Eupedia Forums
Site NavigationEupedia Top > Eupedia Forum & Japan Forum
Results 1 to 6 of 6

Thread: More chromosome errors in Neanderthal brain than human brains

  1. #1
    Advisor Angela's Avatar
    Join Date
    02-01-11
    Posts
    21,259


    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: USA - New York



    1 members found this post helpful.

    More chromosome errors in Neanderthal brain than human brains

    See:
    Longer metaphase and fewer chromosome segregation errors in modern human than Neanderthal brain development | Science Advances

    "Since the ancestors of modern humans separated from those of Neanderthals, around 100 amino acid substitutions spread to essentially all modern humans. The biological significance of these changes is largely unknown. Here, we examine all six such amino acid substitutions in three proteins known to have key roles in kinetochore function and chromosome segregation and to be highly expressed in the stem cells of the developing neocortex. When we introduce these modern human-specific substitutions in mice, three substitutions in two of these proteins, KIF18a and KNL1, cause metaphase prolongation and fewer chromosome segregation errors in apical progenitors of the developing neocortex. Conversely, the ancestral substitutions cause shorter metaphase length and more chromosome segregation errors in human brain organoids, similar to what we find in chimpanzee organoids. These results imply that the fidelity of chromosome segregation during neocortex development improved in modern humans after their divergence from Neanderthals."

    "
    It is noteworthy that the magnitude of the shortening of AP metaphases seen in the ancestralized organoids is close to that previously observed between modern human and chimpanzee organoids (18). It is therefore possible that the three amino acid substitutions in KIF18a and KNL1 are largely responsible for the difference in AP metaphase length between present-day humans and apes. Given that the three ancestral amino acids are shared between chimpanzees and archaic humans, this implies that most, if not all, of the lengthening of AP metaphase evolved in modern humans subsequent to the divergence from archaic humans around half a million years ago.

    "
    This may have significant consequences. During the early stage of this development, APs undergo symmetric proliferative divisions that increase the AP pool size (37, 53). Any chromosome segregation error that occurs in an AP at this stage will therefore be amplified by the natural AP proliferation, resulting in more APs with aberrant chromosome numbers. When APs switch to asymmetric divisions at the onset of cortical neurogenesis (37, 53), chromosomal aberrations may be transmitted to their progeny, i.e., the basal progenitors, cortical neurons, and macroglial cells. Therefore, any radial unit derived from an AP with a chromosome segregation error, and hence the cortical column that contains this unit (1, 54), might be functionally affected. Very different rates of neuronal aneuploidy in the brain have been reported in the literature. However, we note that the lagging chromosome percentages seen here are consistent with the percentages of aneuploidy reported for the human brain in recent studies (5557). Mis-segregation may also result in apoptosis and loss of progenitors and the radial units they would have generated. In either case, consequences for the functionality of the entire neocortex area harboring an affected radial unit may ensue, for example, for excitatory pyramidal neurons and their numerous connections and projections. In addition, lingering chromosome segregation defects may have a variety of pleiotropic effects because of perturbed nuclear organization, increased occurrence of micronuclei, and imbalances in gene expression (58, 59). These effects may tend to be more profound than the effects of somatic point mutations that may be involved, for example, in autism spectrum disorder (60). The present data imply that the probability of any such detrimental effects of chromosomal mis-segregation may be lower in modern humans than in Neanderthals, Denisovans, and apes. Further work is needed to address the importance of these effects for traits characteristic of modern humans."


    Non si fa il proprio dovere perchè qualcuno ci dica grazie, lo si fa per principio, per se stessi, per la propria dignità. Oriana Fallaci

  2. #2
    Advisor bicicleur's Avatar
    Join Date
    27-01-13
    Location
    Zwevegem, Belgium
    Posts
    5,761


    Country: Belgium - Flanders



    Does it mean modern humans had less offspring with congenital disorders?
    Could that have helped modern humans to outcompete Neanderthals?

    The neocortex, also called the neopallium, isocortex, or the six-layered cortex, is a set of layers of the mammalian cerebral cortex involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.

  3. #3
    Advisor Angela's Avatar
    Join Date
    02-01-11
    Posts
    21,259


    Ethnic group
    Italian
    Country: USA - New York



    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    Does it mean modern humans had less offspring with congenital disorders?
    Could that have helped modern humans to outcompete Neanderthals?
    The neocortex, also called the neopallium, isocortex, or the six-layered cortex, is a set of layers of the mammalian cerebral cortex involved in higher-order brain functions such as sensory perception, cognition, generation of motor commands, spatial reasoning and language.
    I think that's what they're saying, but not just fewer offspring with congenital disorders; also offspring with a higher functioning cerebral cortex.

    Many recent studies, approaching the subject from different angles, seem to be coming up with the same conclusions.

  4. #4
    Regular Member
    Join Date
    21-04-21
    Posts
    39


    Country: United Kingdom



    Prehaps this explains why Humans replaced Neanderthals after 60,000 KYA

  5. #5
    Advisor bicicleur's Avatar
    Join Date
    27-01-13
    Location
    Zwevegem, Belgium
    Posts
    5,761


    Country: Belgium - Flanders



    Quote Originally Posted by Diictodon View Post
    Prehaps this explains why Humans replaced Neanderthals after 60,000 KYA
    not quite so
    modern human related people already interacted with Neandertahls since at least 200 ka
    nevertheless the demise of the Neanderthals came quite sudden, in a relatively short period between 50 and 40 ka

  6. #6
    Regular Member
    Join Date
    21-04-21
    Posts
    39


    Country: United Kingdom



    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    not quite so
    modern human related people already interacted with Neandertahls since at least 200 ka
    nevertheless the demise of the Neanderthals came quite sudden, in a relatively short period between 50 and 40 ka
    You are right. Neanderthal Y DNA was replaced by AMH Y DNA after 180 Kya (so before the Eemian). But prehaps true behavioural modernity fully developed shortly after that mixture event in AMH in East Africa during the late African stone age.

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •