WHG and EEF/CHG in the PCA

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southern EUROPEAN
From this paper

There are some curiosities regarding this picture that I noticed and wanted to share(I already made a post about another issue from this study https://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/42949-Inbreeding-in-Greek-ancestors )


A thing about the WHG and their genetic distances to the EEF/CHG.

You can see how 1 of the HGs is slightly more related to the Caucasus. It's VLASA32 and is an R1b1/U5a2a from Serbia(9700s-9400s BP).

The shift is tiny... But it's there. I strongly suspect that it has to do with his Y haplogroup.
It confirms that it came from further into the Steppe/Siberia, because it points towards the Caucasus, even if it already was in Europe and very mixed with local HGs to the point of being autosomally the same.

1000 years later an I2/U5a2a lived in exact same area, VLASA7. And doesn't have that shift...

Curiously, this one is further away from the EEF/CHG cluster than another called SF12, which is an Scandinavian(way norther) that for some reason doesn't present an even bigger shift towards the left(where the northern samples are). Rather it's closer to samples that come from the south(even if it's by little).

Which is because as other studies have suggested Scandinavians (SHG) were a mix between the WHG and EHG, the later being the source for R1b(the other sample was R1b) and the shift to the Caucasus/Black Sea/Pontic Steppe area.

This may be 'tiny' distances, but given that Steppe admixture today is widespread, this explains why even Finnish, Estonian or Russian DNA is so distant and far away from WHG. As well as the penetration of small(but significant) amounts of Mediterranean Farmer ancestry.

R1 haplogroup coming from beyond the Urals, while also having mixed with Caucasians previous to mixing with Baltic peoples and surroundings; is likely to be the reason why these populations are shifted to the 'south' in the PCA.

Also, Russia(and Saami) seem to be closer to the Caucasus, while Finland(and Estonia) is to the EEF
There is no EEF/CHG Cluster. These pops are totally different.
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