Mobility in the Iron Age Central Mediterranean (Moots et al. 2023)

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https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.03.13.483276v1

Hannah M Moots et al.
doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.03.13.483276
This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review

Abstract
The Iron Age saw the expansion of Phoenician and Greek colonies across the Mediterranean and the rise of Carthage as the major maritime power of the region. These events were facilitated by the ease of long-distance travel following major advances in seafaring. We know from the archaeological record that trade goods and materials were moving across great distances in unprecedented quantities, but it is unclear how these patterns correlate with human mobility. To investigate population mobility and interactions directly, we sequenced the genomes of 30 ancient individuals from Carthaginian and Etruscan port cities around the central Mediterranean, in Tunisia, Sardinia, and central Italy. At all three locations, there is a meaningful contribution of autochthonous populations (from Bronze Age North Africa, Sardinia, and Italy, respectively), as well as highly heterogeneous ancestry including many individuals with ancestry from other parts of the Mediterranean region. These results highlight both the role of autochthonous populations and the extreme interconnectedness of populations in the Iron Age Mediterranean. By studying these trans-Mediterranean neighbors together, we explore the complex interplay between local continuity and mobility that shaped the Iron Age societies of the central Mediterranean.

Characterizing the Genetic Heterogeneity at Kerkouane At Kerkouane, a Carthaginian town on the Cap Bon peninsula in Tunisia (see extended description in Materials), we observe a highly heterogeneous population, spanning across the PCA space in Fig. 3 from modern Mozabite populations to modern Sicilian populations, consisting of three primary genetic clusters.
One of the genetic groups we identified includes four individuals who have genetic continuity with preceding Maghrebi neolithic farmers, suggesting that these individuals represent an autochthonous North African population (Fig. 4). One individual, R11778, can be modeled in qpAdm with 100% Morocco Late Neolithic farmer ancestry, while three individuals, R11746, R11755, R11790, can be modeled predominantly with this component, along with the addition of 15 - 20% Steppe-related ancestry. A second cluster, visible in PCA (Fig. 3 and Fig. S5) and identified in qpWave (Fig. 5), contains seven individuals who are genetically similar to Bronze Sicilian and central Italian populations, as well as some individuals from the Hellenistic Iberian Greek colony of Emp ries (14, 23). For R11759, who projects near modern Mozabite and Moroccan populations in PCA space, there were no working distal qpAdm models with the original set of 5 distal source populations (Fig. 5). We replaced Morocco Late Neolithic with Morocco Early Neolithic farmers and a hunter-gatherer individual from Ethiopia from ~4500 BP (24), both of which produced working models. Using competition modeling (where possible sources are rotated to the outgroup), the best model uses ~70% Morocco Early Neolithic ancestry and ~30% Anatolia Neolithic (Fig. 4, Fig. S6). When compared to other ancient individuals using qpWave analysis (Fig. 5), this individual forms a clade with ancient Canary Island inhabitants thought to be representative of the original founding population (25). The Canary Islands were originally settled in the 1st millennium BCE by a population genetically ancestral to today’s Amazigh populations of Saharan
Africa (26).

Discussion
...
These results indicate that autochthonous North African populations contributed substantially to the genetic makeup of Kerkouane. The contribution of autochthonous North African populations in
Carthaginian history is obscured by the use of terms like “Western Phoenicians”, and even to an extent, “Punic”, in the literature to refer to Carthaginians, as it implies a primarily colonial population and diminishes indigenous involvement in the Carthaginian Empire. As a result, the role of autochthonous populations has been largely overlooked in studies of Carthage and its empire. Genetic approaches are well suited to examine such assumptions, and here we show that North African populations contributed substantially to the genetic makeup of Carthaginian cities. The high number of individuals with Italian and Greek-like ancestry may be due to the proximity of Kerkouane to Magna Graecia, as well as key trans-Mediterranean sailing routes passing by Cap Bon (1, 28). Yet, surprisingly, we did not detect individuals with large amounts of Levantine ancestry at Kerkouane. Given the roots of Carthage and its territories as Phoenician colonies, we had anticipated we would see individuals with ancestry similar to Phoenician individuals, such as those published in (12). One possible explanation is that the colonial expansion of Phoenician city-states at the start of the Iron Age did not involve large amounts of population mobility, and may have been based on trade relationships rather than occupation. Alternatively, this could potentially be due to differential burial practices (although Phoenician burial practices were thought to have shifted from cremations to interments in the central and western Mediterranean around 650 BCE (29), predating the individuals in the study), or to a disruption in connections between Carthaginian territories and the Eastern Mediterranean, after the fall of the Phoenician city-states to Babylon.

...

The Iron Age appears to be a key period for the formation of the current genetic structure of North Africa. Previous research suggests present-day central and western North African populations can be modeled as having four primary ancestry components: a local/autochthonous Maghrebi component derived from paleolithic hunter-gatherer populations in the region (20, 31, 32); a Near Eastern component thought to have been introduced with Arab rule of the region in the Medieval period (26); a sub-Saharan African component that was introduced in the last 5,000 years (16, 20); and a European component originally thought to have arrived due to historical population movements. While many papers have suggested the Near Eastern and European components resulted from recent historical movements, such as Arab rule in Medieval North Africa and trans-Mediterranean trade in the last 500 years, we see evidence for these
components being present in North Africa in the Iron Age, around 2,500 years ago. Fregel et al. 2018 show the European component is, at least partially, linked to the farming expansion and is similar to Anatolian and early European farmers (20). Additionally, we show that both Near Eastern and sub-Saharan African components were present in North Africa earlier than previously thought, reflecting the ongoing interconnectedness of North Africa to these regions for millennia (20, 33–35). The sub-Saharan ancestry we observe at Kerkouane may result either from direct contact or indirect contact through the nomadic populations of the Sahara. These nomadic groups, known to the Greeks as Numidians, are thought to be ancestral to Amazigh populations living in North Africa today. Trans-Saharan trade routes, made easier by a greener, less arid Sahara than today, had connected the communities of North Africa with their sub-Saharan counterparts since the Bronze Age (36, 37). Herodotus noted the coexistence of sedentary peoples and nomadic peoples in the land of the "libou" in the 5th century BCE (38). In addition to overland networks, these connections to sub-Saharan Africa also occurred by sea. Herodotus described Phoenician trade routes as extended far beyond the Mediterranean to the British Isles and West Africa via the Atlantic coast and even that a Phoenician and Egyptian expedition had circumnavigated Africa the previous century (1, 39). The Iron Age may have
been a key period for gene flow across the Sahara as well.
 
VGec12l.png


A lot of Sicilians and Greeks going to North Africa.
 
"In The Making of the Middle Sea, Cyprian Broodbank notes, “[w]ithout denying the likelihood of variousconstellations of social, cultural and other identities, early Mediterranean history instead comprises anever-shifting kaleidoscope of webs of people and practices changing within and between places.” Usingancient DNA we can begin to examine these webs in the Central Mediterranean during the Iron Age.People buried at the same port towns and sharing the material culture of burial, often sharing the sametombs, have diverse and geographically distant ancestries (Table S1). Non-local ancestry doesn’t seem tohave made individuals any less Carthaginian or any less Etruscan in their funerary celebrations. Perhaps,instead, this points us to a defining feature of these societies, a cultural one, and that is their embrace ofthose with roots at home as well as elsewhere."
 
I do not understand how conclusions can be drawn from port city necropolises, since it is a given that they were frequented by foreigners because of trade.
 
So, no Phoenicians in Carthaginian cities. If it's because they switched away from cremation later than previously thought, fine. If not, then I guess there goes that theory that the Carthaginians brought all this Levantine ancestry to places like Sicily and Iberia.

I know I keep doing this, but I did tell you so. I said over and over and over again that the Phoenicians were NOT colonizers, but were instead traders, and that there weren't enough of them to populate all these Carthaginian cities even before the downfall of their cities in today's Lebanon, and that I highly doubted much "Levantine" blood was spread through what were essentially trading marts.

The Carthaginians were essentially North Africans of their time, apparently, but even then the majority of their FORCES, the men on the ground, were mercenaries from all over the known world. Included among them were my own Ligures and many Iberians especially after the Carthaginians established colonies there. Once Hannibal was in Italy many of the tribes north of the Po joined in.

Does anyone else find her apparent surprise at the make-up of the North Africans of the time rather surprising? What else would one expect but an admixture of local HG derived ancestry, Levantine farmers (admixed, of course, with Anatolian farmers), who brought farming, and then "perhaps" some "black" African.

I have to read the paper carefully, but I highly doubt there were enough Sicilian and Greek settlers to contribute to the "European" ancestry in modern North Africans. Much more likely to just be EEF, or maybe a bit owing to the Barbary Pirates and their slave trade.

What always surprises me in any paper written by Moots (and affiliated people) is that she fails to grasp that the genomes of some people in port cities does not necessarily have anything to do with the genetic history of the people of the broader region.

We have a perfectly good example in the French and Italian and Spanish settlements in North Africa during colonial days. There were many farms owned and run by French and Spanish and Italian settlers. Libya, which had been taken over by Italy, shows to this day many traces of the influence of Italians. That doesn't mean there's recent Italian genetic influence in Libyans.

This is mostly about French settlement:
https://www.encyclopedia.com/histor...ripts-and-maps/north-africa-european-presence

This is about Italian Libya:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itali...olonies were,settlers still remained in Libya.
 
So, no Phoenicians in Carthaginian cities. If it's because they switched away from cremation later than previously thought, fine. If not, then I guess there goes that theory that the Carthaginians brought all this Levantine ancestry to places like Sicily and Iberia.

I know I keep doing this, but I did tell you so. I said over and over and over again that the Phoenicians were NOT colonizers, but were instead traders, and that there weren't enough of them to populate all these Carthaginian cities even before the downfall of their cities in today's Lebanon, and that I highly doubted much "Levantine" blood was spread through what were essentially trading marts.

The Carthaginians were essentially North Africans of their time, apparently, but even then the majority of their FORCES, the men on the ground, were mercenaries from all over the known world. Included among them were my own Ligures and many Iberians especially after the Carthaginians established colonies there. Once Hannibal was in Italy many of the tribes north of the Po joined in.

Does anyone else find her apparent surprise at the make-up of the North Africans of the time rather surprising? What else would one expect but an admixture of local HG derived ancestry, Levantine farmers (admixed, of course, with Anatolian farmers), who brought farming, and then "perhaps" some "black" African.

I have to read the paper carefully, but I highly doubt there were enough Sicilian and Greek settlers to contribute to the "European" ancestry in modern North Africans. Much more likely to just be EEF, or maybe a bit owing to the Barbary Pirates and their slave trade.

What always surprises me in any paper written by Moots (and affiliated people) is that she fails to grasp that the genomes of some people in port cities does not necessarily have anything to do with the genetic history of the people of the broader region.

We have a perfectly good example in the French and Italian and Spanish settlements in North Africa during colonial days. There were many farms owned and run by French and Spanish and Italian settlers. Libya, which had been taken over by Italy, shows to this day many traces of the influence of Italians. That doesn't mean there's recent Italian genetic influence in Libyans.

This is mostly about French settlement:
https://www.encyclopedia.com/histor...ripts-and-maps/north-africa-european-presence

This is about Italian Libya:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Itali...olonies were,settlers still remained in Libya.

In case I wasn't sufficiently clear, Port Cities are not going to necessarily tell you the whole story of the genetic history of a people, whether it's a Carthaginian city clinging to the edge of North Africa or a port city in Sardinia or Etruria.

In that regard, I highly doubt that the inhabitants of a Carthaginian port city, for example, tell us much about the inhabitants of North Africa once you get away from the ports.

I have no idea why this isn't obvious to these so called population geneticists.
 
This I don't understand at all:

" three individuals, R11746, R11755, R11790, can be modeledpredominantly with this component[Morocco Late Neolithic farmer], along with the addition of 15 - 20% Steppe-related ancestry."

I also don't know why the authors spend so much time talking about SSA ancestry in the Iron Age North Africans of the time when the single "best" candidate can be best modeled as "s ~70% Morocco Early Neolithicancestry and ~30% Anatolia Neolithic". It seems to me that reinforces the fact that the 20% SSA in modern North Africans did indeed come mostly with the Arab Slave trade, as is supported by the dating algorithms we have.

Anyone else confused by the fact that she traces the supposed "African" which entered the Sardinian genome 96 generations ago to the Carthaginians when not one of the Carthaginian samples is best modeled with any SSA? In fact, only one sample even has Morocco Early Neolithic. Plus, she's basing that on the Moorjani et al paper which Dienekes destroyed years ago. Instead of using that, why didn't she apply the newest dating algorithm from the Reich Lab (I posted a thread on it). Would have been nice if she had mentioned the percent of "African" or even "North African" like ancestry in the modern Sardinians. They're still the closest modern population to pre-Indo European Neolithic Europe in case she forgot.

You know what, I'm tired to reading idiotic papers. I'm done with this one.
 
People are concluding to much influence ( ethnic or not ) to Carthage .....a city state that existed in history for less than 700 years and its influence in Italy was very minimal..............even during the 2nd Punic war, the majority of italian "tribes" stood with Rome




southern Sardinia and western Sicily being the best that the carthage could control
 
Mobility in the Iron Age Central Mediterranean

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.03.13.483276v1.full.pdf


Abstract
The Iron Age saw the expansion of Phoenician and Greek colonies across the Mediterranean and the rise
of Carthage as the major maritime power of the region. These events were facilitated by the ease of
long-distance travel following major advances in seafaring. We know from the archaeological record that
trade goods and materials were moving across great distances in unprecedented quantities, but it is
unclear how these patterns correlate with human mobility. To investigate population mobility and
interactions directly, we sequenced the genomes of 30 ancient individuals from Carthaginian and
Etruscan port cities around the central Mediterranean, in Tunisia, Sardinia, and central Italy. At all three
locations, there is a meaningful contribution of autochthonous populations (from Bronze Age North Africa,
Sardinia, and Italy, respectively), as well as highly heterogeneous ancestry including many individuals
with ancestry from other parts of the Mediterranean region. These results highlight both the role of
autochthonous populations and the extreme interconnectedness of populations in the Iron Age
Mediterranean.
 
someone posted this in anthrogenica
someone anlayse some of the bam files
but what about the tunisian remains ?
hope for some e1b1b1( even e-v65 instead of e-m81 will be fine):LOL:


781404848491537cc6eea680481a1676830ed9e4131848f302e422b158c89f9861289508.jpg
 
Last edited:
Buona Pasqua

Dod. k12b

Code:
R10337_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,8.39,0,4.23,0.02,14.92,0,0,1.82,26.08,0.60,43.93,0.02
R10338_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,1.43,0,1.33,1.31,45.54,24.78,0,0,5.23,0,20.20,0.17
R10340_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,3.72,0,0,0,47.09,27.17,0,0.38,3.98,0.96,16.09,0.61
R10342_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,5.36,0.92,2.37,0,44.54,35.11,0,0,0.67,0.29,10.47,0.28
R10343_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,3.53,0,0.89,0.50,42.32,22.36,0,0.20,6.37,0,23.83,0
R10344_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,0,0,1.23,0,46.50,22.77,0,0.45,5.62,0,23.36,0.06
R10359_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,2.99,0.05,0,0.53,50.17,22.59,0,0,5.48,0,17.89,0.30
R10361_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,3.60,0,0.51,0.44,47.07,28.51,0,0,3.73,0.34,15.32,0.48
R10363_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,1.29,0.37,1.15,0.50,45.66,26.89,0.46,0,5.41,0,17.79,0.48
R11102_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,0,0,0.03,0,48.34,33.89,0,0,3.33,0.03,13.48,0.90
R11104_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,2.02,0,1.27,0.73,48.52,24.33,0,0,4.65,0,17.94,0.54
R11105_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,1.58,0.48,0.37,0,51.51,23.78,0,0,5.12,0,16.42,0.73
R11107_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,0,0,1.27,0,51.48,23.67,0,0,6.23,0.38,16.75,0.22
R11828_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia,0,0,3.77,0,68.53,9.35,0,0.30,6.72,0,11.32,0
R11829_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia,0,0,3.81,0.29,68.29,6.22,0,0,6.29,0,15.10,0
R11835_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia,0,0,2.92,0.41,68.58,4.55,0,0,6.97,0,16.43,0.14
R11749_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,2.93,0,4.71,0,41.35,15.75,0.45,1.66,10.27,0,22.35,0.52
R11755_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,0,0,17.73,0.53,35.75,9.11,0,2.86,11.62,0,21.49,0.91
R11776_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,1.64,0,3.57,0.84,35.67,10.95,0.36,0.28,13.35,0.18,33.02,0.16
R11780_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,2.13,0,4.17,0.93,33.91,12.31,0,0,12.53,0.11,33.56,0.36
R11790_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,0,0,14.84,0.06,42.01,6.16,0.32,1.40,14.37,0,20.07,0.77
R11791_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,0.53,0,9.07,0.24,42.62,12.67,1.07,0.86,9.97,0,22.65,0.33

hNRDpVq.gif
 
Salento: Buona Pasqua mio amico
 
Hi Pax Augusta: Perhaps the you and the moderators can combine the threads since Salento estimated the Dodecad 12B coordinates for some of those samples.

Cheers, PT
 
I have merged the two threads.
 
Buona Pasqua

Dod. k12b

Code:
R10337_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,8.39,0,4.23,0.02,14.92,0,0,1.82,26.08,0.60,43.93,0.02
R10338_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,1.43,0,1.33,1.31,45.54,24.78,0,0,5.23,0,20.20,0.17
R10340_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,3.72,0,0,0,47.09,27.17,0,0.38,3.98,0.96,16.09,0.61
R10342_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,5.36,0.92,2.37,0,44.54,35.11,0,0,0.67,0.29,10.47,0.28
R10343_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,3.53,0,0.89,0.50,42.32,22.36,0,0.20,6.37,0,23.83,0
R10344_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,0,0,1.23,0,46.50,22.77,0,0.45,5.62,0,23.36,0.06
R10359_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,2.99,0.05,0,0.53,50.17,22.59,0,0,5.48,0,17.89,0.30
R10361_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,3.60,0,0.51,0.44,47.07,28.51,0,0,3.73,0.34,15.32,0.48
R10363_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,1.29,0.37,1.15,0.50,45.66,26.89,0.46,0,5.41,0,17.79,0.48
R11102_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,0,0,0.03,0,48.34,33.89,0,0,3.33,0.03,13.48,0.90
R11104_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,2.02,0,1.27,0.73,48.52,24.33,0,0,4.65,0,17.94,0.54
R11105_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,1.58,0.48,0.37,0,51.51,23.78,0,0,5.12,0,16.42,0.73
R11107_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,0,0,1.27,0,51.48,23.67,0,0,6.23,0.38,16.75,0.22
R11828_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia,0,0,3.77,0,68.53,9.35,0,0.30,6.72,0,11.32,0
R11829_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia,0,0,3.81,0.29,68.29,6.22,0,0,6.29,0,15.10,0
R11835_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia,0,0,2.92,0.41,68.58,4.55,0,0,6.97,0,16.43,0.14
R11749_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,2.93,0,4.71,0,41.35,15.75,0.45,1.66,10.27,0,22.35,0.52
R11755_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,0,0,17.73,0.53,35.75,9.11,0,2.86,11.62,0,21.49,0.91
R11776_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,1.64,0,3.57,0.84,35.67,10.95,0.36,0.28,13.35,0.18,33.02,0.16
R11780_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,2.13,0,4.17,0.93,33.91,12.31,0,0,12.53,0.11,33.56,0.36
R11790_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,0,0,14.84,0.06,42.01,6.16,0.32,1.40,14.37,0,20.07,0.77
R11791_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,0.53,0,9.07,0.24,42.62,12.67,1.07,0.86,9.97,0,22.65,0.33

hNRDpVq.gif

Excellent work!
 
Salento: Thanks for the coordinates. I ran the samples you provided in post 11 along with the 11 Iron Age Romans from Antonio et al 2019, which were included in this sample to compare against the 30 New Iron Age samples in the Moots et al 2022 Pre-Print. I get good distances with R11790 and 11786 both which are modeled as a 2 way admixture between Anatolian Neolithic (EEF) and Iran_Neolithic. Looking over at R437, The Iron Age/Republican Roman who most closely clusters with modern Southern Italians, the only difference between R437 and R11790 and R11786 is the additional Steppe-Yamnaya component in R437.

Distance to:PalermoTrapani_ANCESTRY
4.18976133Mediterranean_C6:R437_Iron_Age_Palestrina_Selicata
6.39831228R11780_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
8.00517957R11776_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
13.23641568Eastern_Mediterranean_C5:R850_Iron_Age_Ardea
15.15189097R11749_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
16.54641653North_African_C3:R475_Iron_Age_Civitavecchia
17.37154570R11791_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
17.40331865European_C7:R1_Iron_Age_Protovillanovan_Martinsicuro
18.30758040R10343_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
19.89199085R11755_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
20.72008205European_C7:R474_Iron_Age_Civitavecchia
22.12337904R11790_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
22.60311483R10344_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
23.17349132European_C7:R1015_Iron_Age_Veio_Grotta_Gramiccia
23.21816315European_C7:R1016_Iron_Age_Castel_di_Decima
23.78614092European_C7:R473_Iron_Age_Civitavecchia
23.89680732R10338_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
25.41911682European_C7:R1021_Iron_Age_Boville_Ernica
26.19888738R10363_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
26.80170330R11104_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano
27.08717224R10359_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
27.54563123European_C7:R851_Iron_Age_Ardea
27.67798764R10337_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
28.25671425R10340_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
29.22786855R11107_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano

Admixtures based on Jovialis Italian models confirming the Aneli et al 2022 findings in the Iron Age Apulian paper. Works very well for these samples. A few takes that I have is that the two Samples that I am closest to are very close to R437 and what I get using the model that Jovialis put together (heavy Minoan component). Seems like these 2 samples represent a similar ancestry to R347 present in Republican Rome and as the paper notes, these individuals were likely from somewhere from Sicily to Greece, although they could just as easy be from Southern Mainland Italy. Hopefully that paper on Iron age Campania that also has Iron Age Sicilian data has samples that can add to this and we can get more Iron Age samples from Calabria, Basilicata, Puglia as well.

Ht9b6zJ.jpg

86z04zH.jpg


Distance to:R11776_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
5.91613049Mediterranean_C6:R437_Iron_Age_Palestrina_Selicata
8.00517957PalermoTrapani_ANCESTRY
9.32451607Italian_Campania
10.54308304Italian_Calabria
10.57964083Italian_Abruzzo
10.65824563Italian_Sicily
11.01665938Italian_Marche
11.71823792Italian_Jews
12.35986650Italian_Lazio
12.91644301Italian_Apulia
13.33908543Italian_Romagna
15.19217233Italian_Tuscany
16.81149904Italian_Emilia
17.12205595Eastern_Mediterranean_C5:R850_Iron_Age_Ardea
17.12755090Italian_Liguria
19.70125631Italian_Lombardy
20.82659118Italian_Piedmont
21.11623072Italian_Veneto
22.95273186Italian_Friuli_VG
24.67908629Italian_Trentino
27.35627350Italian_Aosta_Valley

Distance to:R11780_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
4.73838580Mediterranean_C6:R437_Iron_Age_Palestrina_Selicata
6.39831228PalermoTrapani_ANCESTRY
7.40292510Italian_Campania
8.51601433Italian_Abruzzo
8.65423018Italian_Sicily
8.83294402Italian_Calabria
9.62394534Italian_Marche
10.64856798Italian_Jews
10.72051305Italian_Apulia
10.78508229Italian_Lazio
12.26882635Italian_Romagna
14.50903167Italian_Tuscany
15.43195062Eastern_Mediterranean_C5:R850_Iron_Age_Ardea
16.19472754Italian_Emilia
16.56617337Italian_Liguria
19.23660573Italian_Lombardy
20.16450842Italian_Piedmont
20.25235048Italian_Veneto
21.95018907Italian_Friuli_VG
24.00577014Italian_Trentino
26.86120995Italian_Aosta_Valley
 
Last edited:
Salento: Thanks for the coordinates. I ran the samples you provided in post 11 along with the 11 Iron Age Romans from Antonio et al 2019, which were included in this sample to compare against the 30 New Iron Age samples in the Moots et al 2022 Pre-Print. I get good distances with R11790 and 11786 both which are modeled as a 2 way admixture between Anatolian Neolithic (EEF) and Iran_Neolithic. Looking over at R437, The Iron Age/Republican Roman who most closely clusters with modern Southern Italians, the only difference between R437 and R11790 and R11786 is the additional Steppe-Yamnaya component in R437.

Distance to:PalermoTrapani_ANCESTRY
4.18976133Mediterranean_C6:R437_Iron_Age_Palestrina_Selicata
6.39831228R11780_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
8.00517957R11776_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
13.23641568Eastern_Mediterranean_C5:R850_Iron_Age_Ardea
15.15189097R11749_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
16.54641653North_African_C3:R475_Iron_Age_Civitavecchia
17.37154570R11791_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
17.40331865European_C7:R1_Iron_Age_Protovillanovan_Martinsicuro
18.30758040R10343_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
19.89199085R11755_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
20.72008205European_C7:R474_Iron_Age_Civitavecchia
22.12337904R11790_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
22.60311483R10344_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
23.17349132European_C7:R1015_Iron_Age_Veio_Grotta_Gramiccia
23.21816315European_C7:R1016_Iron_Age_Castel_di_Decima
23.78614092European_C7:R473_Iron_Age_Civitavecchia
23.89680732R10338_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
25.41911682European_C7:R1021_Iron_Age_Boville_Ernica
26.19888738R10363_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
26.80170330R11104_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano
27.08717224R10359_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
27.54563123European_C7:R851_Iron_Age_Ardea
27.67798764R10337_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
28.25671425R10340_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
29.22786855R11107_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano

Admixtures based on Jovialis Italian models confirming the Aneli et al 2022 findings in the Iron Age Apulian paper. Works very well for these samples. A few takes that I have is that the two Samples that I am closest to are very close to R437 and what I get using the model that Jovialis put together (heavy Minoan component). Seems like these 2 samples represent a similar ancestry to R347 present in Republican Rome and as the paper notes, these individuals were likely from somewhere from Sicily to Greece, although they could just as easy be from Southern Mainland Italy. Hopefully that paper on Iron age Campania that also has Iron Age Sicilian data has samples that can add to this and we can get more Iron Age samples from Calabria, Basilicata, Puglia as well.

Ht9b6zJ.jpg

86z04zH.jpg


Distance to:R11776_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
5.91613049Mediterranean_C6:R437_Iron_Age_Palestrina_Selicata
8.00517957PalermoTrapani_ANCESTRY
9.32451607Italian_Campania
10.54308304Italian_Calabria
10.57964083Italian_Abruzzo
10.65824563Italian_Sicily
11.01665938Italian_Marche
11.71823792Italian_Jews
12.35986650Italian_Lazio
12.91644301Italian_Apulia
13.33908543Italian_Romagna
15.19217233Italian_Tuscany
16.81149904Italian_Emilia
17.12205595Eastern_Mediterranean_C5:R850_Iron_Age_Ardea
17.12755090Italian_Liguria
19.70125631Italian_Lombardy
20.82659118Italian_Piedmont
21.11623072Italian_Veneto
22.95273186Italian_Friuli_VG
24.67908629Italian_Trentino
27.35627350Italian_Aosta_Valley

Distance to:R11780_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
4.73838580Mediterranean_C6:R437_Iron_Age_Palestrina_Selicata
6.39831228PalermoTrapani_ANCESTRY
7.40292510Italian_Campania
8.51601433Italian_Abruzzo
8.65423018Italian_Sicily
8.83294402Italian_Calabria
9.62394534Italian_Marche
10.64856798Italian_Jews
10.72051305Italian_Apulia
10.78508229Italian_Lazio
12.26882635Italian_Romagna
14.50903167Italian_Tuscany
15.43195062Eastern_Mediterranean_C5:R850_Iron_Age_Ardea
16.19472754Italian_Emilia
16.56617337Italian_Liguria
19.23660573Italian_Lombardy
20.16450842Italian_Piedmont
20.25235048Italian_Veneto
21.95018907Italian_Friuli_VG
24.00577014Italian_Trentino
26.86120995Italian_Aosta_Valley


Thanks for running them, I need to check them out when I get a chance.
 
Buona Pasqua

Dod. k12b

Code:
R10337_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,8.39,0,4.23,0.02,14.92,0,0,1.82,26.08,0.60,43.93,0.02
R10338_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,1.43,0,1.33,1.31,45.54,24.78,0,0,5.23,0,20.20,0.17
R10340_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,3.72,0,0,0,47.09,27.17,0,0.38,3.98,0.96,16.09,0.61
R10342_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,5.36,0.92,2.37,0,44.54,35.11,0,0,0.67,0.29,10.47,0.28
R10343_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,3.53,0,0.89,0.50,42.32,22.36,0,0.20,6.37,0,23.83,0
R10344_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,0,0,1.23,0,46.50,22.77,0,0.45,5.62,0,23.36,0.06
R10359_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,2.99,0.05,0,0.53,50.17,22.59,0,0,5.48,0,17.89,0.30
R10361_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,3.60,0,0.51,0.44,47.07,28.51,0,0,3.73,0.34,15.32,0.48
R10363_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi,1.29,0.37,1.15,0.50,45.66,26.89,0.46,0,5.41,0,17.79,0.48
R11102_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,0,0,0.03,0,48.34,33.89,0,0,3.33,0.03,13.48,0.90
R11104_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,2.02,0,1.27,0.73,48.52,24.33,0,0,4.65,0,17.94,0.54
R11105_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,1.58,0.48,0.37,0,51.51,23.78,0,0,5.12,0,16.42,0.73
R11107_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano,0,0,1.27,0,51.48,23.67,0,0,6.23,0.38,16.75,0.22
R11828_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia,0,0,3.77,0,68.53,9.35,0,0.30,6.72,0,11.32,0
R11829_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia,0,0,3.81,0.29,68.29,6.22,0,0,6.29,0,15.10,0
R11835_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia,0,0,2.92,0.41,68.58,4.55,0,0,6.97,0,16.43,0.14
R11749_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,2.93,0,4.71,0,41.35,15.75,0.45,1.66,10.27,0,22.35,0.52
R11755_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,0,0,17.73,0.53,35.75,9.11,0,2.86,11.62,0,21.49,0.91
R11776_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,1.64,0,3.57,0.84,35.67,10.95,0.36,0.28,13.35,0.18,33.02,0.16
R11780_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,2.13,0,4.17,0.93,33.91,12.31,0,0,12.53,0.11,33.56,0.36
R11790_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,0,0,14.84,0.06,42.01,6.16,0.32,1.40,14.37,0,20.07,0.77
R11791_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene,0.53,0,9.07,0.24,42.62,12.67,1.07,0.86,9.97,0,22.65,0.33

hNRDpVq.gif

This is quite interesting. One of the Tarquinia samples comes out close to Parma Beaker, one of the Pian Sultano samples close to Hallstatt, and some close to Eastern Iberia. Also, some of the Tunisian samples are close to Etruscans.

Here are mine:
Distance to:Angela
4.98822614R10343_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
8.33730772R11749_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
8.80632159R10344_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
10.39213645R10338_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
12.28308186R11791_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
13.06251124R11104_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano
13.19631009R10363_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
13.54577425R10359_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
14.40266989R11780_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
14.56147657R11776_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
14.96917499R10340_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
15.91062224R11105_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano
15.95617749R11107_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano
16.18622254R10361_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
21.73726294R11755_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
21.83411093R11102_Italy_bc-Pian_Sultano
22.03386484R11790_Tunisia_bc-Kerkouene
23.54925264R10342_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi
32.85937614R11829_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia
33.35252014R11835_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia
33.53697512R11828_Sardinia_bc-Sant_Imbenia
42.38630085R10337_Italy_bc-Tarquinia_Monterozzi


Interestingly, my closest by a lot is the sample closest to Etruscans and Croatia Late Bronze Age. The second is a Tunisia sample closest to Armenoi Crete, which if I remember correctly is not Minoan like but has a lot more steppe. Is it the one which was closest to Tuscans?
 

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