Etruscan DNA: Tarquinia, ninth–seventh century BC, central Italy

Tarquinia IA is my closest G25 ancient match @1.85 (Genoplot CheckFit)

@ 0.01578187
I have:

78.4 Italy_TarquiniaMonterozzi_IA.SG

21.0 Italy_TarquiniaMonterozzi_IA_oLevent.SG

0.6 Morocco_Iberomaurusian
 
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Both males in Tarquinia, Individual 10 and Individual 19, are assigned to the J2b (J2b* and J2b2a respectively).

Here are the eye, hair and skin pigmentation of the five new Etruscan samples + the Latin and Etruscans from Antonio et al. 2019. The new Tarquinia samples have a higher proportion of blue eyes and lighter brown hair.


Context
Site
Published
Sample
Eye
Hair
Skin
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 10​
Blue​
Brown/Dark Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 11​
Brown**​
Lighter Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 14​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Intermediate-Dark​
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 19​
Blue​
Lighter Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 8​
Blue​
Lighter Brown​
Pale-Intermediate​
Adriatic coast Final Bronze Age​
Martinsicuro​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R1​
Blue​
Blond/Light Brown​
Pale-Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Veio Grotta Gramiccia​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R1015​
Blue​
Brown​
Intermediate​
Latin​
Castel di Decima​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R1016​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Intermediate-Dark​
Latin​
Boville Ernica​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R1021​
Brown​
Lighter Brown​
Intermediate​
Latin​
Palestrina Colombella​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R435​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Intermediate-Dark​
Latin​
Palestrina Selciata​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R437​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Intermediate-Dark​
Etruscan​
Civitavecchia​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R473​
Brown​
Lighter Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Civitavecchia​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R474​
Brown​
Blond/Light Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Civitavecchia​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R475​
Brown​
Lighter Brown (with red tones)​
Pale-Intermediate​
Latin​
Ardea​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R850​
Brown​
Dark Brown/Black​
Intermediate​
Latin​
Ardea​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R851​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Dark​
 
Tarquinia IA is my closest G25 ancient match @1.85.

@ 0.01578187
I have:

78.4 Italy_TarquiniaMonterozzi_IA.SG

21.0 Italy_TarquiniaMonterozzi_IA_oLevent.SG

0.6 Morocco_Iberomaurusian
Where does the Italy_TarquiniaMonterozzi_IA_oLevant sample plot on a PCA?
 
Both males in Tarquinia, Individual 10 and Individual 19, are assigned to the J2b (J2b* and J2b2a respectively).


Was J2b not unusual in Etruscans.

Posth's samples were mainly R1b.
 
Where does the Italy_TarquiniaMonterozzi_IA_oLevant sample plot on a PCA?
I can't say. I presume it represents a Levantine minority among Iron Age Etruscans.

BTW, it did say "Levent" instead of the proper spelling "Levant"!
 
Both males in Tarquinia, Individual 10 and Individual 19, are assigned to the J2b (J2b* and J2b2a respectively).
While some J2b2a* in Tuscany won't surprise me ... J2b* ? Is that a secured call ?
If really basal at J2b level, it is very interesting (and a bit surprising).
 
The Etruscans are nearly all Intermediate in skin tone with a few Pale-Intermediate while the Latins are mostly Intermediate or Dark.

Etruscan hair and eye colour is also lighter than the Latin equivalent.
 
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After checking supl. tables ... the J2b* have no calls below J2b.
No SNP deeper than J2b2a are mentioned, they likely didn't checked.

It is sad, because the deep clading at this location is quite interesting, particularly the distinction between Z615- and Z615+ branches.

Are the samples available ?
Apparently not yet : PRJEB74104
 
That contradicts a previous study with abnormally low rates of blue eyes for Etruscans compared to other IA and modern Italians.
If you are referring to the Picene paper, I think those particular Etruscans came from further north, around Colle Val D'Elsa, I believe, not Tarquinia/Civitavecchia/Veii.

Maybe there were local differences in colouring or else some sampling issue.
 
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That contradicts a previous study with abnormally low rates of blue eyes for Etruscans compared to other IA and modern Italians.
There are 3 studies on Iron Age Central Italy in order Antonio et al 2019, Posth et al 2021 and now Bagnasco et al 2024. Each study had samples from different areas but combined together, there is now a sample of 65 total.

The Posth et al 2021 sample has a large sample of Etruscans, a total of 48 Iron Age to Roman Republic samples. The Antonio et al 2019 paper had 11, 8 Latin and 3 Etruscan and now the Bagnasco et al 2024 paper with 6 additional Etruscan Samples. So to summarize, that is 65 Iron Age-Republican Roman era samples from Central Italy (Tuscany and Lazio). Regardless of the phenotype variation, it is I think 100% clear that these peoples overlap with Modern Italian populations starting at least Lazio on the one end, Tuscany definitely to Northern Italy then westward towards Iberia. So Not North of the Alps to Scandinavia, nor east to the Levant or southward towards North Africa.

From Bagnasco et al 2024

"The majority of Italian Iron Age individuals are projected broadly in the same regions of the PCA (Principal
Component Analysis) as modern Italian and west Mediterranean populations. A number of outlier individuals from Etruscan and Latin contexts have already been shown to carry significant amounts of Near Eastern or North African ancestry. Three published individuals from Etruscan contexts (~ 770–200 BC) have a high affinity to modern central European populations18. Individual 11 from Tarquinia clusters with populations from Scandinavia, the Baltic Sea, and north Atlantic regions in Europe, with genetic affinities to populations from further north in Europe than has previously been demonstrated in any Iron Age Italian individual. The other Tarquinian individuals cluster with the main group of Iron Age Italian individuals, in the same region of the plot as modern Italy and the central Mediterranean. Their position on one edge of the main cluster of Iron Age Pre-Imperial individuals may be the result of capturing more of the genetic diversity in Iron Age Italian populations (Fig. 4). Details of published ancient individuals used in PCA and admixture modelling analyses can be found in Supplementary Table S10"

Bagnasco et al 2024 are referencing Posth et al 2021, 40 of the 48 Iron-Age/Republican samples in that study genetically overlap with modern Italian and West Mediterranean populations (Iberia). The outliers referred to here (8 of them) are 4 with North African admixture, 1 with Levant-Near East admixture and 3 with affinity with Central European populations.

So there are enough Etruscan samples from these 3 studies to, in my view, run admixture models to get a very good picture of who the Etruscans were and which peoples today have the most direct affinity with them.

Cheers
 
The supplementary material suggests a general resemblance to North Italian (Parma) sample I1979 but with a little more Steppe.
An exception....Individual 11 seems to be genetically North European.
 
Both males in Tarquinia, Individual 10 and Individual 19, are assigned to the J2b (J2b* and J2b2a respectively).

Here are the eye, hair and skin pigmentation of the five new Etruscan samples + the Latin and Etruscans from Antonio et al. 2019. The new Tarquinia samples have a higher proportion of blue eyes and lighter brown hair.


Context
Site
Published
Sample
Eye
Hair
Skin
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 10​
Blue​
Brown/Dark Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 11​
Brown**​
Lighter Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 14​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Intermediate-Dark​
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 19​
Blue​
Lighter Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Tarquinia​
This study​
Individal 8​
Blue​
Lighter Brown​
Pale-Intermediate​
Adriatic coast Final Bronze Age​
Martinsicuro​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R1​
Blue​
Blond/Light Brown​
Pale-Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Veio Grotta Gramiccia​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R1015​
Blue​
Brown​
Intermediate​
Latin​
Castel di Decima​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R1016​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Intermediate-Dark​
Latin​
Boville Ernica​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R1021​
Brown​
Lighter Brown​
Intermediate​
Latin​
Palestrina Colombella​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R435​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Intermediate-Dark​
Latin​
Palestrina Selciata​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R437​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Intermediate-Dark​
Etruscan​
Civitavecchia​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R473​
Brown​
Lighter Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Civitavecchia​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R474​
Brown​
Blond/Light Brown​
Intermediate​
Etruscan​
Civitavecchia​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R475​
Brown​
Lighter Brown (with red tones)​
Pale-Intermediate​
Latin​
Ardea​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R850​
Brown​
Dark Brown/Black​
Intermediate​
Latin​
Ardea​
Antonio et al. 2019​
R851​
Brown​
Dark Brown​
Dark​
Cool!
 
While some J2b2a* in Tuscany won't surprise me ... J2b* ? Is that a secured call ?
If really basal at J2b level, it is very interesting (and a bit surprising).
It's due to coverage. There have been Etruscans denoted as R1b-P312* doesn't mean they are that i.e. they often times were obviously R1b-U152>L2+ of some sort. Same applies for J2b-L283 in Etruscans.
 
It's due to coverage. There have been Etruscans denoted as R1b-P312* doesn't mean they are that i.e. they often times were obviously R1b-U152>L2+ of some sort. Same applies for J2b-L283 in Etruscans.
Indeed
After checking supl. tables ... the J2b* have no calls below J2b.
No SNP deeper than J2b2a are mentioned, they likely didn't checked.
 

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