History of Science and technology in Hungary, What caused that MIRACLE?

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science_and_technology_in_Hungary


The "Berg-Schola," the world's first institute of technology, was founded in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary[1] in 1735. Its legal successor is the University of Miskolc in Hungary.

BME University is considered the world's oldest Institute of Technology which has university rank and structure. It was the first institute in Europe to train engineers at university level.[2] The legal predecessor of the university was founded in 1782 by Emperor Joseph II, and was named Latin: Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum ("Institute of Geometry and Hydrotechnics").

The first steam engine of continental Europe was built in Újbánya - Köngisberg, Kingdom of Hungary (Today Nová Baňa Slovakia) in 1722. It was similar to Newcomen type engines, it served on pumping water from mines.[3][4][5][6]

Important names in the 18th century are Maximilian Hell (astronomer), János Sajnovics (linguist), Matthias Bel (polyhistor), Samuel Mikoviny (engineer) and Wolfgang von Kempelen (polyhistor and co-founder of comparative linguistics). Ányos Jedlik physicist and engineer invented the first electric motor(1828), the dynamo, the self-excitation, the impulse generator, and the cascade connection. Important name in 19th century physics is Joseph Petzval,one of the founders of modern optics. The invention of the transformer (by Ottó Bláthy Miksa Déri and Károly Zipernowsky), the AC electricity meter and the electricity distribution systems with parallel-connected power sources decided the future of electrification in the War of Currents, which resulted in the global triumph of alternate current systems over the former direct current systems. Roland von Eötvös discovered the weak equivalence principle (one of the cornerstones in Einsteinian relativity). Rado von Kövesligethy discovered laws of black body radiation before Planck and Wien.[7][8] Hungary is famous for its excellent mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists. Famous Hungarian mathematicians include father Farkas Bolyai and son János Bolyai, designer of modern geometry (non-Euclidian geometry) 1820–1823. János Bólyai is together with John von Neumann considered as the greatest Hungarian mathematician ever. The most prestigious Hungarian scientific award is named in honor of János Bólyai. Paul Erdős, famed for publishing in over forty languages and whose Erdős numbers are still tracked;[9] and John von Neumann, Quantum Theory, Game theory a pioneer of digital computing and the key mathematician in the Manhattan Project. Many Hungarian scientists, including Zoltán Bay, Victor Szebehely (gave a practical solution to the three-body problem, Newton solved the two-body problem), Mária Telkes, Imre Izsak, Erdős, von Neumann, Leó Szilárd, Eugene Wigner and Edward Teller emigrated to the US. The other cause of scientist emigration was the Treaty of Trianon, by which Hungary, diminished by the treaty, became unable to support large-scale, costly scientific research; therefore[citation needed] some Hungarian scientists made valuable contributions in the United States. Thirteen Hungarian or Hungarian-born scientists received the Nobel Prize: von Lenárd, Bárány, Zsigmondy, von Szent-Györgyi, de Hevesy, von Békésy, Wigner, Gábor, Polányi, Oláh, Harsányi, and Herskó. All emigrated, mostly because of persecution of communist and/or fascist regimes.[10] Names in psychology are János Selye founder of Stress-theory and Csikszentmihalyi founder of Flow- theory. Tamás Roska is co-inventor of CNN (Cellular neural network) Some highly actual internationally well-known figures of today include: mathematician László Lovász, physicist Albert-László Barabási, physicist Ferenc Krausz, biochemist Árpád Pusztai and the highly controversial former NASA-physicist Ferenc Miskolczi, who denies the green-house effect.[11] According to Science Watch: In Hadron research Hungary has most citations per paper in the world.[12] In 2011 neuroscientists György Buzsáki, Tamás Freund and Péter Somogyi were awarded one million Euro with The Brain Prize ("Danish Nobel Prize")" for ".. brain circuits involved in memory..."[13] After the fall of the communist dictatorship (1989), a new scientific prize, Bolyai János alkotói díj, has been established (1997), politically unbiased and of the highest international standard.



The English word "coach" came from the Hungarian kocsi ("wagon from Kocs" referring to the village in Hungary where coaches were first made).[14][15]
Wolfgang von Kempelen invented a manually operated speaking machine in 1769.
János Irinyi invented the noiseless match.
In 1827 Ányos Jedlik invented the electric motor. He created the first device to contain the three main components of practical direct current motors: the stator, rotor and commutator. He built the first generator which used, instead of permanent magnets, two electromagnets opposite to each other to induce the magnetic field around the rotor.[1][2] It was also the discovery of the principle of "dynamo self-excitation"
David Schwarz invented and designed the first flyable rigid airship (aluminium-made). Later, he sold his patent for German Graf Zeppelin, who built the so-called Zeppelin airship.
Donát Bánki and János Csonka invented the Carburetor.
Ottó Bláthy, Miksa Déri and Károly Zipernowsky invented the modern transformer in 1885.[16][16]
Ottó Bláthy invented the Turbogenerator and Wattmeter.
Kálmán Kandó invented the Three-phase Alternating Current Electric locomotive, and was a pioneer in the development of electric railway traction.
Tivadar Puskás invented the Telephone Exchange.
Dezső Korda invented the Rotating Capacitor (Tuning Capacitor).
József Galamb was the inventor of many parts of the Ford Model T and co-developer of the assembly line
Sándor Just invented the Tungsten electric bulb (1904)
Imre Bródy invented the krypton electric bulb.
Loránd Eötvös: weak equivalence principle and surface tension
Kálmán Tihanyi: Invented and described the "charge-storage" physical phenomena, a pioneer in developing Electronic Television and camera-tube (1926) and invented the Plasma TV (1936) and Infrared camera (1929).
József Mihályi was co-designer or designer and inventor for KODAK the following cameras: Kodak Ekstra, Kodak Medalist, Kodak Super Six-20[17] and Kodak Bantam Special.[18]
Béla Barényi designed the Volkswagen Beetle and is the father of passive safety in automobiles.
Ervin Kováts invented the concept of Kovats retention index, a concept used in gas chromatography
Csaba Horváth constructed the first high performance liquid chromatograph
Ferenc Anisits created the modern diesel engine.
Albert Szent-Györgyi discovered Vitamin C and created the first artificial vitamin. (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937)
Theodore Kármán - Mathematical tools to study fluid flow and mathematical background of supersonic flight and inventor of swept-back wings, "father of Supersonic Flight"
Albert Fonó invented the ramjet propulsion
György Jendrassik invented the Turboprop propulsion
Leó Szilárd: hypothesized the nuclear chain reaction (therefore he was the first who realized the feasibility of an atomic bomb), patented the Nuclear reactor, invented the Electron microscope and the linear accelerator (the first particle accelerator) and later invented the cyclotron[19]
Tamás Péter Bródy invented the active-matrix thin film transistor technology which underpins the LCD and OLED displays commonly used today.
Dennis Gabor invented the Holography (Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971)
László Bíró invented ballpoint pen
Edward Teller hypothesized the thermonuclear fusion and the theory of the hydrogen bomb
John Kemeny developed the BASIC programming language with Thomas E. Kurtz
Ferenc Pavlics was one of two co-developers of NASA Apollo Lunar rover
Antal Bejczy developed Mars Rover Sojourner
Ernő Rubik invented the so-called Rubik's Cube
ArchiCAD, 3-D software was developed by Bojár (1987)
Charles Simonyi was chief-architect at Microsoft and oversaw the creation of Microsoft's flagship Office suite of applications.[20][21]
Gömböc, a new geometrical body, was invented in 2006 by Hungarian scientists Gábor Domokos and Péter Várkonyi
Endre Mester invented the Low level laser therapy or "light therapy"
Prezi, a web-based presentation application and storytelling tool, developed by Adam Somlai-Fischer and Peter Halacsy in 2007.
Áron Losonczy invented the LiTraCon, a Translucent Concrete building material.
Dániel Rátai invented the three dimensional monitor: Leonar3Do.[22]
The three dimensional scanner microscope 3D Alba (international patent in 2007) was developed by Katona Gergely and Rózsa Balázs[23]

In August 1939, Szilárd approached his old friend and collaborator Albert Einstein and convinced him to sign the Einstein–Szilárd letter, lending the weight of Einstein's fame to the proposal. The letter led directly to the establishment of research into nuclear fission by the U.S. government and ultimately to the creation of the Manhattan Project. Szilárd, with Enrico Fermi, patented the nuclear reactor).
 
bump. Hungarians shaped the technology of the 20th century.
 
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Electric motor transformer, electricity meter, first dynamo A-Bomb H-Bomb,N. chain reactor, Telephone exchange, Plasma TV, IR camera, Ford Model T, tungsten light bulb, electrinic camera tube.. Fantastic performance...
 
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