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Thread: Formation of Human Populations in Central and South Asia

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    Formation of Human Populations in Central and South Asia

    Narasimhan paper is out:

    https://scholar.harvard.edu/vagheesh/centralsouthasia
    https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/va...7487.full_.pdf

    Hajji Firuz R1b is from: 1193-1019 calBCE (2910±20 BP, PSUAMS-4413)

    Unrelated to Anatolian languages.

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    1 out of 2 members found this post helpful.
    "RATIONALE: To elucidate the extent to whichthe major cultural transformations of farming,pastoralism, and shifts in the distribution oflanguages in Eurasia were accompanied bymovement of people, we report genome-wideancient DNA data from 523 individuals spanning the last 8000 years, mostly from CentralAsia and northernmost South Asia.

    RESULTS: The movement of people following the advent of farming resulted in geneticgradients across Eurasia that can be modeledas mixtures of seven deeply divergent populations. A key gradient formed in southwesternAsia beginning in the Neolithic and continuing into the Bronze Age, with more Anatolianfarmer–related ancestry in the west and moreIranian farmer–related ancestry in the east.This cline extended to the desert oases ofCentral Asia and was the primary source ofancestry in peoples of the Bronze Age BactriaMargiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC).This supports the idea that the archaeologically documented dispersal of domesticateswas accompanied by the spread of people frommultiple centers of domestication.The main population of the BMAC carried noancestry from Steppe pastoralists and did notcontribute substantially to later South Asians.However, Steppe pastoralist ancestry appearedin outlier individuals at BMAC sites by the turnof the second millennium BCE around the sametime as it appeared on the southern Steppe.Using data from ancient individuals from theSwat Valley of northernmost South Asia, we showthat Steppe ancestry then integrated further southin the first half of the second millennium BCE,contributing up to 30% of the ancestry of moderngroups in South Asia. The Steppe ancestry inSouth Asia has the same profile as that in BronzeAge Eastern Europe, tracking a movement ofpeople that affected both regions and that likelyspread the unique features shared between IndoIranian and Balto-Slavic languages.The primary ancestral population of modernSouth Asians is a mixture of people related toearly Holocene populations of Iran and SouthAsia that we detect in outlier individuals fromtwo sites in cultural contact with the IndusValley Civilization (IVC), making it plausiblethat it was characteristic of the IVC. al groups. After the IVC’s decline, this population mixed with northwestern groupswith Steppe ancestry to form the “Ancestral North Indians”(ANI) and also mixed with southeastern groups to form the “Ancestral South Indians” (ASI), whose direct descendants today live in tribes in southernIndia. Mixtures of these two post-IVC groups—the ANI and ASI—drive the main gradient ofgenetic variation in South Asia today.CONCLUSION: Earlier work recorded massive population movement from the EurasianSteppe into Europe early in the third millennium BCE, likely spreading Indo-Europeanlanguages. We reveal a parallel series of eventsleading to the spread of Steppe ancestry toSouth Asia, thereby documenting movementsof people that were likely conduits for thespread of Indo-European languages."


    Non si fa il proprio dovere perchè qualcuno ci dica grazie, lo si fa per principio, per se stessi, per la propria dignità. Oriana Fallaci

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    I think we need much more researches to validate this migration.

    First of all, we need seima turbino aDNA. When this IE people migrated into south asia, I think ST dominated whole Eurasia like mongol.

    Second, no andronovo artifacts were found near south asia.

    Third, several scholars already mentioned that east andronovo culture was much older than west andronovo.

    Fourth, harvard scholar directly connected andronovo steppe admixture to modern northern indian. Problem is we recently knew that tianshan sample’s steppe admixture has nothing to do with afanasievo. In other words, modern northern indian can get steppe admixture from scythian, white Hun and etc.

    Moreover, there is bronze age culture in south asia, copper hoard which I think they have altai culture and chariot, being related with mycenaean and the celt. We need this aDNA.

    I explained here:
    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...-Seima-Turbino

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    About their Ancestry Clines, they consider WHG as the western end continuum of of a cline that encompass EHG and Siberian Hunter gatherers and called North Eurasian Cline. But isn't WHG/Villabruna supposed to be related with Dzudzuana and therefore very close to Anatolian Farmers ancestry and the Southern Eurasian Cline?

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by Cpluskx View Post

    Hajji Firuz R1b is from: 1193-1019 calBCE (2910±20 BP, PSUAMS-4413)
    finally, we got this out of the way

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Thanks for
    Sharing nice😉
    there are some e1b1b1b2-Z830
    in late bronze/ iron age pakistan swat valley cool😎
    There are also haplogroup I-m170 branch in them and r1a
    Davidski probably happy....
    The aryan theory we are r1a and stuff....
    P.s
    look in supplemental table 1-5 to see all the list

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    Quote Originally Posted by rozenfeld View Post
    So, the final paper, unlike original preprint, has samples from Kyrgyzstan. I thought that they would analyze Andronovo sites fro Arpa valley, instead they analyzed two guys from Aigyrjal:

    Master ID Date: One of two formats. (Format 1) 95.4% CI calibrated radiocarbon age (Conventional Radiocarbon Age B, Lab number) e.g. 5983-5747 calBCE (6980±50 B B, Beta-226472). (Format 2) Archaeological context date B, e.g. 2500-1700 BCE Split Label (grouping individuals of similar ancestry by site) Location Country Sex mtDNA haplogroup Y chromosome haplogroup
    I11526 2203-2041 calBCE (3735±20 BP, PSUAMS-4607) Aigyrzhal_BA Aigyrzhal Kyrgyzstan M R6a2 Q1a2
    I11527 2114-1928 calBCE (3630±20 BP, PSUAMS-4750) Aigyrzhal_BA Aigyrzhal Kyrgyzstan M HV14 J2a1h2

    It seems that they represent pre-Andronov inhabitants of Kyrgyzstan. Interesting, because there is not very much known about them. One of the few papers dealing with that site: https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...40618215006655

    Associate authors: Michael Frachetti, Egor Kitov, Gaziz Akhatov, Antonina Yermolayeva, Kubatbek Tabaldiev, Oroz A. Soltobaev, Temirlan T. Chargynov.
    However, Andronovo in karzak is 1,700bc in the IE migration map above.

    the new data from adunqiaolu fit well into the emerging view of the eastern andronovoas shown by frachetti and mar’yashev (2007), hanks et al. (2007), panyushkina et al.(2008) and molodin et al. (2012a), and which is gradually gaining wider acceptance(e.g. doumani 2014). the earlier chronologies for the putative eastward spread of theandronovo are clearly challenged, although mechanisms behind the transmission of general cultural influences remain unclear. the revised chronology supports new hypotheses on thenature of cultural connections (frachetti 2013: 292) that replace the earlier explanatory models of long distance migration supported by kuz’mina (1986, 1994, 2007, 2008) andothers (e.g. tkacheva). the idea of ‘waves’ of eastward movement creatingnew regionalised ‘cultural clusters’ has been refuted, partly through emerging radiocarbon sequences as discussed above, but also through evidence for long-term localised regionaldevelopment, such as that documented by frachetti in semirech’ye from at least the mid third millennium cal bc (frachetti 2008).
    andronovo cremation culture thru begash in semirech're:

    “Before 3000 BC, societies of western Asia were cultivating wheat and societies of China were cultivating broomcorn millet; these are early nodes of the world's agriculture. The authors are searching for early cereals in the vast lands that separate the two, and report a breakthrough at Begash in south-east Kazakhstan. Here, high precision recovery and dating have revealed the presence of both wheat and millet in the later third millennium BC. Moreover the context, a cremation burial, raises the suggestion that these grains might signal a ritual rather than a subsistence commodity.”

    “A new wave of newcomers left F’odorovo culture sites. Some include usually this culture, together with Alakul culture, in Andronovo culture. However, all attempts to find its local roots had no success. But these roots are in North-Western Iran and South Azerbaijan: cremation in stone boxes and cysts under mounds, clay props for hearth, oval dishes, polished ware. Complex of metal have analogies in Circumpontic area, but first of all, in Sumbar culture in South-Western Turkmenistan. Potteries from Central Asia have been found in some F’odorovo sites.”

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    finally, we got this out of the way
    However, yamna is in Caucasus cline at page 8:
    https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/va...7487.full_.pdf

    Anyway, does someone know how WSHG is different from EHG?
    This map at page 8 shows that BOTAI has WSHG and east asian admixure, but in damgaard paper below Botai has EHG and east asian.

    https://indo-european.eu/wp-content/...south-asia.jpg

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    WSHG carry more east asian ancestry

    2 indicators for arrival early of east asian :

    - the 10 ka Ganj Dareh mtDNA X, which also spread through Beringia into America
    - the arrival of pottery, from China through Siberia ; ca 9 ka it arrived in the steppe north of the Caspian Sea and in Jarmo, northern Zagros Mts

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    Unlike preceding
    Copper Age individuals fromTuran, people
    of the BMAC cluster also harbored an additional
    ~2 to 5% ancestry related (deeply in time) to
    Andamanese hunter-gatherers (AHG). This evidence
    of south-to-north gene flow from South
    Asia is consistent with the archaeological evidence
    of cultural contacts between the IVC and
    the BMAC and the existence of an IVC trading
    colony in northern Afghanistan (although we
    lack ancient DNA from that site) (44) and stands
    in contrast to our qpAdm analyses showing
    that a reciprocal north-to-south spread is undetectable.

    Where was this IVC trading post in northern Afghanistan?
    Which archelogical info is available?

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    Unlike preceding
    Copper Age individuals fromTuran, people
    of the BMAC cluster also harbored an additional
    ~2 to 5% ancestry related (deeply in time) to
    Andamanese hunter-gatherers (AHG). This evidence
    of south-to-north gene flow from South
    Asia is consistent with the archaeological evidence
    of cultural contacts between the IVC and
    the BMAC and the existence of an IVC trading
    colony in northern Afghanistan
    (although we
    lack ancient DNA from that site) (44) and stands
    in contrast to our qpAdm analyses showing
    that a reciprocal north-to-south spread is undetectable.

    Where was this IVC trading post in northern Afghanistan?
    Which archelogical info is available?
    "There is extensive presence of Harappan seals and cubical weight measures in Mesopotamian urban sites. Specific items of high volume trade are timber and specialty wood such as ebony, for which large ships were used. Luxury items also appear, such as lapis lazuli mined at a Harappan colony at Shortugai (modern Badakhshan in northern Afghanistan), which was transported to Lothal, a port city in Gujarat in western India, and shipped from there to Oman, Bahrain and Sumer."
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meluhha

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    There is an admixture of WSHG, farmer and CHG below botai, which looks like kumsay Q1a2 3,000BC in Map A.

    And those kinds of admixuture are also in south cental asia 3,000bc and 3,500bc, which looks like sarazm, geokiur and parkhai. So it means now that CHG picked up farmer and migrated into west siberia. And it is possible kelteminar would have CHG, farmer and EHG (or WSHG). Q1a or R1b?

    https://abload.de/img/iir_mfa6ns5v.png

    As I quoted before, south ural and south-east caspian sea culture interact each other from mesolithic to eneolithic. So it is possible yamna got CHG and farmer from this route, b/c early yamna sample barely has WHG.

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    Interview with Narasimham by Razib Khan. It's well worth a listen.
    https://www.brownpundits.com/2019/09...sh-narasimhan/

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    Quote Originally Posted by johen View Post
    I think we need much more researches to validate this migration.

    First of all, we need seima turbino aDNA. When this IE people migrated into south asia, I think ST dominated whole Eurasia like mongol.

    Second, no andronovo artifacts were found near south asia.

    Third, several scholars already mentioned that east andronovo culture was much older than west andronovo.

    Fourth, harvard scholar directly connected andronovo steppe admixture to modern northern indian. Problem is we recently knew that tianshan sample’s steppe admixture has nothing to do with afanasievo. In other words, modern northern indian can get steppe admixture from scythian, white Hun and etc.

    Moreover, there is bronze age culture in south asia, copper hoard which I think they have altai culture and chariot, being related with mycenaean and the celt. We need this aDNA.

    I explained here:
    https://www.eupedia.com/forum/thread...-Seima-Turbino
    Andronovo has two cultures of West Alakul (around 1800bc-) and East Fedorovo ( around 1700bc -). So traditionally andronovo culture migrated from west. However, east zevakinskiy-BA has the oldest example of R1a in ancient DNA from Central Asia which is dated to 2132-1940 calBCE (ID I3770, Narasimhan 2019)..

    1877-1693 calBCE (3455±20 BP, PSUAMS-2922) MLBA Western_Steppe_MLBA Maitan_MLBA_Alakul
    1876-1691 calBCE (3450±20 BP, PSUAMS-2924) MLBA Steppe_MLBA_oWSHG Maitan_MLBA_Alakul_o
    1876-1688 calBCE (3445±20 BP, PSUAMS-2981) MLBA Satan_MLBA_Alakul Satan_MLBA_Alakul
    1876-1688 calBCE (3445±20 BP, PSUAMS-2926) MLBA Western_Steppe_MLBA Maitan_MLBA_Alakul
    1872-1684 calBCE (3435±20 BP, PSUAMS-3115) MLBA Central_Steppe_MLBA Oy_Dzhaylau_MLBA
    1872-1684 calBCE (3435±20 BP, PSUAMS-2980) MLBA Western_Steppe_MLBA Maitan_MLBA_Alakul
    1872-1684 calBCE (3435±20 BP, PSUAMS-2929) MLBA Western_Steppe_MLBA Maitan_MLBA_Alakul
    1878-1664 calBCE (3440±30 BP, Beta-436293) MLBA Sintashta_MLBA_o3 Sintashta_MLBA_o3
    1906-1631 calBCE (3455±56 BP, AA-47808) MLBA Western_Steppe_MLBA Srubnaya
    1869-1665 calBCE (3430±20 BP, PSUAMS-2496) MLBA Western_Steppe_MLBA Ak_Moustafa_MLBA1
    1862-1664 calBCE (3425±20 BP, PSUAMS-2921) MLBA Western_Steppe_MLBA Lisakovskiy_MLBA_Alakul
    1862-1664 calBCE (3425±20 BP, PSUAMS-2923) MLBA Western_Steppe_MLBA Maitan_MLBA_Alakul

    zevakinskiy location:


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    Razib Khan about pigmentation:
    The Sintashta were swarthy.
    1.rs12913832 0.4286
    This is a surprise. This indicates 60-70% Sinatashta had brown eyes.
    And
    2.Spot-checking some major loci where Europeans are very distinct, such as KITLG, OCA2-HERC2, and SLC45A2, it is clear to me that the Sintashta were much more darkly complected than modern Northern Europeans.

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    Quote Originally Posted by johen View Post
    Andronovo has two cultures of West Alakul (around 1800bc-) and East Fedorovo ( around 1700bc -). So traditionally andronovo culture migrated from west. However, east zevakinskiy-BA has the oldest example of R1a in ancient DNA from Central Asia which is dated to 2132-1940 calBCE (ID I3770, Narasimhan 2019)..
    [ Zevakinsikiy_BA 1469 • CII-52, stone fencing 90 (I3770): Date of 2132-1940 cal BCE (3645±25 BP, PSUAMS1470 2079). Genetically and morphologically male, 25 to 30 years old. Stone fence number 90 1471 had a diameter of 9 m and was located 20 m from stone fence number 91 excavated in 1971 1472 (28). The excavation brought to light, at a depth of 0.4 m, a rectangular pit (2.45 x 1.45 m; 1473 depth: 1.75 cm) with rounded corners, positioned in a west to east direction. A stone cist 1474 composed of four stone wall slabs and a fifth cover slab were found at a depth of 1.05 m. 1475 The cist measured 1.7 x 0.7 m, and was 0.7 m high. Human bones were found at the bottom 1476 of the stone cist: skull, femurs, ribs, pelvis and a mandible have been identified. A hand1477 made vessel base, manufactured out of blackish ware tempered with quartz, was found near 1478 the northern wall, 30 cm from the eastern wall. This artefact has been attributed to the Early 1479 Andronovo Culture.]

    Moreover Potapovka outlier is WSHG R1a:

    2465-2054 calBCE (3815±60 BP, Le-6545)] MLBA Steppe_MLBA_oWSHG Potapovka_o

    2469-1928 calBCE (3760±100 BP, AA-12568) MLBA Steppe_MLBA_oWSHG Potapovka_o Yes R1

    2200-1900 BCE MLBA Steppe_MLBA_oWSHG Potapovka Yes R1a1a1b2a2a

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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful.
    How about the 2nd study with R1a in Swat Valley:

    "An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers":

    https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S...674(19)30967-5

    So much for Finno-Ugric R1a and other weird ideas:

    "(...) However, a natural route for Indo-European languages to have spread into South Asia is from Eastern Europe via Central Asia in the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE, a chain of transmission that did occur as has been documented in detail with ancient DNA. The fact that the Steppe pastoralist ancestry in South Asia matches that in Bronze Age Eastern Europe (but not Western Europe [de Barros Damgaard et al., 2018, Narasimhan et al., 2019]) provides additional evidence for this theory, as it elegantly explains the shared distinctive features of Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian languages (Ringe et al., 2002)." (...)

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    finally, we got this out of the way
    Seriously. People were celebrating this false date like they scored a huge win against the Nazis or something. It was bizarre.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Tomenable View Post
    How about the 2nd study with R1a in Swat Valley:

    "An Ancient Harappan Genome Lacks Ancestry from Steppe Pastoralists or Iranian Farmers":

    https://www.cell.com/cell/fulltext/S0092-8674(19)30967-5

    So much for Finno-Ugric R1a and other weird ideas:

    "(...) However, a natural route for Indo-European languages to have spread into South Asia is from Eastern Europe via Central Asia in the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE, a chain of transmission that did occur as has been documented in detail with ancient DNA. The fact that the Steppe pastoralist ancestry in South Asia matches that in Bronze Age Eastern Europe (but not Western Europe [de Barros Damgaard et al., 2018, Narasimhan et al., 2019]) provides additional evidence for this theory, as it elegantly explains the shared distinctive features of Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian languages (Ringe et al., 2002)." (...)


    The R1a is not L657. As I mentioned, this research is the same case of recent Tianshan sample ( srz_m012: r1b2 - b1/by14364/by14573/by14586/ph491/y141794) with afanasievo admixture.

    And here are facts:

    1st there is no andronovo culture near south asia, but copper hoard culture, of which aDNA would solve
    aryan thing.

    2nd East andronovo culture (8% WSHG) is much older than west andronovo culture. I think zevakinskiy-BA sample proves it genetically.

    the new data from adunqiaolu fit well into the emerging view of the eastern andronovoas shown by frachetti and mar’yashev (2007), hanks et al. (2007), panyushkina et al.(2008) and molodin et al. (2012a), and which is gradually gaining wider acceptance(e.g. doumani 2014). the earlier chronologies for the putative eastward spread of theandronovo are clearly challenged, although mechanisms behind the transmission of generalcultural influences remain unclear. the revised chronology supports new hypotheses on thenature of cultural connections (frachetti 2013: 292) that replace the earlier explanatorymodels of long distance migration supported by kuz’mina (1986, 1994, 2007, 2008) andothers (e.g. tkacheva). the idea of ‘waves’ of eastward movement creating new regionalised ‘cultural clusters’ has been refuted, partly through emerging radiocarbonsequences as discussed above, but also through evidence for long-term localised regionaldevelopment, such as that documented by frachetti in semirech’ye from at least the midthird millennium cal bc (frachetti 2008).
    3RD Seima turbibo culture introduced canibalism into East europe and dominated china while IE people seemed to migrate into south asia by this research. I think seima aDNA will solve this problem near future.

    there is, probably, one more testimony to the invasion of central europe by the seima-turbino peoples. on bronze age settlements in saxony, burials are known of skulls and pieces of bones showing signs of cannibalism. unfortunately, the publication does not define more exactly to which period these finds relate [grimm, 1997]. in particular, many simi-lar finds have been made in slovakia, on settlements of the veterov, madjarovce and otomani cultures.they are known on unětice settlements very rarely.often, traces of scraping and incisions are visible on bones, and the cooking of body parts is not ex-cluded. sometimes there are pieces of skull. a cer-emonial mask found on the nitriansky hrádok set-tlement, made from the front of a skull, is especiallyinteresting [furmanek, jakab, 1997]. it should be noted that the distribution here of bronzes of seima-turbino type is dated exactly to this time and found on settlements of this group. the connection of suchrituals with these cultural groups can be demon-strated also by an example from south-western poland, where, at the end of phase br a2, the nowagerekwia group occurs, whose formation is usuallyconnected with the abovementioned cultural devel-opments in slovakia. at this time both fortified set-tlements and burials on settlements appeared here.very often there are separate human bones, espe-cially skulls and pieces of skull. it was uncharacter-istic of unětice culture and is subsequently absentfrom trzciniec culture.

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    Regarding the Aryans who went into south Asia- there are 3 known samples from Dashtikozy which average at something like ~64% steppe eneolithic-like or ~90% Krasnoyarsk-like ancestry. They basically seem to be like Corded Ware but with 8% to 10% Gonur input. And this is from individualss who were buried not too far away from south Asia. If this is representative of the Aryans then the ones that went into south Asia would have been very much similar to the Corded Ware and the Krasnoyarsk people themselves.

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    The aryan marker although i dont like the propganda in other sites is r1a-z93 i understand this reality....

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    3 out of 3 members found this post helpful.
    The accurate YFull Y haplogroups for 176 out of 283 of the ancient Narasimhan et al. (2019) Central Asian, South Asian. Steppe, and European individuals.

    http://open-genomes.org/genomes/Nara...XFuNJhYiFFZZHg

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    Quote Originally Posted by bicicleur View Post
    The accurate YFull Y haplogroups for 176 out of 283 of the ancient Narasimhan et al. (2019) Central Asian, South Asian. Steppe, and European individuals.
    http://open-genomes.org/genomes/Nara...XFuNJhYiFFZZHg

    thanks for sharing this :)
    so i2085 the bmac dude is also positive for e-m34
    acording to open genome analysis
    there is also one e-z830
    and the others in the E family are e-m123*- pre-y31991


    p.s
    i10551 bmac dude is also e1b1b-m215
    but i take him with grain of salt very low coverge

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    Y-DNA haplogroup
    E-Y31991 > Y168273
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    H20

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    Quote Originally Posted by kingjohn View Post
    thanks for sharing this :)
    so i2085 the bmac dude is also positive for e-m34
    acording to open genome analysis
    there is also one e-z830
    and the others in the E family are e-m123*- pre-y31991


    p.s
    i10551 bmac dude is also e1b1b-m215
    but i take him with grain of salt very low coverge
    It would be very unlikey for the BMAC individuals to also be E-Y31991, considering those Udegram guys with the clade lack BMAC ancestry. It would have had to be totally diluted by the time they had gotten to the Swat valley. It's a shame the BAM files are a lot smaller when compared to the other Y31991 sample from Kazakhstan (most are 1/3rd of its size), so we can't be totally certain they are also part of the same subclade..although odds are they probably were, and shared an ancestor some time before 1500BC when the Indo-Iranian/Aryan migrations took place.

    I can tell you that Y31991 is very fragmented just by looking at my Big-Y blocktree in FTDNA alone, it seems statistically very unlikely that different clades that split at different times, of an already very rare male lineage, somehow ended up both in the same place in Europe to go on an unlikely piggyback ride into the Central Asian steppes and end up on the far eastern edges of the IE-speaking world in groups that were historically related - early Iranian-speakers such as pre/proto-Scythians/Sakas (Dasa/Dahae tribes, for example) and Indo-Iranian/Aryan(Dardic?) Swat tribes during the Vedic period which are also present in the Avesta, as the 7th of the 16 regions created by Ahura Mazda (Vaēkərəta /Gandhara), so there's an ancient early Iranian connection that cannot be ignored, and ties in very well with the Scythian sample too. Having these being different and separated by thousands of years doesn't add up, but it's technically not impossible
    Last edited by Ruderico; 24-09-19 at 16:15.

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    Thanks rudrigue but
    The swat pre-y31991 samples are more older in time than the saka sample from north east kazachstan
    Do you consider migration from south asia to the central steppe area also as option?
    Kind regards
    Adam

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