Genetic study The Genetic Origin of the Indo-Europeans

Archetype0ne

Active member
Messages
1,744
Reaction score
651
Points
113
Ethnic group
Albanian
Y-DNA haplogroup
L283>Y21878>Y197198

"

Abstract​

The Yamnaya archaeological complex appeared around 3300BCE across the steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas, and by 3000BCE reached its maximal extent from Hungary in the west to Kazakhstan in the east. To localize the ancestral and geographical origins of the Yamnaya among the diverse Eneolithic people that preceded them, we studied ancient DNA data from 428 individuals of which 299 are reported for the first time, demonstrating three previously unknown Eneolithic genetic clines. First, a "Caucasus-Lower Volga" (CLV) Cline suffused with Caucasus hunter-gatherer (CHG) ancestry extended between a Caucasus Neolithic southern end in Neolithic Armenia, and a steppe northern end in Berezhnovka in the Lower Volga. Bidirectional gene flow across the CLV cline created admixed intermediate populations in both the north Caucasus, such as the Maikop people, and on the steppe, such as those at the site of Remontnoye north of the Manych depression. CLV people also helped form two major riverine clines by admixing with distinct groups of European hunter-gatherers. A "Volga Cline" was formed as Lower Volga people mixed with upriver populations that had more Eastern hunter-gatherer (EHG) ancestry, creating genetically hyper-variable populations as at Khvalynsk in the Middle Volga. A "Dnipro Cline" was formed as CLV people bearing both Caucasus Neolithic and Lower Volga ancestry moved west and acquired Ukraine Neolithic hunter-gatherer (UNHG) ancestry to establish the population of the Serednii Stih culture from which the direct ancestors of the Yamnaya themselves were formed around 4000BCE. This population grew rapidly after 3750-3350BCE, precipitating the expansion of people of the Yamnaya culture who totally displaced previous groups on the Volga and further east, while admixing with more sedentary groups in the west. CLV cline people with Lower Volga ancestry contributed four fifths of the ancestry of the Yamnaya, but also, entering Anatolia from the east, contributed at least a tenth of the ancestry of Bronze Age Central Anatolians, where the Hittite language, related to the Indo-European languages spread by the Yamnaya, was spoken. We thus propose that the final unity of the speakers of the "Proto-Indo-Anatolian" ancestral language of both Anatolian and Indo-European languages can be traced to CLV cline people sometime between 4400-4000 BCE."
 
23abcThe sample you've all been waiting for came out in the 2nd IE preprint released today.

I10206, Moldova_EBA_Yamnaya, 2900-2500 BCE, J-L283

Grave 12:10 (individual ID I10206)

The grave was situated in the northeastern sector of the mound, 2.80 m away from the central landmark (R.C.), at a depth of 1.65 m. The burial chamber, rectangular with rounded corners and slightly arched sides, was oriented east-west, measuring 1.25 × 1.80 m. Based on the characteristics of the filling of the pit, the arrangement of skeletal remains, and the location of the grave goods, it can be inferred that grave no.10/M.10 was disturbed in ancient times. The skeletal remains were found scattered in different areas of the pit and at different depths.

It was deduced that the deceased was originally placed at the bottom of the pit, with the head oriented to the east. Traces from the plant layer covering the pit bottom were found near and beneath the skeleton. Grave goods: a flint arrowhead of elongated triangular shape with slightly convex sides and a concave base. The artefacts’ length is 2 cm, width 1.4 cm, and thickness 0.5cm.

The skeleton, lacking anatomical connection, is incomplete and poorly preserved. Traces of bright red ochre were identified on all its elements, particularly intense on the skull. Other taphonomic changes observed include cracking, exfoliation (aerial weathering), and marks left by rodent teeth.

Anthropological sex: male.
Molecular sex: male, with an unusual Y-haplogroup J2b2a1 (J-L283).
Biological age at death: about 30 years (young adult).
Pathologies: supragingival calculus; active porotic hyperostosis (cribra cranii).

The skeleton is very robust, with extremely pronounced muscle insertions, with extensive enthesopathic changes on the humerus and femurs. The individual exhibits a very large skeletal stature, at least 181 cm.

Traumas: a perimortem fracture in the middle third of the right clavicle.

The burial must be attributed to Cernavodă-I or Yamnaya cultures.
 
Y0F5fNA.png


"Pre-Indo-Anatolian languages were spoken by at least some of these diverse ancestors, but living Indo-European languages trace their ongins to the Yamnaya expansion ca. 3300BCE out of (3) and the earlier Indo-Anatolian expansion ca 4400-4000BCE out of (1)
Dripro"

hHJT35C.png
 
Archetype0neSome figures I found interesting:



VIOhVIn.png



C5B9FAj.png


1cgoRxb.png

XZjk7lV.png

cPWxV1b.png

40RkUwe.png


Ps: Guess everything is interesting.

Admixture table:

gyZYL0H.png
 
Important paper. Over 350 samples. The supplementary material PDF even has facial reconstructions by archaeological culture!

Here is a summary of the Y-DNA and mtDNA.

First the reference Neolithic samples.

Master IDDate (BP)Group ID for analysisCountrymtDNAY-DNAY-DNA
I168512700NatufianIsraeln/a (<2x)E-Z830E1b1b
I169012700NatufianIsraeln/a (<2x)....
I75279900Iran_GanjDareh_NIranU7an/a (female)n/a (female)
I85549900Levant_NJordann/a (<2x)CTCT
I19459800Iran_GanjDareh_NIranJ1R-Y3399R2
I17109565Levant_NJordanT1a2E-Z1919E1b1b1a1
I16998700Levant_NJordanR0a2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I69108341LabazyRussiaU4a1Q-M930Q1b1a
I10998300TUR_Marmara_Barcın_NTurkeyT2bG-Z6484G2a2a1a2
I11008300TUR_Marmara_Barcın_NTurkeyK1an/a (female)n/a (female)
I11028300TUR_Marmara_Barcın_NTurkeyK1a3aC-V86C1a2
I11038300TUR_Marmara_Barcın_NTurkeyK1b1b1G-Z6484G2a2a1a2
I07267950TUR_Marmara_Menteşe_NTurkeyHn/a (female)n/a (female)
I39317858Armenia_Aknashen_NArmeniaI1J-PF5174J2a1a1b1a1a
I16717686Iran_LN_SehGabiIranK1a12aG-Z6553G2a
I25327614Romania_ENRomaniaK1a2G-PF3359G2a2b2b
I25297610Bulgaria_NBulgariaT1aI-M436I2a1b
I39307535Armenia_MasisBlur_NArmeniaK1a12a1aJ-Y13341J2a1a1a2a

Then the Steppe samples sorted by culture group.

Master IDDate (BP)Group ID for analysisCountrymtDNAY-DNAY-DNA
I221996780BPgroupRussiaH13a1I-S12195I2a1b1a2a2a2
I222006718BPgroupRussiaH2a1R-Y106006R1b1a2b
I222016331BPgroupRussiaU2e1'2'3R-V1636R1b1a2
I222026087BPgroupRussiaU5a1fn/a (female)n/a (female)
I63035528ChekalinoIVRussiaU5a2+16294n/a (female)n/a (female)
I51246205Csongrád_I5124HungaryK1b2Q-Y6802Q1b
I35467363EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1+@16192Q-L53Q1b1
I87407353EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1+@16192R-V1636R1b1a2
I60647349EkaterinovkaRussiaU4a3R-L754R1b
I82877306EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1Q-M1107Q1b1a
I60617299EkaterinovkaRussiaU4a3n/a (female)n/a (female)
I60697286EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1+@16192n/a (female)n/a (female)
I82867264EkaterinovkaRussiaU4a1Q-M930Q1b1a
I60577263EkaterinovkaRussiaU4a2cn/a (female)n/a (female)
I60687230EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1+@16192R-L754R1b
I60627216EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1iR-V1636R1b1a2
I82827215EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1Q-M930Q1b1a
I60597213EkaterinovkaRussiaU2e1f1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I60667212EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1+@16192R-V1636R1b1a2
I61017210EkaterinovkaRussiaU4a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I82837210EkaterinovkaRussiaU4dR-L754R1b
I82907207EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I236487200EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1+@16192n/a (female)n/a (female)
I236497200EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I236507200EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1+@16192n/a (female)n/a (female)
I236517200EkaterinovkaRussiaU4aQ-M930Q1b1a
I236527200EkaterinovkaRussiaU4a2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I201897184EkaterinovkaRussiaU4a2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I82847113EkaterinovkaRussiaU5a1+@16192n/a (female)n/a (female)
I201927098EkaterinovkaRussiaU4a2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I201157056EkaterinovkaRussiaU4n/a (female)n/a (female)
I82857216Ekaterinovka_oRussiaU2e1bR-V1636R1b1a2
I201147200Ekaterinovka_oRussiaU4a1P-P337P1
I124927450GK1RussiaT2c1aR-M459R1a
I124937450GK1RussiaU2e1bKK
I124917425GK1RussiaU5a2bR-M459R1a
I124907450GK2RussiaU4b1R-M459R1a
I23635168Hungary_EBA_YamnayaHungaryU5a1b1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I51204839Hungary_EBA_YamnayaHungaryR1b1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I51264833Hungary_EBA_YamnayaHungaryH2a1an/a (female)n/a (female)
I27724781Hungary_EBA_YamnayaHungaryU4an/a (female)n/a (female)
I27614675Hungary_EBA_YamnayaHungaryT2gR-Z2110R1b1a1b1b3
I35254650Hungary_EBA_Yamnaya_1drel.I3510_contamHungaryH2bR-Y132510R1b1a1b1a1a2c1
I181004709Hungary_EBA_Yamnaya_oHungaryVG-Z42565G2a2a1a2b
I35114574Hungary_EBA_Yamnaya_oHungaryV7R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I27624847Hungary_EBA_Yamnaya_onjpHungaryU2e1hR-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I180994720Hungary_EBA_Yamnaya_onjpHungaryU5a1a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I35104669Hungary_EBA_Yamnaya_onjpHungaryH2bR-M269R1b1a1b
I23624927Hungary_LateC_EBA_YamnayaHungaryT2a1b1an/a (female)n/a (female)
I181014725Hungary_LateC_EBA_YamnayaHungaryI2R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I263024900Kazakhstan_EBA_YamnayaKazakhstanWQ-BZ1466Q1b2b1b2b~
I263044900Kazakhstan_EBA_YamnayaKazakhstann/a (<2x)n/a (female)n/a (female)
I262244900Kazakhstan_EBA_YamnayaKazakhstann/a (<2x)n/a (female)n/a (female)
I262894900Kazakhstan_EBA_Yamnaya_possibleKazakhstann/a (<2x)n/a (female)n/a (female)
I262274900Kazakhstan_Kumsay_EBAKazakhstanU2e1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I262314900Kazakhstan_Kumsay_EBAKazakhstanC5c+16234Q-L939Q1b2b1b2b~
I262354900Kazakhstan_Kumsay_EBAKazakhstanH6a1bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I262304900Kazakhstan_Kumsay_EBA_YamnayaKazakhstanU2e1bR-Y106006R1b1a2b
I263034900Kazakhstan_Kumsay_EBA_YamnayaKazakhstanU2e1bR-V1636R1b1a2
I67416820KhiRussiaU4b1R-L389R1b1a
I61056665KhiRussiaU2e1bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I67376625KhiRussiaU5a1a2R-L754R1b
I64126556KhiRussiaH13a2aR-L754R1b
I67346525KhiRussiaU2e1bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I67396415KhiRussiaU2e2a1Q-YP1669Q1a2b~
I61046393KhiRussiaU2e1a1R-L389R1b1a
I118376375KhiRussiaU4a1cR-L754R1b
I63007076KhlopkovBugorRussiaU5a1f1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I63017070KhlopkovBugorRussiaU5a1a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I69057042KhlopkovBugor_contamRussiaH13a1a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I64047199KloRussiaU5a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I61107058KloRussiaU4n/a (female)n/a (female)
I67406971KloRussia..Q-YP1669Q1a2b~
I61086951KloRussiaU4an/a (female)n/a (female)
I61066808KloRussiaT2a1bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I61096716KloRussiaU5a1+@16192R-L389R1b1a
I201886697KloRussiaR1bQ-YP1669Q1a2b~
I61026576KloRussiaT2a1bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I67356981KmedRussiaU4aJ-CTS1026J1
I67366837KmedRussiaU5a1a1R-L754R1b
I61036831KmedRussiaU5a2dI-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I61076794KmedRussiaU5a2dR-L389R1b1a
I64056782KmedRussiaU5a2dR-L389R1b1a
I64066775KmedRussiaU4dR-L754R1b
I67386748KmedRussiaR1b1R-V1636R1b1a2
I04266375KmedRussiaU4an/a (female)n/a (female)
I118286257KrivyanskyRussiaT2a1bJ-M319J2a1a1a2b1b
I44295300Maikop_I4429RussiaT2a1b1a1J-PF5119J2a1a1a2
I69045964MaximovkaRussiaU5a1d2bI-S21825I2a1a1b
I78474911Moldova_EBA_YamnayaMoldovaU5a1b1R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I103984850Moldova_EBA_YamnayaMoldovaI4an/a (female)n/a (female)
I78484806Moldova_EBA_YamnayaMoldovaU4c2an/a (female)n/a (female)
I104144693Moldova_EBA_YamnayaMoldovaH6a1an/a (female)n/a (female)
I104154653Moldova_EBA_YamnayaMoldovaU4aR-M269R1b1a1b
I102064650Moldova_EBA_YamnayaMoldovaU4b3J-L283J2b2a1
I102084650Moldova_EBA_YamnayaMoldovaH47R-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I104244650Moldova_EBA_YamnayaMoldovaU5a1a1+16362n/a (female)n/a (female)
I101744577Moldova_EBA_YamnayaMoldova..R-M269R1b1a1b
I78575685Moldova_EneolithicMoldovaU5b1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I286835913RemontnoyeRussiaR0R-V1636R1b1a2
I286825632RemontnoyeRussiaH2an/a (female)n/a (female)
I141194885Romania_Brailita_EBA_YamnayaRomaniaU5a1a1I-Y5669I2a1b1a2a2a2
I128254525Romania_EBA_CatacombRomaniaT1a1R-M269R1b1a1b
I128244490Romania_EBA_CatacombRomaniaU4c2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I104784850Romania_EBA_YamnayaRomaniaU5a1dKK
I128234850Romania_EBA_YamnayaRomaniaK1b2bR-L51R1b1a1b1a
I104994745Romania_EBA_YamnayaRomaniaT2c1aR-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I105004736Romania_EBA_YamnayaRomaniaH2cR-PF7562R1b1a1b
I104984725Romania_EBA_YamnayaRomaniaU4an/a (female)n/a (female)
I104864703Romania_EBA_YamnayaRomaniaH6a1aR1bR1b
I108914690Romania_EBA_YamnayaRomaniaU4c1R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I188204669Romania_EBA_YamnayaRomaniaH2a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I188184715Romania_EBA_Yamnaya_1d.rel.I18819_contamRomaniaK1c1P-P337P1
I188194700Romania_EBA_Yamnaya_oSouthRomaniaH2aQ-M25Q1a2
I25337371Romania_ENRomaniaJ1c5n/a (female)n/a (female)
I260895082Russia_AfanasievoRussiaH6a1bR-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I52694902Russia_AfanasievoRussiaT2a1aR-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I138134850Russia_AfanasievoRussiaT2d1aR-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I138124850Russia_AfanasievoRussiaU5a1a1R-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I251594650Russia_AfanasievoRussiaW3a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I251604650Russia_AfanasievoRussiaU5a2+16294n/a (female)n/a (female)
I251614650Russia_AfanasievoRussiaU2e1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I33884650Russia_AfanasievoRussiaU5a1d2bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I201014897Russia_Afanasievo_contamRussiaT2a1b1a1bR-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I200904800Russia_Afanasievo_contamRussiaR1bR-M269R1b1a1b
I205414661Russia_Afanasievo_Khakassia_possibleRussiaT2c1a2Q-Y6826Q1b2a1a~
I200894685Russia_Afanasievo_oOkunevoRussiaH6a1bN-Y6503N
I205594937Russia_Afanasievo_YeniseiRussiaU4a1R-Y13200R1b1a1a
I295704500Russia_BA_ECatacombRussiaT2a1b1aR-M269R1b1a1b
RISE6624067Russia_BA_OkunevoRussiaH6a1bQ-Y18330Q1b1a3a1~
I295734300Russia_BA_WestManych_CatacombRussiaU4a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I333075577Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4a1R-Z2106R1b1a1b1b3
I338635075Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussian/a (<2x)FF
I328734900Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT1a1R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I328514900Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1a1R-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I328684900Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaR1a1aR-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I329984900Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussian/a (<2x)R-M269R1b1a1b
I328644900Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussian/a (<2x)R-Z2106R1b1a1b1b3
I328664900Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1an/a (female)n/a (female)
I328674900Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU2e1bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I328654885Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1g1R-Z2106R1b1a1b1b3
I328714862Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1R-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I338644850Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH2a+152 16311R-L23R1b1a1b1
I333094850Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH15a1a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I338674850Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussian/a (<2x)n/a (sex unknown)n/a (sex unknown)
I338684850Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaI4an/a (female)n/a (female)
I333064850Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1a1R-M269R1b1a1b
I329964804Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU3cR-M269R1b1a1b
I328724775Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaI1bR-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I328764775Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaW3a1an/a (female)n/a (female)
I333084740Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH6a1bR-FT91192R1b1a1b1b3
I105674715Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4a1eR-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I68854700Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4R-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I329994681Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5b2a1a+16311R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I328754653Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4d3R-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I333124400Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4dR-Z2106R1b1a1b1b3
I333154400Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaJ1b1a1R-L23R1b1a1b1
I328504392Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1iR-L23R1b1a1b1
I333144400Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_Yamnaya_lcRussian/a (<2x)n/a (sex unknown)n/a (sex unknown)
I328524775Russia_CaspianInland_EBA_Yamnaya_o2RussiaK1a28n/a (female)n/a (female)
I74874726Russia_Chelyabinsk_EBA_YamnayaRussiaN1a1a1a1R-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I74884725Russia_Chelyabinsk_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT1a1R-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I74834721Russia_Chelyabinsk_EBA_YamnayaRussiaJ1b1a1R-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I74844721Russia_Chelyabinsk_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT2a1an/a (female)n/a (female)
I74864709Russia_Chelyabinsk_EBA_YamnayaRussiaW3a1aR-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I28094279Russia_Dagestan_EMBARussiaH13a1a1R-M269R1b1a1b
I126865175Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4a1I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I267784948Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1f2I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I240934902Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4a1eR-L754R1b
I240914891Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1g1I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I240864879Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaR1a1aI-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I126854851Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT2a1b1I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I240894851Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4a2I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I240904851Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH15a1I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I68824850Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaK1a19a....
I240884848Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT2a1aI-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I267874845Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH26I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I267854842Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1jR-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I267804785Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH2a1en/a (female)n/a (female)
I126874775Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT2a1aI-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I89524750Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1a1R-L754R1b
I110294745Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU2e1hn/a (female)n/a (female)
I266384731Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaW3a1R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I106274722Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1a1R-L23R1b1a1b1
I240854715Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1a1I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I106284681Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaJ2b1a1R-L23R1b1a1b1
I89514681Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4a1I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I267824644Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4b3n/a (female)n/a (female)
I267834596Russia_Don_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a2dI-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I126865175Russia_Don_EBA_Yamnaya_ARussiaU4a1I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I240874891Russia_Don_EBA_Yamnaya_ARussiaU5a2bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I89504794Russia_Don_EBA_Yamnaya_ARussiaH41aR-M269R1b1a1b
I68844614Russia_Don_EBA_Yamnaya_ARussiaT1a1R-L51R1b1a1b1a
I267814497Russia_Don_EBA_Yamnaya_BRussiaU4b1b2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I89494324Russia_Don_EBA_Yamnaya_BRussiaT2a1aR-M269R1b1a1b
I118295082Russia_Don_EBA_Yamnaya_CRussiaU3a2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I84774711Russia_Don_EBA_Yamnaya_lcRussian/a (<2x)n/a (female)n/a (female)
I236544844Russia_Don_EMBA_Yamnaya_Catacomb_transitionalRussiaH2a1I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I236554757Russia_Don_EMBA_Yamnaya_Catacomb_transitionalRussiaU5a2I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I264354834Russia_EBA_Srubnaya_o1RussiaU2e2aR-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I235684674Russia_EBA_Yamnaya_DonRussiaU5a2I-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I60637293Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussiaU5a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I60607271Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussiaU4a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I82897236Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussiaU5a1+@16192n/a (female)n/a (female)
I60657215Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussiaU5a1+@16192R-V1636R1b1a2
I82887214Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussiaU5a1+@16192R-V1636R1b1a2
I60677212Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussiaU4a3R-V1636R1b1a2
I201187200Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussiaU5a1+@16192n/a (female)n/a (female)
I201167200Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussian/a (<2x)R-P297R1b1a1
I87387200Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussian/a (<2x)....
I60587078Russia_Ekaterinovka_EneolithicRussiaU4a3R-V1636R1b1a2
I84516448Russia_EneolithicRussiaU5a1d2Q-F1096Q1a
I87446400Russia_EneolithicRussiaU4a1Q-F1096Q1a
I110306348Russia_EneolithicRussiaU2e2aQ-F1096Q1a
I84475820Russia_EneolithicRussiaU4a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I87425617Russia_Eneolithic_1d.rel.I6904RussiaU5a1d2bI-S21825I2a1a1b
TIM0084473Russia_Ivanovo_Fatyanovo_BARussiaK1R-Z93R1a1a1
I40004344Russia_Kalmykia_EasternManych_EMBARussiaU4c1R-M269R1b1a1b
I37874316Russia_Kalmykia_EasternManych_EMBARussiaU4c1R-M269R1b1a1b
I40044188Russia_Kalmykia_EasternManych_EMBARussiaT1a1BTBT
I128834269Russia_Kalmykia_EBARussiaTR-M269R1b1a1b
I128934900Russia_Kalmykia_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH13a1aR-L51R1b1a1b1a
I63027081Russia_KhlopkovBugor_EneolithicRussiaH2a1FF
I64087058Russia_Khvalynsk_EneolithicRussiaU4a1R-L754R1b
I62997028Russia_Khvalynsk_EneolithicRussiaU2e2a1Q-YP1669Q1a2b~
I64076831Russia_Khvalynsk_EneolithicRussiaU2e1bQ-YP1669Q1a2b~
I64036820Russia_Khvalynsk_EneolithicRussiaH2aR-L754R1b
I64026657Russia_Khvalynsk_EneolithicRussiaH2a1R-L754R1b
I202986100Russia_Kulmetovskiy_NRussiaR1bR-BY95094R1b1a1b2b
I208906100Russia_Kulmetovskiy_NRussian/a (<2x)n/a (female)n/a (female)
I329974668Russia_LowerDon_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT2c1a2R-Z2106R1b1a1b1b3
I330004850Russia_LowerVolga_EBA_YamnayaRussian/a (<2x)n/a (sex unknown)n/a (sex unknown)
I262004300Russia_MBA_Catacomb_lcRussiaU2e1a1BTBT
I106325350Russia_N_BA_possibleRussiaI4aN-Z4762N
I62974915Russia_Orlovka_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5b2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I295594750Russia_Remontnoye_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT1a1'3R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
RISE5474713Russia_Remontnoye_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT2a1aR-M12149R1b1a1b1b
RISE2404705Russia_Remontnoye_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1d1n/a (female)n/a (female)
RISE5464700Russia_Remontnoye_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1d2bR-Z2106R1b1a1b1b3
I295684700Russia_Remontnoye_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT2a1an/a (female)n/a (female)
I295584675Russia_Remontnoye_EBA_YamnayaRussian/a (<2x)R-P297R1b1a1
I295654500Russia_Rostov_LateYamnaya_BARussiaD4m2an/a (female)n/a (female)
RISE5484600Russia_Rostov_Steppe_NorthCaucasus_BARussiaU4R-Z2106R1b1a1b1b3
I67335163Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1a1R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I14505153Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaW6R-Z2103R1b1a1b1
I02435052Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH2bR-Z2103R1b1a1b1
I67295042Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5b2a1a+16311R-Z2103R1b1a1b1
I02424965Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH2bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I74904945Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaJ1b1a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I67314932Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH13a2b2aR-Y13200R1b1a1a
I67284932Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT1a1R-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I67304930Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT2a1b1a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I69074915Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH13a1a2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I107144850Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaI3aR-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I76774844Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH13a2b2aR-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I250264830Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH13a2b2aR-Z2103R1b1a1b1
I74794775Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH13a1a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I02454705Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT1a1R-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I04414701Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH2bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I82914653Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5b2a1a+16311R-Y20993R1b1a1b1b3
I67054602Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU2e1bR-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I67274518Russia_Samara_EBA_YamnayaRussiaR1a1aR-Y87909R1b1a1b1b3
I69065164Russia_Samara_EBA_Yamnaya_possibleRussiaU4an/a (female)n/a (female)
I67034602Russia_StavropolKrai_EBA_YamnayaRussiaN1a1a1a1R-Z2106R1b1a1b1b3
I326195000Russia_UpperOb_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaU5a1iR-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I325025000Russia_UpperOb_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaU4n/a (female)n/a (female)
I336464950Russia_UpperOb_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaU5a1a1R-L23R1b1a1b1
I328194950Russia_UpperOb_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaJ2a2aR-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I328224950Russia_UpperOb_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaU2e1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I328214950Russia_UpperOb_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaT2c1a2n/a (female)n/a (female)
I324994750Russia_UpperYenisey_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaU5a1d2bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I325004750Russia_UpperYenisey_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaU2e1hn/a (female)n/a (female)
I325014750Russia_UpperYenisey_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaJ2a2aR-Z2106R1b1a1b1b3
I324974750Russia_UpperYenisey_Eneolithic_AfanasievoRussiaH15b1I-M423I2a1a2
I118314918Russia_Ural_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4a1eR-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I100334758Russia_Ural_EBA_YamnayaRussiaT1a1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I100344711Russia_Ural_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1bR-Z2103R1b1a1b1
I119904681Russia_Ural_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4aR-Y87909R1b1a1b1b3
I106304674Russia_Ural_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4b1b1R-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I122424625Russia_Ural_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1a1R-Y87909R1b1a1b1b3
I122434621Russia_Ural_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH6a1aR-KMS67R1b1a1b1b3
I122414652Russia_Ural_EBA_Yamnaya_contamRussiaH2a1R-M269R1b1a1b
I103635165Russia_Volga_EBA_YamnayaRussia..n/a (female)n/a (female)
I118404848Russia_Volga_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4c1R-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I201584842Russia_Volga_EBA_YamnayaRussian/a (<2x)R-M269R1b1a1b
I103624701Russia_Volga_EBA_YamnayaRussia..n/a (female)n/a (female)
I118384602Russia_Volga_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU5a1a1R-L51R1b1a1b1a
I104414922Russia_Volgograd_EBA_YamnayaRussia..R-M269R1b1a1b
I221974871Russia_Volgograd_EBA_YamnayaRussiaU4a2R-Z2103R1b1a1b1
I105974850Russia_Volgograd_EBA_YamnayaRussiaH2a1R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I69194596Russia_Volgograd_EBA_YamnayaRussia..n/a (female)n/a (female)
I69184564Russia_Volgograd_EBA_YamnayaRussia..R-Z2108R1b1a1b1b3
I69204850Russia_Volgograd_EBA_Yamnaya_oRussia..R-M269R1b1a1b
NIK008AB4508Russia_Yaroslavl_Fatyanovo_BARussiaH5bR-Z93R1a1a1
I204994710Serbia_EBA_YamnayaSerbiaU4b1b1R-L52R1b1a1b1a1
I78904875Slovakia_EBA_YamnayaSlovakiaT1a1R-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I78914518Slovakia_EBA_YamnayaSlovakiaHR-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I78894750Slovakia_Yamnaya_lcSlovakian/a (<2x)....
I65596238SShiUkraineU4bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I41186864SSmedUkraineK1b2bn/a (female)n/a (female)
I58946561SSmedUkraineI4aI-L699I2a1b1a2a2a
I65585456SSmedUkraineU5a1f1I-Y3259I2a1b1
I222057425SyezzheyeRussiaU2e1n/a (female)n/a (female)
I222047100SyezzheyeRussiaR1b1R-V1636R1b1a2
I222036741SyezzheyeRussiaU5a1dR-V1274R1b1a2a
I58825005Ukraine_EBA_Deriivka_I5882UkraineU5a2+16294n/a (female)n/a (female)
I58844735Ukraine_EBA_Deriivka_I5884UkraineU5a2bR-M12149R1b1a1b1b
I78406348Ukraine_EneolithicUkrainen/a (<2x)....
I65634028Ukraine_MBAUkraineU4n/a (female)n/a (female)
I41127359Ukraine_NUkraineU5a2+16294R-V88R1b
I37207233Ukraine_NUkraineU2e1hI2I2
I58867212Ukraine_NUkraineU4aI-L701I2a1b1a2
I58817077Ukraine_NUkraineU5a1R-V2219R1b
I37216951Ukraine_NUkraineU5a2+16294n/a (female)n/a (female)
I58917297Ukraine_N_1d.rel.I4114UkraineU4R1bR1b
I58937249Ukraine_N_1d.rel.I5881UkraineU5a2+16294R-L754R1b
I37196831Ukraine_N_Deriivka_I3719UkraineH1I-CTS10057I2a1b1a2
I58887349Ukraine_N_father.or.son.I5875UkraineU5b2b1I-Y5606I2a1b1a2a2~
I58787139Ukraine_N_father.or.son.I5883UkraineU4b1a1aR-V88R1b
Ukraine_N17300Ukraine_N_son.I1732UkraineU4bI-L701I2a1b1a2
I17175900UnakozovskayaRussiaJ1d6n/a (female)n/a (female)
I84387300UpperVolgaRussiaU4b1aR-P297R1b1a1
I84116930UpperVolgaRussiaU5a1dR-P297R1b1a1
I124986500UpperVolgaRussiaU5a2b2R-P297R1b1a1
I84155928UpperVolgaRussiaU5a2dn/a (female)n/a (female)
I84055820UpperVolgaRussiaU5b1b1+@16192R-Y13200R1b1a1a
 
The oldest R1b-Z2103 (actually Z2103 > M12149 > Y467276 > Z2106) in this study comes from the Inland Caspian region (EBA Yamnaya) and dates from 5577 years before present (c. 3600 BCE). It is sample I33307. Interestingly it is even older than the R1b-M269 and R1b-L23 in this study.

There is an even older R1b-BY95094 (R-M269 > PF7562 > FGC31929 >...> BY95094) dating from 6100 BP (c. 4100 BCE). But according to Y-Full this deep clade only formed 1100 years ago. So it's either a contamination or a mistake.

We finally have R1b-L51 (the ancestor of Italic, Celtic and Germanic R1b) in the EBA Yamna. Not many samples compared to R1b-Z2103, but it confirms that R1b-L51 also originated in the Yamna culture. They were found in very different places: Kalmykia (4900 ybp), the Don region (4600 ybp), the Volga region (4600 ybp), but also in Yamna extension as far as Romania (4850 ybp) and Serbia (4710 ybp). The Serbian sample is the only one that is also positive for L52, so that may be the first clade born outside the Pontic Steppe.

Sample I3525 is reported as R1b-Y132510 (downstream of L21 and DF13!). It comes from Hungary and dates from 4600 ybp, but it's also extremely unlikely, as that clade is estimated to be only 2900 years old. EDIT: after double checking that sample is clearly indicated as contaminated.

The oldest R1a samples are two R1a* 5M459) from Golubaya Krinitsa in the Middle Don dating from 7400 years ago (Neolithic). There are only two other R1a samples, both Z93 from the MBA Fatyanovo culture further north (an offshoot of the Corded Ware culture).

There were actually far more I2a1b-L699 (descended from Neolithic Ukrainians) in the Don region during the Yamna period than R1b-L51 or R1b-L23.

Over 300 Steppe samples and there was not a single E1b1b and only one G2a (Neolithic G2a-L91 > Z42565) from Hungary. Likewise there was only one J2b2a (L283) from Moldova. This confirms that these three haplogroups were assimilated by the Steppe people after invading Old Europe.
 
Last edited:
Over 300 Steppe samples and there was not a single E1b1b and only one G2a (Neolithic G2a-L91 > Z42565) from Hungary. Likewise there was only one J2b2a (L283) from Moldova. This confirms that these three haplogroups were assimilated by the Steppe people after invading Old Europe.

There is one from another paper: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2024.04.17.589600v1.supplementary-material

From Proto-Usatovo

I12704 Mau6 Mayaky, Kurgan 7,
Burial 211
5144±20 (weighted mean10 of
5530±32 (OxA-22959)
12,
5390±30 (BETA-441235)
5, and
5545±40 (PSUAMS-7793, this
report)
3620-3030 calBCEg M T2h2 E1b1b1a1

Among the specimens in our selection, a CTAC individual from Verteba Cave and a
proto-Usatove individual from Mayaky carried E1b1b1a1b* Y chromosomal lineages. The protoUsatove designation of the Mayaky individual is based on the 14C date that predates Usatove
even after adjusting for reservoir effect5 (Section 1.2.1). The E1b1b1a1b lineage is not
associated with the Balkan-Danubian route of farming expansion from Anatolia to central
Europe in the Neolithic137. On the other hand, the E1b1b1a1b~ expansion in the
Mediterranean, which is timed to the late Mesolithic in southeast Europe 137, raises a possibility
that it coincided with the spread of agriculture out of the Fertile Crescent into southern Europe
via the Mediterranean coast beginning ca. 9000 years ago 141. Such as, Y chromosomal lineage
diversity in the Epicardial culture of the Cardial Ware complex of the Neolithic Mediterranean
shows Near Eastern influence and Cardial/Epicardial mtDNA lineage frequencies and diversity
are comparable to those from Near Eastern Pre-Pottery Neolithic B sites142. A bearer of the
E1b1b1a1b1 haplogroup belonging to the Cardial Ware archaeological complex was reported
from the Croatian Zemunica Cave in western Balkans 8. Cardial Ware complex is considered to
have influenced the Late Neolithic-Eneolithic Hamangia culture of the west-northwest Pontic
143. Hamangia, in turn, is considered to have influenced the formation of Precucuteni-Trypillia A
144. The presence of the E1b1b1a1b1 lineage in Trypillia and a proto-Usaove individual
strengthens the link between Hamangia and CTAC as well as CTAC and Usatove and connects
the genetic ancestry of CTAC and Usatove with Cardial Ware

Burial group (kurgan) 7, Burial 2, male (25-30), 4446-4340 calBCE (5536±25 BP) (weighted mean
(Ward and Wilson, 1978): (5530±32 BP, OxA-22959); (5545±40 BP, PSUAMS-7793)]
Burial 2 of burial group (kurgan) 7 (Figure S6) was archaeologically assigned to the Usatove
culture. The grave was identified as a discoloration at the transition to the sandy loam 0.65 m
below the current surface. The bottom was at a depth of 1.25 m, the walls could be traced up
to 0.6 m. The oval burial pit was aligned from SW to NE and measured 1.4 × 1.15 m, it was
slightly longer at the bottom (1.55 × 1.15 m). The backfill was compact and consisted of three
layers: up to a depth of 1.05 m there was black earth with lenses of sandy loam, underneath
there was a 0.1 m thin layer of sandy loam, in the bottom area there was black earth with many
lime inclusions. The massive skeleton of a 25–30-year-old male laid crouched on the left side,
skull facing east and turned with the face up. The arms were bent and crossed in front of the
chest. The left hand was under the skull, the right by the facial bones. Spots of raspberry-
colored ocher were found on the skull and on the joints of the thighs and lower legs, and the
remains of organic material in the form of brown mold were also found on the lower legs.
Between the upper ribs were crumbs of dark red ocher. In front of the arms were two vessels.
One of these was a beige beaker (height 46 mm, rim diameter 45 mm, body diameter 72 mm,
base diameter 48 mm) with a squat body and low neck. Four horizontal rows of fine cord
encrusted with red ocher were applied around the neck. The body was decorated with incised
lines encrusted in white, in the upper area with a zigzag pattern forming a six-pointed star, with
three parallel grooves at regular intervals at the bottom. The clay was tempered with finely
crushed shells

 
The oldest R1b-Z2103 (actually Z2103 > M12149 > Y467276 > Z2106) in this study comes from the Inland Caspian region (EBA Yamnaya) and dates from 5577 years before present (c. 3600 BCE). It is sample I33307. Interestingly it is even older than the R1b-M269 and R1b-L23 in this study.

There is an even older R1b-BY95094 (R-M269 > PF7562 > FGC31929 >...> BY95094) dating from 6100 BP (c. 4100 BCE). But according to Y-Full this deep clade only formed 1100 years ago. So it's either a contamination or a mistake.

We finally have R1b-L51 (the ancestor of Italic, Celtic and Germanic R1b) in the EBA Yamna. Not many samples compared to R1b-Z2103, but it confirms that R1b-L51 also originated in the Yamna culture. They were found in very different places: Kalmykia (4900 ybp), the Don region (4600 ybp), the Volga region (4600 ybp), but also in Yamna extension as far as Romania (4850 ybp) and Serbia (4710 ybp). The Serbian sample is the only one that is also positive for L52, so that may be the first clade born outside the Pontic Steppe.

Sample I3525 is reported as R1b-Y132510 (downstream of L21 and DF13!). It comes from Hungary and dates from 4600 ybp, but it's also extremely unlikely, as that clade is estimated to be only 2900 years old. EDIT: after double checking that sample is clearly indicated as contaminated.

The oldest R1a samples are two R1a* 5M459) from Golubaya Krinitsa in the Middle Don dating from 7400 years ago (Neolithic). There are only two other R1a samples, both Z93 from the MBA Fatyanovo culture further north (an offshoot of the Corded Ware culture).

There were actually far more I2a1b-L699 (descended from Neolithic Ukrainians) in the Don region during the Yamna period than R1b-L51 or R1b-L23.

Over 300 Steppe samples and there was not a single E1b1b and only one G2a (Neolithic G2a-L91 > Z42565) from Hungary. Likewise there was only one J2b2a (L283) from Moldova. This confirms that these three haplogroups were assimilated by the Steppe people after invading Old Europe.


I believe this might have something to do with the L283:

Archetype0ne

What I understood is that the CLV people brought Anatolian IE to Anatolia from the East. And the third wave containing the CLV signal that did not directly admix with EEF like the second wave but had high CLV admix bypassed the second and went on to spread the IE languages. This is what I got from the two papers and that one podcast. Although I have to admit that I have to slowly re-read the papers as I quickly skimmed them. The R1b seems to have been the overwhelming majority only in the third wave? Not sure the composition in the first wave. But from what we know historically haplogroups do not have to mirror languages 1:1, as one is a cultural phenomenon (Basques, Turks, Magyars etc), so it is not out of the realms of possibility.

Edit: The fine print in the image here is important:
Y0F5fNA.png

Roots of Caucasus-Lower Volga people
The people of the homeland of the Proto-Indo-Anatolians (1) had ancestry from the Caucasus Neolithic (Aknashen) and Lower Volga Eneolithic (Berezhnovka)
Caucasus hunter-gatherer ancestry was common to both groups. In the Lower Volga Eneolithic there was also Eastern hunter-gatherer (Lebyazhinka) and Central Asian-Siberian (Tutkaul) ancestry. In the Caucasus Neolithic there was also ancestry from the Neolithic people of Anatolia-Mesopotamia (Çayönü).
Pre-Indo-Anatolian languages were spoken by at least some of these diverse ancestors, but living Indo-European languages trace their origins to the Yamnaya expansion ca. 3300BCE out of (3) and the earlier Indo-Anatolian expansion ca. 4400-4000BCE out of (1)
Expansions of Caucasus-Lower Volga people
Eneolithic people of the North Caucasus-Lower Volga region (1) had a mix of Caucasus Neolithic (Aknashen) and Lower Volga Eneolithic (Berezhnovka) ancestry. Migrations from (1) to the Volga (2), Dnipro-Don (3) and Caucasus-Anatolia (4) regions spread one or both of these ancestries, admixing in (2) with Eastern hunter-gatherers (Lebyazhinka), in (3) with Dnipro-Don hunter-gatherers, and in (4) with Caucasus-Mesopotamian (Masis Blur, Çayönü) populations.
The Yamnaya were formed ca. 4000BCE in the Serednii Stiih cultural context of the Dnipro-Don area (3) before expanding ca. 3300BCE across the steppe. Anatolian speakers of Central Anatolia (4) living. ca. 2750-1500BCE shared with the Yamnaya ancestry from area (1)
The Proto-Indo-Anatolian homeland was thus Ο probably in the North Caucascus-Lower Volga Tutkaul area (1 and environs). Migrations to the west (3) and south (4) ca. 4400-4000BCE split PIA into the Proto-Indo-European languages (spoken by the Yamnaya) and Proto-Anatolian languages (spoken in Bronze Age Central Anatolia)
Armenia_Aknashen_N Armenia I1 J-PF5174 J2a1a1b1a1a
Russia_LowerVolga_EBA_Yamnaya Russia n/a (<2x) n/a (sex unknown) n/a (sex unknown)
^but maybe Volga and Upper Volga are representative:
I10363 5165 Russia_Volga_EBA_Yamnaya Russia .. n/a (female) n/a (female)
I11840 4848 Russia_Volga_EBA_Yamnaya Russia U4c1 R-Z2108 R1b1a1b1b3
I20158 4842 Russia_Volga_EBA_Yamnaya Russia n/a (<2x) R-M269 R1b1a1b
I10362 4701 Russia_Volga_EBA_Yamnaya Russia .. n/a (female) n/a (female)
I11838 4602 Russia_Volga_EBA_Yamnaya Russia U5a1a1 R-L51 R1b1a1b1a
I8438 7300 UpperVolga Russia U4b1a R-P297 R1b1a1
I8411 6930 UpperVolga Russia U5a1d R-P297 R1b1a1
I12498 6500 UpperVolga Russia U5a2b2 R-P297 R1b1a1
I8415 5928 UpperVolga Russia U5a2d n/a (female) n/a (female)
I8405 5820 UpperVolga Russia U5b1b1+@16192 R-Y13200 R1b1a1a

NAGhEk9.png

Extended Data Figure 1: The origin of Central Anatolian Bronze Age. (a) Fitting models include Mesopotamian (Çayönü) and steppe ancestry. (b) Models with western sources from Southeastern Europe fail except those with Mayaky or Boyanovo EBA sources both of which are Yamnaya-derived. (c) The steppe (BPgroup)+Çayönü model fails all Chalcolithic/Bronze Anatolians except Central Anatolian Bronze Age. (d) Steppe (BPgroup) ancestry observed in all individuals of the Central Anatolian Bronze Age (±3s.e. shown). (e) BPgroup-related ancestry admixed with different substrata: Aknashen-related in the North Caucasus Maikop, Masis Blur- related in Chalcolithic Armenia, and Mesopotamian-related (Çayönü) in the ancestors of the Central Asian Bronze Age, following the route (f) from the North Caucasus to Anatolia.
kYiFA84.png

I4429 5300 Maikop_I4429 Russia T2a1b1a1 J-PF5119 J2a1a1a2
I3930 7535 Armenia_MasisBlur_N Armenia K1a12a1a J-Y13341 J2a1a1a2a
Mesopotamian-related (Çayönü) ??
 
The only difference between this study and "The genetic history of the Southern Arc" is that it says the homeland of Indo-Anatolians was a little further north in the Caucasus.
 
Thanks Maciamo.
 
Will there be acknowledge that I was right all along?!

So much blablabla for so many years… and in the end, it was the Shulaveri-Shomu all along, weren’t they?
And I have described the route, when and how - It took harvard, Reich and Anthony 8 years to get there?!?!

CLV is the Harvardian talk for Shulaveri-Shomu. Mentioning Aknashen is BS, it was not a culture, but he first wave of Shulaveri-Shomu. Georgia/Azerbaijan Shulaveri- Shomu were the culture.

Of course, I wrote a lot of things of the top of my head and probably wrong. – But even when, even when, 6-7 years ago I was stating (and being mocked for it) that the KUM6 girl was the Shulaveri -Shomu dispersal of the PIE via north Anatolia it looks like I was also correct.

It’s a matter of time till the South Caucasus becomes Shulaveri-Shomu as it should. Respect!

And it’s a matter of time until the Tel Tsaf samples in Israel also become Shulaveri or even that the Merimbe beni salama in Delta Nile were in fact derived from the same population. Let us see. At this point I just observe and smile.
 
I believe this might have something to do with the L283:
Interestingly we do have some supporting evidence on this:

The ancient KDC001 and the modern Armenian samples sitting at ~J-L283* are in a different situation, as they don't have any European matches in the last ~5500 years and are not deep within European branches, therefore for these two it's more likely they are "native" to the wider Transcaucasian region or nearby..

Furthermore we know that NEO281 and KK1 not only lived in the same cave roughly 10kbp in Kotias Klde, but they also shared the same maternal haplogroup, and ancestry:

It looks like both NEO281 and KK1 can be modeled as approximately 80% Progress CHG. Exhibit A:

img_7218-png.14559


At the same time, I’ve seen some people produce models that show anywhere from 15% to 30% Meshoko ancestry contained within Progress. Even Davidski acknowledges now that this is the case over at his Eurogenes blog. That‘s why I think the Neolithic similarity map that was made by Ph2ter at GenArchivist is so interesting. It shows NEO281, a Mesolithic J2b2 sample, is most similar to the Darkveti Meshoko culture and pre Maykop people found centered there in Sochi and Adler, Russia area. These locations connect with Nal’chik to the north where the KDC001 (Nal’chik) J2b L283 sample was found. Exhibit B:

img_0451-jpeg.14560


But NEO281 is actually from Kotias Klde near Imereti, Georgia. This is southeast of Sochi. So it looks to me like some J2b2 lineages moved northwest from the Imereti area up the east coast of the Black Sea via Meshoko (agro pastoralists ) and either through the mountain gorges or around the western most tip of the Caucasus into Ciscaucasia and the steppe. Even the shaded area in Ph2ter’s map wraps around the northern portion of the Black Sea extending as far west as the mouth of the Danube, but not nearly to the same extent along the southern Black Sea coast.

Finally, here is Nick Patterson’s comment on CopperAxe’s blog Musaeum Scythia from nearly 2 years ago that I think is interesting in light of the recent NEO281 sample that shows somewhat elevated Iran N ancestry relative to KK1. Exhibit C:

img_0493-jpeg.14561

KWT4wVE.png

JErZsEu.png


Thanks to Polska and Trojet for doing most of the hard lifting as far as historical research and analysis over the past few years when it comes to what is in these posts.
 
Last edited:
1713548845599.png
 
1713548985142.png
 
Just because it’s helpful to just state it again and again! - PIE was the language of the Shulaveri-Shomu.

From honey to plough to horses, they had everything. Actually, first culture that diverged a river and invented wine!
It does not matter if they call it South Caucasus, or Armenia or northwestern Iran… golly! There is no other culture in that region for 2000 years but the Shulaveri. Plenty of time to spill into the north Caucasus.



Wiki was updated on them, and it is a bit more informative. Not much but a bit. -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shulaveri–Shomu_culture
 
Will there be acknowledge that I was right all along?!

So much blablabla for so many years… and in the end, it was the Shulaveri-Shomu all along, weren’t they?
And I have described the route, when and how - It took harvard, Reich and Anthony 8 years to get there?!?!

CLV is the Harvardian talk for Shulaveri-Shomu. Mentioning Aknashen is BS, it was not a culture, but he first wave of Shulaveri-Shomu. Georgia/Azerbaijan Shulaveri- Shomu were the culture.

Of course, I wrote a lot of things of the top of my head and probably wrong. – But even when, even when, 6-7 years ago I was stating (and being mocked for it) that the KUM6 girl was the Shulaveri -Shomu dispersal of the PIE via north Anatolia it looks like I was also correct.

It’s a matter of time till the South Caucasus becomes Shulaveri-Shomu as it should. Respect!

And it’s a matter of time until the Tel Tsaf samples in Israel also become Shulaveri or even that the Merimbe beni salama in Delta Nile were in fact derived from the same population. Let us see. At this point I just observe and smile.

Do we have Y-DNA from the Shulaveri-Shomu culture?

I always thought that R1b-M269 came from the northern Middle East via the Caucasus but I thought it more likely through the eastern side of the Caucasus how long do Caspian Sea (mainly because it's easier to cross there). This remains to be confirmed by ancient DNA

1713550435134.png
 
Over 300 Steppe samples and there was not a single E1b1b and only one G2a (Neolithic G2a-L91 > Z42565) from Hungary. Likewise there was only one J2b2a (L283) from Moldova. This confirms that these three haplogroups were assimilated by the Steppe people after invading Old Europe.
J2b-L283 is a CHG-related steppe lineage. The sample in question is part of what the authors label Core Yamnaya. There is CHG-related auDNA in Eastern Europe since the Mesolithic. During the Chalcolithic and after it is one of the key components of the southern dry steppe. J2b-L283 obviously went to the Western Balkans through the southern dry steppe route via the Danube and its tributaries. Comparing it to ANF-related farmer lineages and hybrid-EEF cultures is erroneous.

G2a-L91 is one of the core ANF Lineages, the undefined E1b1b is ultimately just another Mesolithic Ancestral Northafrican paternal branch that got absorbed by the expanding Farmers en route to Europe.
 
J2b-L283 is a CHG-related steppe lineage. The sample in question is part of what the authors label Core Yamnaya. There is CHG-related auDNA in Eastern Europe since the Mesolithic. During the Chalcolithic and after it is one of the key components of the southern dry steppe. J2b-L283 obviously went to the Western Balkans through the southern dry steppe route via the Danube and its tributaries. Comparing it to ANF-related farmer lineages and hybrid-EEF cultures is erroneous.

That remains to be seen. This J2b-L283 sample dates from the late Yamna period (2900-2500 BCE) in Moldova (former Cucuteni-Trypillian area) and the authors say that it could also belong to the Chalcolithic Cernavodă culture. Unless I missed something from a previous study I don't think that any J2b-L283 has been found in the Pontic-Caspian Steppe itself or the North Caucasus during the Yamna and Maykop periods. Maykop had J2a, but not J2b.
 

This thread has been viewed 12702 times.

Back
Top