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Thread: Impact of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age on Iberia

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    Impact of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age on Iberia

    They seem to think the farmers who reached Iberia were very different from those in Central Europe. That rather goes against what we've seen so far.

    See:
    Cristina Valdiosera, Torsten Günther, et al

    "
    Four millennia of Iberian biomolecular prehistory illustrate the impact of prehistoric migrations at the far end of Eurasia"

    http://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/early/2018/03/06/1717762115.full.pdf

    "The Neolithization of Europe has been associated with large-scale migrations from Anatolia, which was followed by migrations of herders from the Pontic steppe at the onset of the Bronze Age. Southwestern Europe was one of the last parts of the continent reached by these migrations, and modern-day populations from this region show intriguing similarities to the initial Neolithic migrants. Partly due to climatic conditions that are unfavorable for DNA preservation, regional studies on the Mediterranean remain challenging. Here, we present genome-wide sequence data from 13 individuals combined with stable isotope analysis from the north and south of Iberia covering a four-millennial temporal transect (7,500–3,500 BP). Early Iberian farmers and Early Central European farmers exhibit significant genetic differences, suggesting two independent fronts of the Neolithic expansion. The first Neolithic migrants that arrived in Iberia had low levels of genetic diversity, potentially reflecting a small number of individuals; this diversity gradually increased over time from mixing with local hunter-gatherers and potential population expansion. The impact of post-Neolithic migrations on Iberia was much smaller than for the rest of the continent, showing little external influence from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. Paleodietary reconstruction shows that these populations have a remarkable degree of dietary homogeneity across space and time, suggesting a strong reliance on terrestrial food resources despite changing culture and genetic make-up.:"

    "
    The full Neolithic package reached the Iberian Peninsula and northern (modern-day) Morocco ca. 7,500 Cal BP, with the Cardial pottery culture coming from the central Mediterranean (17). This was rapidly followed by a regional diversification of ceramics and lithics with the Cardial pottery type present in most of the Mediterranean fringe and the interior of the Iberian Peninsula represented by the Boquique type (e.g., El Portalón de Cueva Mayor) (18) potentially introduced through the north via the Pyrenees (19). In southern Iberia (Andalusia), however, the early Neolithic is characterized by a type of impressed non-Cardial ceramic decorated a la Almagra (20). This type of pottery culture reached central Andalusia by 7,300 Cal BP, soon replacing the Cardial pottery, and is found at the Murciélagos de Zuheros cave (21). It has been proposed that North Africa played a significant part in the origins of the Neolithic in southern Spain (22), although this has recently been challenged (23)."

    "
    To investigate the demographic history of the westernmost edge of the prehistoric Eurasian migrations, we have sequenced the genomes of 13 individuals excavated from six prehistoric Iberian sites in the north and south of modern-day Spain (SI Appendix, Section S1 and Table S2.1). These sites cover the Neolithic, Late Neolithic/Copper Age (LNCA), and Bronze Age chronologies between 7,245 and 3,500 Cal BP (SI Appendix, Fig. S3.2 and Table S3.2), including the oldest sequenced genome in southern Iberia, from the Murciélagos de Zuheros cave. This individual is directly dated to 7,245–7,024 y Cal BP and represents the first genome of an individual from the Neolithic Almagra Pottery Culture, the early agriculturalists of the south of the Iberian Peninsula. For the El Portalón cave, we generated additional DNA sequence data for published individuals (11) as well as sequencing five additional individuals, enabling the genomic analysis of a population that spans a temporal sequence comprising the Neolithic, Copper Age, and Bronze Age periods (directly dated to between 7,165 and 3,500 y Cal BP). "


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    "We sequenced the genomes of 10 individuals from northern and southern Spain either contextually or directly radiocarbon dated to the Neolithic, LNCA, and Bronze Age (Fig. 1Aand SI Appendix, Table S4.1), and we increased the sequencing depth of three individuals from a previous study (ATP16, ATP2, and ATP12) (11) using additional bone material (SI Appendix, Table S2.1). "

    "
    Nine of the 13 ancient Iberian individuals were found to carry mitochondrial haplogroups associated with European early farmers, namely K, J, N, and X (SI Appendix, Table S4.1), distributed throughout the Early Neolithic to the Bronze Age (6, 45). Two individuals have haplogroups HV0 and H, known in both European early farmers and hunter-gatherers (25, 45) and are present during the LNCA. Further, haplogroup U5, characteristic of hunter-gatherers (46, 47), is found in a Late Copper Age individual. Consistent with the mitochondrial haplogroup composition of the ancient Iberians, the Y chromosome composition (Dataset S1) displays a mix of haplogroups associated with both European farmers and hunter-gatherers. Among the Early Neolithic individuals, we find the European farmer-associated haplogroup G2a2 (9) and the European farmer-associated haplogroup H2 (1, 6), while in the LNCA we observe haplogroup I2, previously found in both hunter-gatherers and farmers (SI Appendix, Table S4.1) (1, 6). Both Bronze Age males carried haplogroup R1b-M269 (SI Appendix, Table S4.1), which is frequent among Late Neolithic and Bronze Age samples from other parts of Europe (4, 6). This uniparental marker composition is in agreement with the well-known admixture between resident hunter-gatherers and incoming farmers."

    "
    his observation suggests that all Neolithic Iberians trace most of their ancestry to the first Neolithic migrants arriving in the peninsula and that later contributions from contemporary central Europeans were only minor. The overall pattern is consistent with two independent Neolithic migrations of genetically slightly different populations that spread farming practices across Europe. The Mediterranean route migrants show a strong connection with modern-day population isolates in southwestern Europe. Modern-day Sardinians have been suggested to be relatively direct descendants of the early Neolithic individuals (27, 51), and modern-day Basques also trace a high proportion of their ancestry to the first Mediterranean farmers with only minor additional admixture since the Neolithic (11)."

    [IMG][/IMG]

    [IMG][/IMG]

    [IMG][/IMG]

    I don't see much new here. I don't even think there's much difference between the Spanish EN and the Central EN. Whatever differences could just be that the Cardial group that split off was slightly different.

    The question as to Beaker is settled so far as I can see, as is the very small impact of Yamnaya on Spanish populations, a number very close to that for the Greeks.

    "he estimates for Bronze Age Iberians are close to the 15% steppe ancestry estimated for the modern Spanish population (Fig. 2B). Consistently, Bronze Age populations from Greece and Anatolia also show a limited increase in steppe ancestry compared with their Neolithic ancestors (15). This reduced impact of Steppe herders on these populations could reflect a decrease in the number of migrants or a dilution of Steppe ancestry during this process. In contrast to the events in north-central Europe, the arrival of most of the Yamnaya-related ancestry in Iberia postdates the onset of Bell Beaker pottery in Iberia, suggesting that the Bell Beaker culture spread culturally (48), while steppe ancestry was brought into Iberia through later migrations. Notably, both male Bronze Age Iberian individuals in this study as well as all three Iberian Bronze Age males in ref. 24 carried R1b-M269 Y chromosomes (SI Appendix, Table S4.1) also found with high frequency in individuals associated with the Yamnaya culture, the source population of steppe ancestry (4, 6), indicating a continuing male-driven migration from central Europe into southwestern Europe (8, 24, 53)."

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    0 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    I see hardly any difference as well. Iberia EN is a tad more southern than central, but still pretty much the same! Every early Neolithic group from Hungary to Ireland is the same.

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    Thank you for uncovery a thread that clearly shows a pattern. The challenge is to search the sands for a pool that helps to further enlight the quest that will stimulate a new perspective and at some point move us beyond where we've started from.

    PNAS 2018; published ahead of print March 12,2018, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1717762115 Contributed by Juan Luis Arsuaga, February 1, 2018 (sent for review October 18, 2017; reviewed by Richard Edward Green and Emilia Huerta-Sanchez)


    Wepresent a comprehensive biomolecular dataset spanning four millennia ofprehistory across the whole Iberian Peninsula. Our results highlight the powerof archaea genetic studies focusing on specific regions and covering a temporaltransect. The 4,000 y of prehistory in Iberia were shaped by majorchronological changes but with little geographic substructure within thePeninsula. The subtle but clear genetic differences between early NeolithicIberian farmers and early Neolithic central European farmers point toward twoindependent migrations, potentially originating from two slightly differentsource populations. These populations followed different routes, one along theMediterranean coast, giving rise to early Neolithic Iberian farmers, and onevia mainland Europe forming early Neolithic central European farmers. Thisdirectly links all Neolithic Iberians with the first migrants that arrived withthe initial Mediterranean Neolithic wave of expansion.


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    That's great that they tested a sample from La Almagra Pottery culture. I have been wondering about it's origins for a long time and displayed it in a different colour from the Cardial Pottery of my migrations maps. I have hypothesied that La Almagra is an offshoot from the North African Neolithic and have assigned it the likely presence of Y-haplogroups E1b1b, G2a, R1b-V88 and T1a. Only one sample was tested in this study and it turned out to be G2a, the only haplogroup that doesn't help us at all distinguish it from the Cardial culture. The strongest evidence of its North African origins would be if they found R1b-V88. There is no doubt in my mind that R1b-V88 came from the Fertile Crescent to North Africa during the Early Neolithic and made its way to Iberia, then to Western Europe with the Megalithic expansion. It might even be linked to mtDNA H1 and H3, both of which are found in North Africa and peak in Iberia.

    I have only browsed through the article but I don't think that the autosomal analysis they did is detailed enough to really distinguish the La Almagra sample from Cardial or Central European Neolithic ones.
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    The oldest sequenced genome in the south of the Iberian Peninsula

    Neolithic Andalusian
    The first three sequenced genomes of prehistoric nuclear DNA from Andalusia correspond to individuals who lived in the current Subbéticas Cordobesas Sierras, according to an international study

    The first farmer of the South of the Peninsula lived in the Subbética 7,245 years ago

    http://cordopolis.es/2018/03/13/el-primer-agricultor-del-sur-de-la-peninsula-vivio-en-la-subbetica-hace-7-245-anos/


    The team has analyzed prehistoric human remains from the north and south of Spain, highlighting those from the archaeological site of El Portalón (Atapuerca, Burgos) and the Cueva de los Murciélagos de Zuheros (Córdoba), from which the genome has been sequenced of a 7,245-year-old Neolithic farmer, making it the oldest sequenced genome in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, representative of the Neolithic Culture of ceramics at Almagra, characteristic of the first farmers of Andalusia.

    The genomic analysis has been carried out by last-generation ultra sequencing.

    The arrival of the first Neolithic farmers to Iberia probably involved a small number of individuals.


    Although different authors suggested other potential population entries in Iberia, coming from regions such as North Africa or continental Europe, researchers have found no substantial regional differences within the Iberian Peninsula. Torsten Günther, a population geneticist at the University of Uppsala, also a leading author of the work, says: "Although the geographical differences seem minor, we see some differences over time due to interaction and genetic exchange between groups."

    The study indicates that the first Iberian farmers show remarkably low levels of genetic diversity, as is the case of the individual inhumed in Cueva de los Murciélagos de Zuheros, so that the first wave of Eastern migration that was established in the Peninsula at the beginning of the Neolithic must have been relatively small. After an initial period of low diversity, newly arrived populations grew in size and ended up mixing with local hunter-gatherers, rapidly increasing genetic diversity in later periods, as evidenced by the DNA obtained from the collective burials of Cueva de los Cuarenta.

    Professor Vera, co-author and responsible for the interventions in the Cuevas de los Murciélagos and Los Cuarenta, highlights that "significantly, the oldest sequenced genome of a Neolithic farmer in Andalusia, a male individual of the Cueva de los Murciélagos belonging to the Culture from Ceramics to Almagra, broadly coincides with other recently sequenced genomes, from regions such as Catalonia but associated with the so-called Cardial Culture ".

    "The fact that the representatives of the Ancient Andalusian Neolithic correspond to the same population flow of individuals associated with the Cardial culture, has important implications, ruling out for the moment the African way in the arrival of the Neolithic to the Andalusian coast. The development of a material culture of great personality, differentiated from the printed ceramics typical of the cardial world of Southern France, Catalonia and Valencia, such as that of ceramic to Almagra, must have been generated in a few generations.

    This is in addition to the evidence recently cleared, in studies in which some researchers responsible for this work have also participated, in which the direct influence of the first Iberian farmers on the dissemination of the Neolithic, agriculture and agriculture is demonstrated. livestock, in North Africa, instead of the reverse thesis, "says Rafael M. Martínez, a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Granada participating in the work.

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    @Carlos

    I believe there's already a thread on this paper:

    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...-Age-on-Iberia

    Edit: I will merge them.

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    Bronze Age R1b found in South and North Spain display steppe in autosomal, unfortunately no C14 provided, it would be good to know if the north guy was living after or before XIII century BC (arrival of European cultural traits and Celtic language), and the south guy is attached to Argar pottery (in the autosomal for Argar the samples had already steppe or CHG...) two papers without steppe for BB (Portuguese Bronze Age and mtDNA Chalco) against two with steppe, this one and that of Reich/Olalde for BB.
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    Quote Originally Posted by davef View Post
    I see hardly any difference as well. Iberia EN is a tad more southern than central, but still pretty much the same! Every early Neolithic group from Hungary to Ireland is the same.
    figure 2A is supposed to demonstrate the difference

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    so from EN to CA no external admixture is detected, just an increase in WHG versus EEF
    but it is hard to believe that the CA and BB in Iberia were indogenous developments
    the bronze age seems to be triggered by steppe admixture

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    Thank you for sharing The story of the first farmer. The more I read the more captivating it's story allowed me to think long and hard as I could visualize what was reading. the depth of the collection of information help to make it all come alive.

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    Quote Originally Posted by berun View Post
    Bronze Age R1b found in South and North Spain display steppe in autosomal, unfortunately no C14 provided, it would be good to know if the north guy was living after or before XIII century BC (arrival of European cultural traits and Celtic language), and the south guy is attached to Argar pottery (in the autosomal for Argar the samples had already steppe or CHG...) two papers without steppe for BB (Portuguese Bronze Age and mtDNA Chalco) against two with steppe, this one and that of Reich/Olalde for BB.
    Celtic languages didn't arrive in the 13th century bc but much later, and they never arrived in the area of El Argar where in Roman times people still spoke Iberian, so Pre-Indoeuropean, languages.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    so from EN to CA no external admixture is detected, just an increase in WHG versus EEF
    but it is hard to believe that the CA and BB in Iberia were indogenous developments
    the bronze age seems to be triggered by steppe admixture
    I don't believe that the CA in Iberia was indigenous. I just don't think it was brought by steppe people. You wouldn't see a difference autosomally if it was brought by elite groups from the east because it wouldn't be that large, and it would also be similar autosomally.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Pygmalion View Post
    Celtic languages didn't arrive in the 13th century bc but much later, and they never arrived in the area of El Argar where in Roman times people still spoke Iberian, so Pre-Indoeuropean, languages.
    in 13 centuries such area changed 4 times of language, Iberian, Latin, Arab, Spanish...

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    [QUOTE = berun; 535171] en 13 siglos dicha área cambió 4 veces el idioma, ibérico, latín, árabe, español ... [/ QUOTE]


    ​Without forgetting the language derived from the Latin that existed and that thank God disappeared, but that undoubtedly influenced the way in which the Andalusians speak Spanish. A teacher who said that that language derived from the Latin that we Andalusians had was similar to Galician, what horror. I do not want to use the term "Mozarabic" which is a term invented by historians since those people of the time called themselves Latin.

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    No Andalusians when mozarabic was spoken, as Andalusians are Castillan colonizers plus Arab Andalusi influence plus gipsy late aditions. In whichever case your hate to other cultures is vomitive.

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    [QUOTE = berun; 535188] No se hablaba andaluz cuando se hablaba mozárabe, ya que los andaluces son colonizadores de Castilla, además de la influencia de los árabes andalusíes además de adiciones gitanas tardías. En cualquier caso, su odio hacia otras culturas es vomitivo. [/ QUOTE]

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    Quote Originally Posted by Pygmalion View Post
    Celtic languages didn't arrive in the 13th century bc but much later, and they never arrived in the area of El Argar where in Roman times people still spoke Iberian, so Pre-Indoeuropean, languages.
    The above is impossible to know because there is scientific evidence that the Celtic was not the first Indo-European language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, in addition the Iberian language was expansionist speaking in areas where formerly Celtic or earlier Indo-European was spoken, as for example in the valley of the Ebro.

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    Quote Originally Posted by davef View Post
    I see hardly any difference as well. Iberia EN is a tad more southern than central, but still pretty much the same! Every early Neolithic group from Hungary to Ireland is the same.
    In the publication they state that those were two very similar peoples, but what they say, in my opinion very cleverly, is that they are still distinct, so they are probably peoples with the same origins in Anatolia, but who came to other parts of Europe in different waves of migration and experiencing different journeys (and, we can assume, different contacts and admixtures with other peoples). The fact that they look very similar, but not identical, can reinforce the theory that there were two different waves of Neolithic expansion into Europe, yielding slightly different results in their genetic makeup.

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    Quote Originally Posted by ROS View Post
    The above is impossible to know because there is scientific evidence that the Celtic was not the first Indo-European language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, in addition the Iberian language was expansionist speaking in areas where formerly Celtic or earlier Indo-European was spoken, as for example in the valley of the Ebro.
    Which proofs do you have for Celtic or Indoeuropean in the Iberian half of the valley?

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    The authors run an unsupervised 2K-20K ADMIXTURE (supp S3). The Bronze Age Iberians R1b have 0% CHG in all K, but once the authors run a supervised ADMIXTURE they get 10-20% Yamnaya. Someone with more understanding could explain how they can do such hocus-pocus?

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    Modern-day Sardinians have been suggested to be relatively direct descendants of the early Neolithic individuals
    A bit OT but why do they keep using the HGDP Sardinians as a reference? From the Chiang et al. study we have learned that the most populated areas of the island are 10% circa "yamnaya" and less EEF/WHG, probably some punic influence also

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    Quote Originally Posted by Cato View Post
    A bit OT but why do they keep using the HGDP Sardinians as a reference? From the Chiang et al. study we have learned that the most populated areas of the island are 10% circa "yamnaya" and less EEF/WHG, probably some punic influence also

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    Because Cavalli-Sforza, who chose the area where the HGDP samples were to be drawn, knew what he was about, and almost everyone of those samples is from the plateau around Ogliastra.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Angela View Post
    Because Cavalli-Sforza, who chose the area where the HGDP samples were to be drawn, knew what he was about, and almost everyone of those samples is from the plateau around Ogliastra.
    I know, obviously Ogliastra is not representative of the whole region... no Beaker finds and likely much less Punic, Roman, Vandal (?) settlements not to mention the Medieval period (migrations of Italians, Iberians), when some coastal cities (not in Ogliastra) were populated by Tuscans, Catalans and Corsicans and Ligurians

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    Quote Originally Posted by Cato View Post
    A bit OT but why do they keep using the HGDP Sardinians as a reference? From the Chiang et al. study we have learned that the most populated areas of the island are 10% circa "yamnaya" and less EEF/WHG, probably some punic influence also

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    Sardinians are 10% Yamnaya? Where did you read this?

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