Analyses of Bronze Age communities from Western Hungary. Preprint

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Abstract
In this study we report 20 ancient shotgun genomes from present-day Western Hungary (3530 - 1620 cal BCE), mainly from previously understudied Baden, Somogyvar-Vinkovci, Kisapostag, and Encrusted Pottery archaeological cultures. Besides analysing archaeological, anthropological and genetic data, 14C and strontium isotope measurements complemented reconstructing the dynamics of the communities discovered at the site Balatonkeresztur. Our results indicate the appearance of an outstandingly high Mesolithic hunter-gatherer ancestry in the largest proportion (up to ~46%) among Kisapostag associated individuals, despite this component being thought to be highly diluted by the Early Bronze Age. We show that hunter-gatherer ancestry was likely derived from a previously unrecognised source in Eastern Europe that contributed mostly to prehistoric populations in Central Europe and the Baltic region. We revealed a patrilocal residence system and local female exogamy for this Kisapostag population that was also the genetic basis of the succeeding community of the Encrusted Pottery culture, represented by a mass grave that likely resulted from an epidemic. We also created a bioinformatic pipeline dedicated for archaeogenetic data processing. By developing and applying analytical methods for analysing genetic variants we found carriers of aneuploidy and inheritable genetic diseases. Furthermore, based on genetic and anthropological data, we present here the first female facial reconstruction from the Bronze Age Carpathian Basin.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.02.03.478968v1


Here's the table with the haplogroups. The dominant Y-DNA is
I2a-L1229.

di-L0FWE.png
 
Could it be that this is just official publication of this already published study? https://agi.abtk.hu/en/news/news

We already knew the Western Encrusted Pottery Culture was dominated by I2a.

5.abra.png
 
It looks like i was right, this is exactly the same study, the Y-DNA results were already published in 2018 i think, this is the fully published paper.
 
It looks like i was right, this is exactly the same study, the Y-DNA results were already published in 2018 i think, this is the fully published paper.


Well, since its almost 2 years since the keynote speech for the other Carpathian basin study, we can hope the associated paper will be out any time soon :unsure:
 
di-3UTV.png
 
Pigmentation


Pigmentation patterns highly differ between horizons, as Bk-I mostlypossess variants for light pigmentation, blue eyes and blonde hair,while Bk-II is more similar to populations of Neolithic Europe (Fig.2), although some variants for lighter pigmentation exist within thisgroup too. Members of Bk-III on the other hand show a wide range fromdark to light tones and even the presence of variants for red hair(Supplementary Table S5, Supplementary Information section 3.2.1).

Page 5


...
Supplement
3.2.1)SNPs of pigmentation
For pigmentation assessment, we used a custom set of phenotypically relevant SNPs listed in the HIrisPlex-S system 77, which we extended with variants from the SNP edia database 78, for results, see Supplementary Table S5. SNPs were called with the following filters:trimmed read ends (2 bp), Base Quality>30, and Mapping Quality>30.According to the available data, BAD 002, despite providing weak signals for pigmentation, likely blends to the average Neolithic European variation. S 9 from Bk-I had European light, almost pale skin that probably had no freckles and was likely a bit less sensitive to sunburn. His hair was dark blonde and his eyes were likely blue,which traits are in accordance with previous studies of people with steppe origin 79. Bk-II shows almost uniform makeup, even with sparse data only a couple of variants show heterozygosity within the population. Accordingly, the overall pigmentation was dark, skin colour was probably darker than today’s average European, however,light and blue eye colouration occurred, thus most individuals probably had lighter hazel or green eyes, in addition of other SNPs associated with light pigmentation, freckles and blonde hair, which may have played a role in their appearance. The individuals in the Bk-II population were probably more sensitive to sunburn and had low tan response. Surprisingly, Bk-III shows a high variability of pigmentation patterns. The colouration of the preceding population appears, but more and well pronounced lighter pigmentation pattern scan be observed. Two individuals (S14 and S17) from the mass graveprobably had reddish blonde hair, green eyes and pale skin, maybe even freckles, likely as a result of admixture to populations of various origin.


 
It looks like i was right, this is exactly the same study, the Y-DNA results were already published in 2018 i think, this is the fully published paper.

Yep, you were right.
 

Hope once I read the paper this will make sense. Steppe is composed of EHG plus CHG/Iran Neo like ancestry. Why are they breaking out both EHG AND Steppe?

As for the pigmentation paragraph, did they miss where Yamnaya was darker than modern Europeans? What steppe people had light skin, hair and eyes?

What a jumble.
 
Hope once I read the paper this will make sense. Steppe is composed of EHG plus CHG/Iran Neo like ancestry. Why are they breaking out both EHG AND Steppe?

As for the pigmentation paragraph, did they miss where Yamnaya was darker than modern Europeans? What steppe people had light skin, hair and eyes?

What a jumble.

from the abstract :

Our results indicate the appearance of an outstandingly high Mesolithic hunter-gatherer ancestry in the largest proportion (up to ~46%) among Kisapostag associated individuals, despite this component being thought to be highly diluted by the Early Bronze Age.
 
from the abstract :

Our results indicate the appearance of an outstandingly high Mesolithic hunter-gatherer ancestry in the largest proportion (up to ~46%) among Kisapostag associated individuals, despite this component being thought to be highly diluted by the Early Bronze Age.

So, perhaps as I suspected and argued years ago, a good percentage of the "steppe" migrants were barely "steppe" or Indo-European at all; merely Indo-Europeanized.

Whatever their pigmentation was, it didn't come from the Indo-Europeans of the Pontic Caspian steppe.
 

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