Mtdna H


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I ordered a basic Mtdna test on FTDNA.

My haplogroup is H - HRV1 : 16519C

What does it mean ?

Should I order a full Mtdna sequence to know my subclade ?

Thanks for your help, I'm a newbie.

Fabrice Delangre
I ordered a basic Mtdna test on FTDNA.

My haplogroup is H - HRV1 : 16519C

What does it mean ?

Should I order a full Mtdna sequence to know my subclade ?

Thanks for your help, I'm a newbie.

Fabrice Delangre

you are H2a21 ............which is what I was until yesterday when FTDNA re-ran my mtdna due to a glitch. I am now H2a2a

*Markers found (shown as differences to rCRS):*

*HVR2:* 263G (315.1C)
*HVR1:* (16519C)

*Best mtDNA Haplogroup Matches:*

*1) H2a2a*

*Defining Markers for haplogroup H2a2a:*
*HVR2: 263G
HVR1: *

*Marker path from rCRS to haplogroup H2a2a (plus extra markers):
H2a2a1(rCRS) ⇨ 263G ⇨ H2a2a ⇨ (315.1C) (16519C)*

*Perfect Match!* Your results are an exact match to this haplogroup.
*Matches(1): 263G*
*Extras(0): (315.1C) (16519C)

50% of matches are in Austria and Czech areas, 5% Swedish, 20% German (Rhine areas), and the remainder British isles.........only a few in italy but the best match comes from nemours in central france
After having issues with my mtdna for a long time, on if I was in the H2 branch or not, Ftdna did my test again which started in November 2012 and completed in March 2013. I have now been removed from H2 branch as my markers indicate I cannot be H2. Latest is that I am H1n4 in which I have 14 matches..all from Finland.
My question is , I heard something about Finland being a bottleneck area, if this terminology is correct what does this mean?
A genetic bottleneck is when very few members all of this same lineage arrive somewhere, reproduce and create many many individuals with this lineage from this initial small group.
why does Sorensen site place H mtDna as beginning in Arkhangelsk area and not Kazakhstan area?
I have included a short synopsis as provided by 23andme (which calculated my raw data) re: the H haplogroup, specifically the H1 subgroup. My MtDNA is H1a1. IntroductionHaplogroup H1 originated about 13,000 years ago, not long after the end of the Ice Age. At that time much of Europe was covered by glacial ice sheets that descended southward from Scandinavia and extended across the alpine regions of the Pyrenees and Italian Alps. People who had formerly inhabited continental Europe sought refuge in the warmer climates of southern France, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas.
The H1 mutation likely arose in a woman living on the Iberian peninsula. Even today, almost 25% of the Spanish population carries the H1 haplogroup. With the waning of the Ice Age, some populations grew rapidly and expanded northward from the Iberian refuge. Others turned southward, crossing the Strait of Gibraltar into northern Africa.
Following the Atlantic coast northwards, hunter-gatherers carried H1 into what would become the British Isles. As the ice sheets retreated farther they carried the haplogroup as far as Scandinavia. The H1 haplogroup remains quite high in the present-day populations of Britain and Ireland as well, ranging from levels of 15% to 40%.
About 13% of present-day Europeans trace their maternal ancestry to the H1 haplogroup. Though it is of western European origin, it also reaches significant levels outside Europe, from Morocco and Tunisia to Lebanon and east into Central Asia.
H1aH1a originated during the Younger Dryas Cycle, a short cold snap between 12,900 and 11,500 years ago that interrupted the general warming trend at the end of the Ice Age. Forests in Scandinavia were replaced by tundra, and droughts occurred in the Near East. After this cooling cycle ended, a group carrying H1a rapidly expanded from southern Europe northward into Finland and eastern Europe. After reaching the Baltic Sea, individuals with H1a eventually moved farther east into the Finno-Ugric speaking populations who lived along the Volga River and in the Ural Mountains of Russia.
H1bH1b is one of the most common branches of H1, averaging about 4% among Europeans today. It originated about 13,000 years ago, just as the Ice Age had was ending and temperate forests were expanding throughout central Europe. While H1b probably arose in southern France or Iberia, it is most frequent among eastern Europeans. Women carrying H1b journeyed eastward from France, passed north of the Italian Alps and entered present-day Slovakia. From there, H1b spread north throughout the region surrounding the Baltic Sea and the Volga-Ural area of Russia. Women carrying H1b also moved into southeastern Europe via Ukraine, the Balkans and the Caucasus Mountains.
H1fH1f dates back to about 4,000 years ago, when it branched off H1 as women carrying that haplogroup migrated northward toward the Baltic Sea. H1f is virtually constrained to Baltic populations, particularly Finno-Ugric speakers such as the Finns and Karelians. About 10% of Finns carry H1f.
@fdelangre I researched via 23andme and found the following information. It isn't an exact match but hopefully will provide additional information re: your haplogroup and subgroups....HV1 is a subgroup of R0.... IntroductionR0 is ancestral to the common European haplogroups H and V. As a result, about 50% of Europeans have mitochondrial DNA belonging to R0 simply by virtue of its ancestral relationship to those haplogroups. R0 originated more than 35,000 years ago, probably in Arabia, and later spread throughout the Near East, Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. It spawned many sub-branches, including the HV sub-groups, which exist at low levels today across Europe and the Near East
The HV Sub-groupsHV*, a sister of the common European haplogroups H and V, arose in the Near East not long after modern humans left Africa more than 40,000 years ago. From the Near East, the haplogroup appears to have spread into North Africa, Russia, eastern Europe and the Italian peninsula, which has an unusually high concentration of HV*. The largest concentration of HV*, however, appears to be in Iraq. The haplogroup is also common in other regions of the Near East, particularly the Caucasus Mountains. There are four major daughter lineages encompassed within haplogroup HV*, known as HV1, HV2, HV3, and HV4.
Haplogroup HV1We do not yet know when haplogroup HV1 diverged from the main HV branch, but it was probably not long after modern humans had first moved into the Near East 40,000 years ago. Individuals carrying HV1 may have moved with hunter-gatherers into Europe as early as 35,000 years ago, after groups began migrating northward from the Levant and Caucasus Mountains during a brief respite from the frozen climate of the Last Ice Age.
In spite of its ancient spread across eastern Europe, the haplogroup is relatively rare among modern Europeans. HV1 can be found at low levels among the peoples of the northern Caucasus, Turkey and Iran. The highest levels of HV1 are in the nomads of the Near East and North Africa. In fact, HV1 reaches almost 10% in the Druze of the Levant and 15% in Berbers of Tunisia. Although HV1 can be found in Moroccan Jewish, Yemenite Jewish and Palestinian Jewish populations, there are many non-Jews belonging to the haplogroup as well. For example, a small number of HV1 individuals have been found in Ethiopia and Sudan, though they appear to be very recent migrants from the Arabian Peninsula.
Haplogroup HV2Haplogroup HV2 originated about 28,000 years ago, prior to the coldest days of the Last Ice Age, most likely in present-day Iran or southern Pakistan. Today the haplogroup reaches levels of about 10% in populations like the Parsi and Baluch of Pakistan and the Gilaki of northern Iran. Interestingly, although the Indus Valley and deserts of Iran appear to have limited migrations between the populations of India and those of the Near East, women carrying haplogroup HV2 appear to have migrated short distances throughout the mountains and deserts of the Iranian Plateau.
Haplogroup HV2 was probably maintained at low levels in indigenous hunter-gatherer populations throughout the Ice Age. Then, as the glaciers retreated and deserts shrank, HV2 expanded outward from the Iranian Plateau as local groups adopted agriculture and domesticated animals about 8,000 to 10,000 years ago. Population growth likely led to an increase in the number of migrants leaving the region. Today, HV2 can be found as far East as Xinjiang, China, and as far west as Iraq, Jordan and Yemen.
Haplogroup HV3Haplogroup HV3 originated just as the Ice Age was loosening its grip on the northern half of Europe. The Ice Age had covered northern Europe with glaciers, and turned the eastern European plains to frigid tundra. Cold temperatures in the north led to a harsh dry climate further to the south, causing deserts in the Near East to grow in size. Humans were forced to hunker down in the few ice-free oases scattered throughout southern Europe, the Black Sea, and parts of the Near East.
As the Ice Age drew to a close, members of HV3 emerged from one of the Black Sea or Near Eastern oases. From there HV3 spread toward Russia and eastern Europe, making it as far north as Latvia, where about 3% of the population belong to the haplogroup. However, HV3 is much less common in other parts of Europe. The only exception to this is the Italian Peninsula, where HV3 appears at about 3% among Tuscans from northern Italy. The presence of HV3 among present-day Tuscans may be tied to the ancient Etruscans, who sailed from Anatolia (modern day Turkey) about 2,500 years ago. Tuscans tend to fall within two branches of HV3: HV3b and HV3c.
@zanipolo Your suggestion of H2a2a* as follows: H2a2a is a subgroup of H2... IntroductionHaplogroup H is the most common in Europe, reaching peak concentrations along the Atlantic coast. Although its origins are unclear, the haplogroup rose to prominence during the Ice Age, when much of Europe was blanketed by glaciers and its population squeezed into a handful of ice-free refuges in Iberia, Italy, the Balkans and the Caucasus.
Several branches of haplogroup H arose during that time, and after the glaciers receded most of them played a prominent role in the repopulation of the continent. With the subsequent spread of agriculture and the rise of organized military campaigns, the haplogroup achieved an even wider distribution. It is now found throughout Europe and at lower levels in Asia, reaching as far south as Arabia and eastward to the western fringes of Siberia.
Origin of H2The H2 branch of haplogroup H originated in the Near East about 26,000 years ago, when the Ice Age covered much of Eurasia with a thick layer of ice that rendered most of Europe uninhabitable. When the climate warmed about 15,000 years ago, opening the continent to habitation for the first time in millennia, people carried the H2 haplogroup from the Near East as far as the Basque region of northern Spain. It is surprisingly common in Sweden, where up to 11% of southern Swedes carry H2.
The H2 haplogroup can still be found at low levels among the populations of Saudi Arabia, Daghestan and other Near Eastern countries.
The mitochondrial standardThe first mitochondrial DNA sequence ever produced came from the H2 haplogroup. Known as the Cambridge Reference Sequence, it was produced in a laboratory at Cambridge University using a sample from a person of European descent. The Cambridge Reference Sequence is used as a standard for measures of variation in the mitochondrial genome.
Haplogroup H2aA common branch of haplogroup H2, H2a originated about 21,000 years ago during the depths of the Ice Age. The haplogroup likely arose in Turkey or the nearby Caucasus Mountains. Several especially ancient branches of H2a have been found among present-day populations of Daghestan, on the western shore of the Caspian Sea, where the haplogroup reaches levels of 25%.
As the Ice Age wound down about 15,000 years ago, northward migrations carried H2a up the Volga River to the northern Ural Mountains, where it gradually spread through parts of Russia and central Asia. H2a is found at levels of 10% among the Chuvash, an ethnic group from the eastern Urals.
Northward migrations from the Near East also carried H2a into eastern European populations. Russians, Estonians, and Finns all carry H2a at levels of more than 6%. Those migrations may have involved women who spoke the Finno-Ugric languages of central Russia, because both the Finnish and Estonian languages derive from those non-European roots.
H2a averages about 5% in Europeans, and tends to be much more common among eastern Europeans.
Haplogroup H2a1H2a1 is the primary daughter lineage of H2a. Like H2a, it probably originated in the Near East just after the Ice Age, about 14,000 years ago. H2a1 can still be found at relatively high levels in populations from the Arabian Peninsula. After the cold, arid climate had abated, populations migrated northward out of the Near East, through the Caucasus Mountains and into the heart of Eurasia. Populations carrying H2a1 expanded throughout the Ural Mountains, central Asian plateaus and the land bordering the Baltic Sea, probably by about 10,000 years ago. Today H2a1 is highest in Eastern Slavic-speaking populations such as the Russians and Ukrainians, who carry the haplogroup at levels of about 8%. It can also be found at low levels in other populations on the eastern edge of Europe and in central Asia.
H2a5 and the BasquesOne branch of H2 is much more localized. In fact, H2a5 is found only among one group of people: the Basques of northern Spain. The Basques are an isolated ethnic group that mostly reside in the Pyrenees Mountains that separate Spain from France. They speak a language that is distinct from every other on Earth, and many scientists have speculated that their linguistic uniqueness may mirror an equally unusual genetic history. In fact, some have argued that the Basque represent the descendants of some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula. Although Haplogroup H2 is found among many Europeans, H2a5 is found only among the Basque, at levels of about 6%. H2a5 likely arose about 15,000 years ago, just after the glaciers began to recede from Europe after the Last Ice Age. People carrying H2a5 expanded into the Pyrenees, where their descendants still reside today.

I have H6a1b. It seems that Europeans with the H is susceptible to Celiac Disease. I would like to know what else you know about my mtDNA?
I am also mtdna H. My maternal line has 31 matches from Germany, 30 from England, 25 from Italy (Sicily included), 22 from Ireland, 13 from Russia and 11 from France just to give you a generall idea.
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I have refined my haplogroup with genographic 2.0 : my mtdna haplogroup is H1 My oldest ancestor known in direct maternal lineage was born in 1650 in South-eastern France (near Lyon)
H13a1a. Confused. Can anyone give me more info on this Haplogroup ?
H13a1a. Confused. Can anyone give me more info on this Haplogroup ?

It looks like your direct Maternal Ancestors made it to Europe during Neolithic times; H13 has been also found in the Mesolithic Caucasus. Today, you can see H13 mostly hugging the Medditeranian coast. Welcome to Eupedia Jude btw. :)

  • [*=left]H13: found mostly around the Caucasus, Iran, Anatolia, and Sardinia, but also across along the Mediterranean coasts of Europe
H 1438 differing from CRS 73g, 263g, 309CCC, 315CC which makes me a mutation in transition. From H to H2 approx 11400+/- yrs bp AND I have had my dna text since 2000 and my position changed a couple of times. I would love to know more but the research undertaken has only recently put my "group" into perspective. Am awaiting the results of a 3rd mtdna test of my coding region. Any information, not medical, but anything else would be nice. Guanches, Sweyn and Tomb of the shroud in Akeldama is the only info I can find. Thank you all.

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