- Reaction score
- Ethnic group
- Y-DNA haplogroup
- mtDNA haplogroup
I don't think Neolithic Greeks would have had red or blonde hair. In fact, they would have been overwhelmingly black haired with olive or even darker complexion. I suspect when lighter hair pops up, it is from the Balkans (and steppe by extension). So whenever we have this "steppe" influence there would be a chance for lighter skin and hair, which would still be a minority. I'm not sure if those frescos are far off. My good friend is of Maltese extract and could be described as medium complexion and still tans like an Arab person. Doesn't look far from the male frescos after a few summer afternoons in the sun.
The 3 Southern Arc papers published in 2022 (Lazaridis et al) addressed the spread of Indo European languages. Of course for individuals with strong dogmatic views on where the Pre-Indo European Homeland was, those papers caused lots of divergent opinions. For me, I think it is a fascinating question but if the Pre-Indo European Homeland was South of the Caucuses in Georgia-Armenia or North of them in the Pontic Steppe, not going to lose any sleep over it. In addition, the paper "A genetic probe into the ancient and medieval historyof Southern Europe and West Asia" did phenotype analysis on southern Arc and non-Southern Arc samples. For the Southern arc dating back 16,000 years, the modal phenotype was Intermediate in Skin tone with brown/black hair and brown eyes. Thus, the phenotype associated with Anatolia, Southern Caucuses, Iran, Levant across Southern Europe has in essence been fixed since 14,000 BC.
From the paper:
"Fig. 6. Pigmentation in West Eurasia. (A to C) We show the temporal distribution of genetically predicted eye (A), skin (B), and hair (C) color in West Eurasians of the last 16,000 years; each point represents an individual, with the top row for each subphenotype corresponding to the Southern Arc and the bottom row corresponding to Northern, Central, and Western Europeans and people of the Eurasian steppe. ky BP, thousand years before the present. (D) Composite phenotypes of all three aspects of pigmentation using the same color scheme as (A) to (C) and denoted as eye color (circle), hair color (top), and skin color (bottom) in the composite phenotype symbols. The modal phenotype of West Eurasians had brown eyes, intermediate skin pigmentation, and brown hair, with the highest prevalence (Fisher’s exact test) of low pigmentation outside the Southern Arc (in the rest of Europe and the Eurasian steppe)."
Supplement S3 provides the tables with all the samples. 705 southern arc samples and 1194 non-Southern Arc samples. 474 of the southern Arc samples had intermediate Skin tone (67%) while 68% of the non-Southern arc had the same. Pale skin was in 1.7% of the southern arc vs. 5.9% of the non-Southern arc. Darker skin tone was the rest. 6% of the Southern arc had blue eyes while 16% of the non-southern arc samples.
I think we can all agree that Intermediate Skin tone would be what the Fitzpatrick scale used by Dermatologist (Harvard Professor Fitzpatrick) calls type 3 skin tone.