a burial of a few thousand "halstatt" people
    so....you saying Halstatt times where more peaceful .................while La Tene was not?
    Halstatt celts went into the balkans towards greece...the black sea and asia minor
    you got it all mixed up

    the graves are from the miners in Hallstatt, they were burried with grave gifts, these were not poor and certainly not slaves
    Halstatt Celts didn't go into the Balkans and Greece, these were Gauls

  14. #14
    Regular Member kingjohn's Avatar
    Join Date
    05-09-16
    Posts
    1,453

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    Rare e-fgc7391
    MtDNA haplogroup
    h3ap

    Country: Uruguay



    3 members found this post helpful.
    ok i will post altverd from anthrogenica work i count on him

    6 - DF27 R1b1a1b1a1a2a
    51 - U152 R1b1a1b1a1a2b (47 L2, 3 Z36, 1 Z56 / PF6601)
    151 - L21 R1b1a1b1a1a2c
    2 - DF19 R1b1a1b1a1a2e
    238 - P312 R1b1a1b1a1a2

    10 - U106
    9 - R1a
    4 - E1b1b1a1b1
    19 - G2a2b2a
    1 - H2
    64 - I2 (51 - I2a1)
    1 - I1
    12 - J2 (1 J2a, 11 J2b)
    1 - N1a1a1a1a1a1a



  15. #15
    Regular Member torzio's Avatar
    Join Date
    10-05-19
    Location
    Australia
    Posts
    2,484

    Y-DNA haplogroup
    T1a2 - SK1480
    MtDNA haplogroup
    H95a

    Ethnic group
    North Italian
    Country: Australia



    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur 2 View Post
    you got it all mixed up

    the graves are from the miners in Hallstatt, they were burried with grave gifts, these were not poor and certainly not slaves
    Halstatt Celts didn't go into the Balkans and Greece, these were Gauls

    what mix up are you talking about ?.................I never said anything about slaves and the poor..........you are mixing up the posts your read with others

    Halstatt celts went to southeast balkan areas .................never heard of Gauls went there



    Until recently our knowledge of the events surrounding the Celtic migration into southeastern Europe at the beginning of the 3rd century BC has relied exclusively on
    Greek and Roman ‘histories’, with little or no reference to modern archaeological
    evidence which supplements and, in many cases, contradicts these accounts. However, over the past decades a wealth of new archaeological data from the region concerned finally allows us to furnish a more accurate picture of events surrounding this dramatic episode in European history
    (on the precise dating of these events see Fontenrose 1981:344, 410, Petzl 1984:141-142, Boardman et al 198
    6, Šašel Kos 2005:189
    -196, Walbank et al 2006:499)
    . From the mid 4th
    century BC the Thracian interior gradually fell under the control of the Macedonian Empire. This was largely achieved through the Thraco-Macedonian Odrysae tribe whose rulers, notably Seuthes III, governed Thrace as de facto puppet kings controlled by Macedonia



    The catalyst for this phenomenon was the ongoing expansion of Celtic tribes into the Balkans, which gradually brought the ‘barbarians’ into
    direct contact with the Hellenistic world, and had already led to clashes between Macedonian and Celtic forces in Thrace at the end of the 4th century BC
    (Seneca nat. quaest III, ii, 3, who quotes Theophrastes; Pliny n.h. XXX I, 53)
    . By 280 the situation had become critical for Macedonia and was exacerbated by the misguided policies of its King, Ptolemy Keraunos , who completely underestimated his new enemy. Refusing to negotiate with the barbarians and insulting their envoys, Keraunos chose instead to rely on the Macedonian military machine to halt the Celtic expansion
    (Justinus 24:4)
    . The result of this strategy was to prove catastrophic…

    “…
    and the Macedonians were defeated and cut to pieces. Ptolemy, after receiving several wounds, was taken, and his head, cut off and stuck on a lance, was carried round the whole army to strike terror into the enemy. Flight saved a few of the Macedonians; the rest were either taken or slain

    (Justinus, Epit. 24:5)
    . The humiliating defeat of K
    eraunos’ forces by Bolgios’
    (or
    Belgios
    -
    Galli duce Belgio (
    Just. xxiv, 5; cf. Pomp. Prol. xxiv


    ‘Belgius leader of the Gauls’
    )
    western Celtic army was compounded by the subsequent execution of the Macedonian king himself after he had fallen off his elephant during the battle. Attempts to rally what remained of the Macedonian army by a general called Sosthenes proved futile when the central Celtic army, led by Brennos, swept south the following spring, annihilating Sosthenes’ forces and thus the last elements of Macedonian resistance. The situation in Macedonia at this point is described thus:
    “…
    through all Macedonia the gates of the city were shut, and all places filled with mourning. Sometimes they lamented their bereavement, from the loss of their children; sometimes they were seized with dread, lest their cities should be destroyed; and at other times they called on the names of their kings, Alexander and Philippus, as deities, to protect them
    ”.

    (Justinus, Epit. 24:5; on these events see also:
    Polyb. 9.35’4; Diod. Sic. 22.3’1
    -2; Memn.8’8; Plut. Pyrrh. 22’2; Paus.
    X. 19:6-7)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    The unanswered question is where did the Central European Hallstadt type people get their additional EEF? Is it a "resurgence" again based on the "locals" coming back out of the shadows, as with WHG? If it is, then I guess Italy is the only place where it can't happen. :)
    It was no resurgence, at least not all of it, but also a movement of people from especially the Pannonian-Carpathian sphere West, both during Urnfield and Hallstatt.
    The situation changed with La Tene and Rome, when for a short time many movements went from West to East, against the usual tide.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    ok i will post altverd from anthrogenica work i count on him

    6 - DF27 R1b1a1b1a1a2a
    51 - U152 R1b1a1b1a1a2b (47 L2, 3 Z36, 1 Z56 / PF6601)
    151 - L21 R1b1a1b1a1a2c
    2 - DF19 R1b1a1b1a1a2e
    238 - P312 R1b1a1b1a1a2

    10 - U106
    9 - R1a
    4 - E1b1b1a1b1
    19 - G2a2b2a
    1 - H2
    64 - I2 (51 - I2a1)
    1 - I1
    12 - J2 (1 J2a, 11 J2b)
    1 - N1a1a1a1a1a1a


    So about 9% U-152, and almost all the U-152 was L2. Very interesting.

    I wonder, when we have a lot more ancient remains from Northern Italy, whether it will be born out that most of L2 came late with the Gauls, or was there L2 in the Italics as well.

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    2 members found this post helpful.
    Many samples are recycled from older studies with known Haplogroups.

    eg … from KingJohn post #14 - Top Sample, and a Sardinian down below:





    https://umap.openstreetmap.fr/en/map...7#4/42.39/8.26

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Salento View Post
    Many samples are recycled from older studies with known Haplogroups.

    eg … from KingJohn post #14 - Top Sample, and a Sardinian down below:





    https://umap.openstreetmap.fr/en/map...7#4/42.39/8.26
    So the U-152 could have been a larger percentage of the actual migrating group. It would be informative if they isolated the yDna of that actual migrating group so more valid conclusions could be drawn.

    Still, the U-152 is almost all L2, which provides a valuable clue.

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    2 members found this post helpful.
    you need a laser eyes to see the sites
    i try :

    carsington pasture cave
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carsington

    winnall down
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winnall,_Hampshire

    thame
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thame


    gravelly

    Rowbarrow ( wiltshire)


    Cliffs end
    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cliffsend

    p.s
    side note i am also interested in this paper
    to see from which site the single h3ap individual came and to which time he is dated
    Last edited by kingjohn; 04-11-21 at 02:02.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    So the U-152 could have been a larger percentage of the actual migrating group. It would be informative if they isolated the yDna of that actual migrating group so more valid conclusions could be drawn.

    Still, the U-152 is almost all L2, which provides a valuable clue.
    There seems to be some clustering around the Carpathian sphere in some, but this needs to be figured out. Like the best case for E-V13 in Britain and to which other individuals from the study he's closest to:
    The most relevant is imho I14465 E1b1b1a1b1a20~ E-BY4643 because of his subclade:
    https://anthrogenica.com/showthread....l=1#post812508

    And the most interesting part about him might be with which other samples from the studies he clusters, and their yDNA:
    0.02434444 Britain_MLBA:I5691 J2b2a1a1a~ J-Z2516/etc*
    0.02477432 Britain_MLBA:I13786 R1b1a1b1a1a2c1a4b6a R-BY325
    0.02730967 Britain_MLBA:I13620 R1b1a1b1a1a2b1 R-L2*
    0.02735612 Britain_MLBA:I18259 R1b1a1b1a1 R-CTS7650*
    0.02764787 Britain_MLBA:I13794 I13794 R1b1a1b1a1a2b1 R-L2*

    A lot of R-L2, so they are associated, like expected, with R-U152!
    https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-L2/ (2)
    But also more typical Western Celtic https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-Z253/ (1)

    R-CTS7650 = ?

    Upstream its being found in an ancient sample from the Polish Carpathians (!):
    https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-L51/

    Sample PCW070 from a Corded Ware/Epi-Corded context near Przemyśl, Podkarpackie:
    https://umap.openstreetmap.fr/en/map.../49.434/22.473

    https://en.wikivoyage.org/wiki/Podkarpackie

    The Corded Ware was from this study:
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-63138-w

    The study is also interesting for the context of the region:
    All individuals studied here are associated to burials of the CWC and BBC complexes. Based on the geographic location and the strontium isotope analysis we identified four different territorial sub groups, and based on the genetics we identified at least two different groups within our sample set. The mtDNA and the Y-chromosome data provide a slightly different picture of the genetic variation in the region contrasting earlier studies of individuals from corresponding archaeological contexts from other regions of Central Europe. In contrast to observations by Juras et al.12 we did not find mitochondrial lineages specifically linked to Yamnaya pastoralists, instead most of mtDNA lineages found in our sample may be associated with European Neolithic farming groups as is the case for the Western Corded Ware sample in the earlier study12. Our results would indicate a stronger continuity with earlier Neolithic populations than previously observed. In other words, our study detected traces of an evident incorporation of local individuals into the migrating groups. However, the funerary rituals seem to have been affected in limited extent as the burials exhibit the typical CWC pattern in all cases examined.
    And like I say all the time, the most likely path for E-V13 to make it was to be incorporated into the Epi-Corded groups, in the Carpathians, possibly as specialist miners and metal workers, but in any case they were. If those two would stem from the same context, that would be big and E-V13 would prove that male lineages in the Carpathian region were incorporated too, together with a majority of females, by the local Corded Ware and Bell Beakers.

    This was a different Corded Ware context:
    he Y chromosome haplogroup lineage R1b-M269 or R-L11 are characteristic of Yamnaya and Bell Beaker individuals5,10 and they were particularly widespread throughout Eurasia in the Bronze Age and thereafter38. Curiously, the haplogroup is uncommon among other published Corded Ware Complex individuals from Europe (Germany, Poland, Bohemia, Estonia, Lithuania)6 and is associated with the later Bell Beaker communities5. We see the inclusion of the Yamnaya genetic signals but again in a different manner than what has been shown in adjacent regions. These results indicate a higher level of CWC continuity with earlier Neolithic individuals than those previously studied.
    Also interesting:
    Bell Beaker individuals from Pełczyska mostly favour German, Polish (lowland) and Estonian CWC as well as German and Czech Bell Beaker populations over Steppe ancestors (Table S16). Interestingly, in contrast to CWC individuals from south-eastern Poland (Group I, II and IV), they share significantly closer affinity to Neolithic Iberian, Italian, Hungarian, Swedish, Polish TRB and Brześć Kujawski group populations (and nonsignificant but positive affinity to Polish Globular Amphora) than Yamnaya, pointing to possible continuity between this group and earlier populations. The genetic specificity of the population associated with this process shows similarity to the features of the BBC complex in Central Europe dated ca. 150-200 years later
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-63138-w

    And the J-guy seems to be: https://www.yfull.com/tree/J-Z597/
    So a J-L283 Pannonian-Illyrian most likely, which travelled with them, either in Urnfield or Hallstatt - or even staying, depending on where they found them.

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    2 members found this post helpful.
    Well, my bet would be that they left a lot of Neolithic like E-V13 behind, to filter down into Albania and Greece.

    It is interesting for Italy to the extent that perhaps like G2a there are perhaps two "types" of E-V13 in Italy, which bore a different autosomal make up when they arrived in Italy.

    Also, fwiw, the closest Bronze Age population to a lot of northern Italy, if you go beyond the Balkan populations, is Hungarian Bronze Age.

    I'm afraid it's useless to direct me to anthrogenica threads since, when I happened to lose both my user name and password there when my computer crashed and died and I lost a lot of my data, and I tried to re-register, they banned me permanently without any discussion whatsoever. That, despite the fact that I have never in my life posted a single line there. I guess just my reading their posts somehow threatens them. :) They fit right in with the current climate of not welcoming debate and trying to cancel anyone who disagrees with them. It's unfortunate, because I think most people want to hear all sides of an issue. Ultimately, as our elections are pointing out, behavior like that turns people off.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Well, my bet would be that they left a lot of Neolithic like E-V13 behind, to filter down into Albania and Greece.
    Sure, the bulk was staying, a large fraction went South initially. They being thinned out later, mainly by the Slavic migrations, which might have carried E-V13 themselve, but less and different subclades.

    It is interesting for Italy to the extent that perhaps like G2a there are perhaps two "types" of E-V13 in Italy, which bore a different autosomal make up when they arrived in Italy.
    Yes, the North received most via Urnfield, Hallstatt, Celts and Germanics, only minor Greek and Illyrian, whereas it was the other way around for the south, with way more Illyrian, Greek and Thracian, but still from the more Northern route also, on the long run.

    Also, fwiw, the closest Bronze Age population to a lot of northern Italy, if you go beyond the Balkan populations, is Hungarian Bronze Age.
    Italics and Celts both came from the Rhenish-Alpine-Danubian area and as we know by now, Etruscans too picked a lot up from those Bell Beaker derived Central Europeans. Pannonia-Carpathian region is where most of the non-Corded, non-Bell Beaker lineages for modern Europeans came from I'd say. This includes most of I2, G2a, J2 and E-V13, probably even I1, but that's unresolved, might as well be local Northern European. Its at first best visible in Unetice, which was a fusion of Epi-Corded and Carpatho-Pannonian groups on top of Bell Beakers as well.

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    1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Riverman View Post
    Sure, the bulk was staying, a large fraction went South initially. They being thinned out later, mainly by the Slavic migrations, which might have carried E-V13 themselve, but less and different subclades.



    Yes, the North received most via Urnfield, Hallstatt, Celts and Germanics, only minor Greek and Illyrian, whereas it was the other way around for the south, with way more Illyrian, Greek and Thracian, but still from the more Northern route also, on the long run.



    Italics and Celts both came from the Rhenish-Alpine-Danubian area and as we know by now, Etruscans too picked a lot up from those Bell Beaker derived Central Europeans. Pannonia-Carpathian region is where most of the non-Corded, non-Bell Beaker lineages for modern Europeans came from I'd say. This includes most of I2, G2a, J2 and E-V13, probably even I1, but that's unresolved, might as well be local Northern European. Its at first best visible in Unetice, which was a fusion of Epi-Corded and Carpatho-Pannonian groups on top of Bell Beakers as well.
    As to your bolded comment, we'll see.

    As to Italy in terms of Hungarian Bronze Age:

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    As to your bolded comment, we'll see.

    As to Italy in terms of Hungarian Bronze Age:
    BR2 is an ancestor of Urnfield, related to Gva, he's being considered Kyjatice (even if not, genetically the individual is close), which is the sister group of Gva and had Channelled pottery too, so being part of the same South Eastern Urnfield complex. Kind of funny it peaks in Liguria and very Southern Italia. Quite fitting. It represents South Eastern Urnfielders before they mixed more heavily with the more Southern Pannonian-Balkan women on the way South (Belegis II-Gva, Fluted Ware Bulgaria, Knobbed Ware).
    I wrote about the context of this sample and its relevance for E-V13 and South Eastern Urnfield here:
    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...l=1#post633773

    Typically he had a Neolithic or Bronze Age Southern haplogroup as well.

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