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Thread: A Genetic History of Continuity and Mobility in the Iron Age Central Mediterranean -

  1. #1
    Regular Member Lukas's Avatar
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    A Genetic History of Continuity and Mobility in the Iron Age Central Mediterranean -

    The Iron Age saw the expansion of Phoenician and Greek colonies across the Mediterranean and the rise of Carthage as the major maritime power of the region. These events were facilitated by the ease of long-distance travel following major advances in seafaring. We know from the archaeological record that trade goods and materials were moving across great distances in unprecedented quantities, but it is unclear how these patterns correlate with human mobility. To investigate population mobility and interactions directly, we sequenced the genomes of 30 ancient individuals from Carthaginian and Etruscan port cities around the central Mediterranean, in Tunisia, Sardinia, and central Italy. At all three locations, there is a meaningful contribution of autochthonous populations (from Bronze Age North Africa, Sardinia, and Italy, respectively), as well as highly heterogeneous ancestry including many individuals with ancestry from other parts of the Mediterranean region. These results highlight both the role of autochthonous populations and the extreme interconnectedness of populations in the Iron Age Mediterranean. By studying these trans-Mediterranean neighbors together, we explore the complex interplay between local continuity and mobility that shaped the Iron Age societies of the central Mediterranean.

    R11107.SG Pian Sultano 1923 calBCE - 1614.5 calBCE Central Italy Bronze Age

    Distance to: 11107
    1.49626209 Swiss_Italian
    1.55836320 IT_Lombardia
    1.59993562 FR_Corsica
    1.72515561 Portugal_Norte
    1.78386603 Portugal_Lisboa
    1.78484718 IT_Liguria
    1.83036570 IT_Trentino
    1.85371169 IT_Piedmont
    1.85734957 IT_Emilia-Romagna
    1.88195718 ES_Cataluna

    Target: 11107
    54.7 Swiss_Italian
    26.0 IT_central_Sardinian
    12.0 ES_Burgos
    7.3 IT_Lombardia

    K36 values

    R11791.SG Kerkouane 742 calBCE - 411 calBCE Tunisia Iron Age

    Distance to: 11791
    1.26898435 ES_Canarias
    1.32047544 Portugal_Norte
    1.32154342 Portugal_Lisboa
    1.36955367 Portugal_Centro
    1.41785213 Portugal_South
    1.44535342 ES_Galicia
    1.44882972 FR_Corsica
    1.45758698 ES_Islas_Baleares
    1.47338178 IT_Liguria

    Target: 11791
    24.4 ES_Cantabria
    21.7 IT_southern_Sardinian
    15.6 TUN_Sfax
    14.1 Portugal_Lisboa
    13.2 IT_Toscania
    6.7 ES_Navarra_central-south
    2.5 ES_Burgos
    1.8 Yemen_Jew
    G25 Maps
    K36 Ancestral Report & Chromosomal Analysis & Heat Maps

  2. #2
    Regular Member Lukas's Avatar
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    While many papers have suggested the Near Eastern and European components resulted from recent historical movements, such as Arab rule in Medieval North Africa and trans-Mediterranean trade in the last 500 years, we see evidence for these components being present in North Africa in the Iron Age, around 2,500 years ago."

    The high number of individuals with North African ancestry from central Italy may reflect the close connections between Carthage and the Etruscans, both through trade and also as allies facing common adversaries, especially Greek and Roman Imperial expansion.

    This is consistent with archaeological evidence of Punic expansion and connections between the Etruscans with Punic territories. Interestingly, while southern Italy is geographically closer to North Africa, it may not have been as integrated into the network of Carthaginian allies and key trading partners. In particular, our findings support and add temporal resolution to previous suggestions based on modern data (27, 30) that the Iron Age was a key time for trans-Mediterranean mobility and connectivity between the regions we today call northern Africa and southern Europe. Supporting this, the presence of a number of individuals similar to contemporaneous Italian and Greek populations at Kerkouane suggests a bidirectional movement of people, especially within the central Mediterranean.

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    Regular Member Lukas's Avatar
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    checking next one

    R11790.SG Kerkouane 761 calBCE - 405.5 calBCE Tunisia Iron Age

    Distance to: 11790
    1.87469570 FR_Corsica
    2.05879761 IT_southern_Sardinian
    2.09279612 ES_Canarias
    2.11039436 Portugal_Norte
    2.11402634 IT_Lazio
    2.11537580 IT_Liguria
    2.11817775 Portugal_South
    2.17654745 IT_Emilia-Romagna
    2.17747900 IT_Toscania
    2.18985038 IT_Marche

    Target: 11790
    41.7 IT_central_Sardinian
    26.0 ALG_Kabylie
    14.4 Italian_Jew
    10.8 Portugal_Lisboa
    4.4 IT_Lombardia
    2.7 ALG_North-West


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